Skip to main content

Full text of "The American biographical dictionary: containing an account of the lives, characters, and writings of the most eminent persons deceased in North America from its first settlement"

See other formats




©IFT    OF 







tost  Eminent  &tttm    mastfc  m 



WILLIAM    ALLEN,     D.  D., 










HENRY   P.   B.    JEWETT. 




Entered  according  to  Act  of  Congress,  in  the  year  1857,  by 

In  the  Clerk's  office  of  the  District  Court  for  the  District  of  Massachusetts, 



THE  following  work  presents  itself  to  the  public  with  no  claims  to  attention,  but  such  as 
are  founded  upon  the  interest  which  may  be  felt  in  the  lives  of  Americans.  Finding 
himself,  a  few  years  ago,  in  a  literary  retirement,  with  no  important  duties  which  pressed 
immediately  upon  him,  the  author  conceived  the  plan  of  this  Dictionary.  He  was  desirous 
of  bringing  to  the  citizens  of  the  United  States  more  information  than  was  generally 
possessed,  respecting  the  illustrious  men  of  former  times,  the  benefactors  and  ornaments  of 
this  country,  who  have  passed  away.  He  persuaded  himself  that,  if  he  could  collect  the 
fragments  of  biography,  which  were  buried  in  the  mass  of  American  history,  or  scattered 
amidst  a  multitude  of  tracts  of  various  kinds,  and  could  fashion  these  materials  into  a 
regular  form,  so  as  to  place  before  the  eye  our  great  and  good  men,  if  not  in  their  full 
dimensions,  yet  in  their  true  sliape,  he  should  render  an  acceptable  service  to  his  country 
men.  This  work,  with  no  little  labor,  he  has  now  completed  ;  and  the  inexperienced  artist, 
in  his  first  essay,  can  hope  only  that  his  design  will  be  commended.  He  wishes  chiefly, 
that,  as  the  images  of  departed  excellence  are  surveyed,  the  spirit  which  animated  them 
may  be  caught  by  the  beholder. 

As  an  apology,  however,  for  the  deficiencies  and  errors  of  various  kinds  which  may  be 
found  in  the  work,  a  full  exposition  of  his  plan,  and  some  representation  of  the  difficulty  of 
executing  it,  seem  to  be  necessary. 

It  was  proposed  to  give  some  account  of  the  persons  who  first  discovered  the  new  world; 
of  those  who  had  a  principal  agency  in  laying  the  foundations  of  the  several  colonies  ;  of 
those  who  have  held  important  offices  and  discharged  the  duties  of  them  with  ability  and 
integrity ;  of  those  who  have  been  conspicuous  in  the  learned  professions ;  of  those  who 
have  been  remarkable  for  genius  and  knowledge,  or  who  have  written  anything  deserving 
of  remembrance ;  of  the  distinguished  friends  of  literature  and  science  ;  of  the  statesmen, 
the  patriots,  and  heroes,  who  have  contended  for  American  liberty,  or  aided  in  the  estab 
lishment  of  our  civil  institutions  ;  and  of  all,  whose  lives,  bright  with  Christian  virtue, 
might  furnish  examples  which  should  be  worthy  of  imitation.  It  was  determined  to  enlarge 
this  wide  field  by  giving  as  complete  a  list  as  could  be  made  of  the  writings  of  each 
person,  and  by  introducing  the  first  ministers  of  the  principal  towns,  for  the  purpose  of 
illustrating  the  history  of  this  country.  The  design  included,  also,  a  very  compendious 
history  of  the  United  States,  as  well  as  of  each  separate  colony  and  State,  for  the  satisfac 
tion  of  the  reader  who  might  wish  to  view  the  subjects  of  the  biographical  sketches  in 
connection  with  the  most  prominent  facts  relating  to  the  country  in  which  they  lived.  In 
addition  to  all  this,  it  was  intended  to  annex  such  references  as  would  point  out  the 
sources  from  which  information  should  be  derived,  and  as  might  direct  to  more  copious 
intelligence  than  could  be  contained  in  this  work. 

Such  were  the  objects  which  the  author  had  in  view,  when  he  commenced  an  enterprise, 
of  whose  magnitude  and  difficulty  he  was  not  sufficiently  sensible,  before  he  had  advanced 
too  far  to  be  able  to  retreat.  The  modern  compilers  of  similar  works  in  Europe  have 
little  else  to  do  but  to  combine  or  abridge  the  labors  of  their  predecessors,  and  employ  the 

229532  (iii) 


materials  previously  collected  to  their  hands.  But  in  the  compilation  of  this  work  a  new 
and  untrodden  field  was  to  be  explored.  It  became  necessary,  not  only  to  examine  the 
whole  of  American  history,  in  order  to  know  who  have  taken  a  conspicuous  part  in  the 
transactions  of  this  country,  but  to  supply,  from  other  sources,  the  imperfect  accounts  of 
general  historical  writers.  By  a  recurrence  to  the  references,  it  will  be  seen  that  much 
toil  has  been  encountered.  But,  although  the  authorities  may  seem  to  be  unnecessarily 
multiplied,  there  has  been  some  moderation  in  introducing  them,  for  in  many  instances  they 
do  not,  by  any  means,  exhibit  the  extent  of  the  researches  which  have  been  made.  It 
could  not  be  expected,  or  wished,  that  newspapers,  pamphlets,  and  other  productions  should 
be  referred  to  for  undisputed  dates  and  single  facts  which  they  have  afforded,  and  which 
have  been  embodied  with  regular  accounts.  The  labor,  however,  of  searching  for  inform 
ation  has  frequently  been  less  than  that  of  comparing  different  statements,  endeavoring  to 
reconcile  them  when  they  disagreed,  adjusting  the  chronology,  combining  the  independent 
facts,  and  forming  a  consistent  whole  of  what  existed  only  in  disjointed  parts*  Sometimes 
the  mind  has  been  overwhelmed  by  the  variety  and  abundance  of  intelligence ;  and  some 
times  the  author  has  prosecuted  his  inquiries  in  every  direction,  and  found  only  a  barren 

For  the  large  space  which  is  sometimes  occupied  in  describing  the  last  hours  of  the 
persons  of  whom  a  sketch  is  given,  the  following  reasons  are  assigned.  In  the  lives  of  our 
fellow-men,  there  is  no  period  so  important  to  them,  and  so  interesting  to  us,  as  the  period 
which  immediately  precedes  their  dissolution.  To  see  one  of  our  brethren  at  a  point  of 
his  existence,  beyond  which  the  next  step  will  either  plunge  him  down  a  precipice  into  an 
abyss  from  which  he  will  never  rise,  or  will  elevate  him  to  everlasting  glory,  is  a  spectacle 
which  attracts  us,  not  merely  by  its  sublimity,  but  because  we  know  that  the  flight  of  time 
is  rapidly  hastening  us  to  the  same  crisis.  We  wish  to  see  men  in  the  terrible  situation 
which  inevitably  awaits  us;  to  learn  what  it  is  that  can  support  them,  and  can  secure  them. 
The  gratification  of  this  desire  to  behold  what  is  great  and  awful,  and  the  communication 
of  the  aids  which  may  be  derived  from  the  conduct  of  dying  men,  have  accordingly  been 
combined  in  the  objects  of  this  work.  After  recounting  the  vicissitudes  attending  the 
affairs  of  men,  the  author  was  irresistibly  inclined  to  turn  from  the  fluctuations  of  human 
life,  and  to  dwell,  when  his  subject  would  give  him  an  opportunity,  upon  the  calm  and  firm 
hopes  of  the  Christian,  and  the  sure  prospects  of  eternity.  While  he  thus  soothed  his 
own  mind,  he  also  believed  that  he  should  afford  a  resting-place  to  the  minds  of  others, 
fatigued  with  following  their  brethren  amidst  their  transient  occupations,  their  successes, 
their  disappointments,  and  their  afflictions. 

Some  terms  are  used  which  relate  to  local  circumstances,  and  which  require  those 
circumstances  to  be  pointed  out.  In  several  of  the  New  England  States,  when  the  annual 
election  of  the  several  branches  of  the  legislature  is  completed,  and  the  government  is 
organized,  it  has  been  an  ancient  practice  to  have  a  sermon  preached  in  the  audience  of 
the  newly-elected  rulers,  which  is  called  the  election  sermon.  This  phrase  would  not  need 
an  explanation  to  an  inhabitant  of  New  England.  The  names  of  pastor  and  teacher,  as 
distinct  officers  in  the  church,  frequently  occur.  Soon  after  the  first  settlement  of  this 
country,  when  some  societies  enjoyed  the  labors  of  two  ministers,  they  bore  the  titles  of 
teacher  and  pastor,  of  which  it  was  the  duty  of  the  former  to  attend  particularly  to  doctrine, 
and  of  the  latter  to  exhortation  ;  the  one  was  to  instruct,  and  the  other  to  persuade.  But 
the  boundary  between  these  two  offices  was  not  well  defined,  and  was  in  fact  very  little 
regarded.  The  distinction  of  the  name  itself  did  not  exist  long. 

Great  care  has  been  taken  to  render  the  dates  accurate,  and  to  avoid  the  mistakes  which 
have  been  made  from  inattention  to  the  former  method  of  reckoning  time,  when  March  was 


the  first  month  of  the  year.  If  any  one,  ignorant  of  this  circumstance,  should  look  into 
Dr.  Mather's  Magnalia,  or  ecclesiastical  history  of  New  England,  he  would  sometimes 
wonder  at  the  absurdity  of  the  writer.  He  would  read,  for  instance,  in  the  life  of  President 
Chauncy,  that  he  died  in  February,  1671,  and  will  find  it  previously  said  that  he  attended 
the  commencement  in  the  same  year,  which  was  in  July.  Thus,  too,  Peter  Hobart  is  said 
to  have  died  in  January,  and  yet  to  have  been  infirm  in  the  summer  of  1 G78.  When  it  is 
remembered  that  March  was  the  first  month,  these  accounts  are  easy  to  be  reconciled. 
There  seems  not,  however,  to  have  been  any  uniformity  in  disposing  of  the  days  between 
the  first  and  the  twenty-fifth  of  March,  for  sometimes  they  are  considered  as  belonging  to 
the  antecedent,  and  sometimes  to  the  subsequent  year.  American  writers,  it  is  believed, 
have  generally,  if  not  always,  applied  them  to  the  latter.  When  the  figures  for  two  years 
are  written,  as  in  dates  before  the  adoption  of  the  new  style  in  1752  is  found  frequently  to 
be  the  case,  not  only  for  the  days  above  mentioned,  but  for  the  days  in  January  and 
February,  it  is  the  latter  year  which  corresponds  with  our  present  mode  of  reckoning. 
Thus,  March  1,  1689,  was  sometimes  written  March  1,  1688-9,  or  with  the  figures  placed 
one  above  the  other.  The  months  were  designated  usually  by  the  names  of  the  first,  the 
second,  etc. ;  so  that  February  was  the  twelfth  month. 

No  apology  is  necessary  for  the  free  use  which  has  been  made  of  the  labors  of  others,  for 
the  plan  of  this  book  is  so  essentially  different  from  that  of  any  which  has  preceded  it,  that 
the  author  has  not  encroached  upon  the  objects  which  others  had  in  view.  He  has  had  no 
hesitation  in  using  their  very  language,  whenever  it  suited  him.  Compilers  seem  to  be 
licensed  pillagers.  Like  the  youth  of  Sparta,  they  may  lay  their  hands  upon  plunder 
without  a  crime,  if  they  will  but  seize  it  with  adroitness.  The  list  of  American  literary 
productions,  which  has  been  rendered  as  complete  as  possible,  is,  for  the  sake  of  method, 
placed  at  the  close  of  each  article ;  and,  in  giving  the  titles  of  them,  it  will  be  perceived 
that  there  has  frequently  been  an  economy  of  words,  as  far  as  was  consistent  with  distinct 
ness  of  representation. 

The  author  is  aware  that  he  lives  in  times  which  are  like  all  other  times,  when  the  sym 
pathies  of  parties  of  different  kinds  are  very  strong ;  and  he  believes  that  he  has  sought 
less  to  conciliate  them  than  to  follow  truth,  though  she  might  not  lead  him  into  any  of  the 
paths  along  which  the  many  are  pressing.  Without  resolving  to  be  impartial,, it  would 
indicate  no  common  destitution  of  upright  and  honorable  principles  to  attempt  a  delineation 
of  the  characters  of  men.  He  may  have- misapprehended,  and  he  may  have  done  what  is 
worse.  All  are  liable  to  errors,  and  he  knows  enough  of  the  windings  of  the  heart  to 
remember  that  errors  may  proceed  from  prejudice,  or  indolence  of  attention,  and  be  crimi 
nal,  while  they  are  cherished  as  honest  and  well-founded  convictions,  the  result  of  impartial 
inquiry.  He  trusts,  however,  that  nothing  will  be  found  in  this  book  to  counteract  the 
influence  of  genuine  religion,  evincing  itself  in  piety  and  good  works,  or  to  weaken  the 
attachment  of  Americans  to  their  well-balanced  republic,  which  equally  abhors  the  tyranny 
of  irresponsible  authority,  the  absurdity  of  hereditary  wisdom,  and  the  anarchy  of  lawless 

CAMBRIDGE,  MASSACHUSETTS,  August  2,  1809. 


AFTER  a  long  interval  since  the  first  edition  of  this  work,  the  author  now  offers  this 
second  edition  to  the  public.  During  twenty  years  past  he  has  been  repeatedly  urged  to 
accomplish  what  he  has  not  found  leisure  to  accomplish  till  the  present  time.  But  the 
delay,  as  the  death-harvest  among  the  eminent  men  of  our  country  has  been  gathered  in, 
has  swelled  the  catalogue  of  those  who  ought  to  be  commemorated  in  a  biography  of  "  the 
mighty  dead  "  of  America.  The  first  edition  was  the  first  general  collection  of  American 
biography  ever  published ;  and  it  is  still  the  largest  work  of  the  kind  which  has  appeared. 
In  the  prospectus  of  this  second  edition  it  was  proposed  to  print  seven  hundred  and  fifty 
pages,  and  it  was  thought  that  the  separate  biographical  notices  would  amount  to  about  twelve 
hundred,  being  about  five  hundred  more  than  are  contained  in  the  first  edition.  But  the 
book  has  reached  the  unwieldly  size  of  eight  hundred  and  eight  pages,  and  the  biographical 
articles  exceed  eighteen  hundred,  presenting  an  account  of  more  than  one  thousand  indi 
viduals  not  mentioned  in  Lord's  edition  of  Lempriere,  and  of  about  sixteen  hundred  not 
found  in  the  first  ten  volumes  of  the  Encyclopedia  Americana.  Yet  the  author  has  been 
obliged  to  exclude  accounts  of  many  persons  of  whom  he  would  willingly  have  said  some 
thing.  If  he  has  at  times  misjudged  in  his  exclusions  and  admissions,  —  yet  for  some 
omissions  an  apology  will  be  found  in  the  difficulty  of  obtaining  intelligence,  as  well  as  in 
oversight,  which  could  hardly  fail  to  occur  in  a  work  of  such  extent,  embracing  such  a 
multitude  of  facts,  and  requiring,  while  in  the  press,  such  incessant  attention  and  labor,  — 
he  can  only  promise,  should  he  live  to  publish  an  additional  volume,  or  to  prepare  another 
edition,  an  earnest  effort  to  render  the  work  more  complete,  and  more  free  from  error.  In 
the  mean  time  he  solicits  the  communication  of  intelligence  respecting  individuals  worthy 
of  being  remembered,  who  have  escaped,  or  who  are  likely  to  escape,  his  unassisted 

To  those  gentlemen  in  different  parts  of  our  country,  who  have  favored  him  with  notices 
of  their  friends,  or  of  others,  he  returns  his  acknowledgments.  He  has  been  particularly 
indebted  to  the  biographical  collections  of  Mr.  Samuel  Jennison,  Jun.,  of  Worcester, 
Mass.,  and  to  the  accurate  antiquarian  researches  of  Mr.  John  Farmer,  of  Concord,  N.  II., 
whose  New  England  Genealogical  Register  will  enable  most  of  the  sons  of  the  Pilgrims 
of  New  England  to  trace  their  descent  from  their  worthy  ancestry.  The  authorities 
referred  to,  though  abridged  from  the  first  edition,  will  show  to  what  books  he  has  been 
chiefly  indebted. 

America  is  reproached  in  Europe  for  deficiency  in  literature  and  science ;  but  if  one  will 
consider  that  it  is  not  two  hundred  years  since  the  first  press  was  set  up  in  this  country, 
and  will  then  look  at  the  list  of  publications  annexed  to  the  articles  in  this  Biography,  he 
will  be  astonished  at  the  multitude  of  works  which  have  been  printed.  New  England  was 
founded  by  men  of  learning,  whose  first  care  was  to  establish  schools ;  and  the  descendants 
of  the  fathers  have  inherited  their  love  of  knowledge  and  mental  energy.  No  race  of  men 
on  the  face  of  the  earth,  it  may  be  safely  asserted,  are  so  rational,  so  intelligent,  so 



enlightened,  and  of  such  intellectual  power,  as  the  descendants  of  the  New  England  Pil 
grims,  and  the  inhabitants  generally  of  our  extensive  country. 

Although  the  wide  diffusion  of  knowledge  is  preferable  to  its  convergence  into  a  few 
points  of  splendor,  yet  America  can  boast  of  names  of  eminence  in  the  arts  and  in  various 
departments  of  science,  and  can  speak  of  her  sons  of  inventive  power,  of  metaphysical 
acuteness,  of  philosophical  discovery,  of  profound  learning,  and  thrilling  eloquence,  and 
especially  of  a  multitude  skilled  in  the  knowledge  and  the  maintenance  of  the  rights  of 
man.  Happy  will  it  be  for  our  country,  if  ancient  wisdom,  and  patriotism,  and  piety  shall 
not,  in  a  future  race,  dwindle  down  into  the  hunger  for  office,  and  the  violence  of  party, 
and  the  cheerlessness  of  infidelity. 

This  body  of  American  Biography  will  be  found  to  comprise  the  first  SETTLERS  and 
FATHERS  of  our  country ;  early  NAVIGATORS,  and  adventurous  TRAVELLERS  ;  the 
STATESMEN,  PATRIOTS,  and  HEROES,  who  have  contended  for  American  liberty,  or 
assisted  in  laying  the  foundations  of  our  republican  iustitutions ;  all  the  SIGNERS  of  the 
Declaration  of  Independence ;  brave  and  skilful  MILITARY  and  NAVAL  COMMANDERS  ; 
many  of  the  GOVERNORS  of  the  several  States,  and  the  deceased  PRESIDENTS  of  our 
country ;  profound  LAWYERS,  and  skilful  PHYSICIANS  ;  men  of  GENIUS,  LEARNING,  and 
SCIENCE,  and  the  distinguished  FRIENDS  and  PATRONS  of  LEARNING;  THEOLOGIANS 
and  HISTORIANS,  POETS  and  ORATORS  ;  ingenious  ARTISTS,  and  men  celebrated  for  their 
INVENTIONS  ;  together  with  many  eminent  PHILANTHROPISTS  and  CHRISTIANS,  whose 
examples  have  diffused  a  cheering  radiance  around  them. 

The  author,  in  conclusion,  cannot  avoid  expressing  the  wish  that,  as  the  reader  surveys 
the  lives  of  such  men,  the  commendable  zeal  which  animated  them  may  come  upon  his 
own  soul,  and  that  he  may  help  to  bear  up  the  honors  of  a  country  which  has  been  the 
abode  of  a  race  of  enlightened,  noble-minded,  disinterested,  and  virtuous  men. 

BRUNSWICK,  MAINE,  July  17,  1832. 


THE  reprint  of  the  Prefaces  to  the  two  former  editions  —  the  first  dated  forty-eight 
years  ago,  and  the  second  twenty-five  years  —  renders  unnecessary  any  new  remarks  on 
the  design  and  importance  of  such  a  collection  of  general  American  biography,  as  is  fur 
nished  by  this  book  ;  which  was,  in  fact,  the  first  work  of  the  kind  ever  published,  and  is 
now  the  only  general  and  exclusively  American  biography  to  which  the  inquirer  has  access. 
The  only  change  in  the  plan  is  the  omission  of  the  brief  histories  of  the  several  States, 
which  histories  might  have  been  useful  and  convenient  many  years  ago,  but  "which,  at  the 
present  day,  with  the  great  increase  of  the  number  of  the  States,  and  the  rapid  growth  of 
the  various  interests  of  the  country,  should  give  way  to  fuller  and  more  copious  and  satis 
factory  historical  accounts.  This  work  is  therefore  now  purely  biography  ;  and,  instead  of 
"  An  American  Biographical  and  Historical  Dictionary,"  the  title  is  now  "  The  American 
Biographical  Dictionary." 

This  book  of  American  biography  has  not  been  superseded  nor  approached  in  value  by 
any  book  of  the  kind  which  has  been  published.  Without  referring  again  to  such  books  as 
were  mentioned  in  the  second  preface,  I  may  allude  to  two  general  biographies  which  have 
been  recently  printed,  namely :  Appletons'  Cyclopaedia  of  Biography,  and  Blake's  General 
Biography.  They  each  include  in  one  volume  both  foreign  and  American,  chiefly  foreign, 
and  only  in  small  part  American,  biography.  While  they  may  have  each  ten  or  twelve  thou 
sand  foreign  names,  the  former  has  only  about  one  thousand,  and  the  latter  about  two 
thousand,  American  names;  but  my  book  has,  of  the  distinguished  men  of  our  country,  the 
great  number  of  six  thousand  seven  hundred  seventy-five,  exceeding  the  largest  of  these 
two  books  by  about  four  thousand  seven  hundred  American  names.  And  my  whole  book 
of  nine  hundred  pages,  in  two  columns,  royal  octavo,  is  made  up,  not  chiefly  of  foreigners, 
but  of  ALL  AMERICANS.  Moreover,  I  may  be  permitted  to  add,  my  articles  are  not  shallow 
abridgments  of  my  second  edition,  but  full  and  ample  accounts,  including  a  list  of  the 
writings  of  each  person.  If  the  Appletons'  book  gives  one  page  of  letter  type  to  Wash 
ington,  my  own  book  gives  to  our  greatest  man  twelve  pages  ;  if  that  book  gives  to  Rev. 
Dr.  John  M.  Mason,  of  New  York,  eight  lines,  mine  gives  to  him  a  page  and  a  half;  if 
that  book  gives  to  John  Adams  half  a  page,  mine  gives  to  him  six  pages.  Such  will  often 
be  found  the  proportion  in  the  articles,  without  referring  to  such  a  case  as  Rev.  Dr.  Morse, 
the  father  of  American  geography,  who  has  one  line,  while  in  my  book  he  has  nearly  half 
a  page  ;  such  the  abridgment  to  which  my  book  has  been  subjected. 

I  can  truly  say  of  my  book,  that  it  is  my  own  labor  of  half  a  century,  during  which 
period  I  have  been  gleaning  from  the  wide  field  of  American  history,  and  from  an  immense 
multitude  of  journals,  papers,  and  memorials  of  the  dead,  aided  also  by  the  contribution  of 
facts  from  the  friends  of  the  deceased.  I  have  introduced  many  anecdotes,  for  they  often 
combine  useful  and  important  instruction  with  amusement.  I  have  attempted  truly  to 
describe  all  characters  ;  and,  in  following  the  pathway  of  truth,  I  have  not  invested  men 
with  excellencies  which  do  not  belong  to  them,  nor  regarded  with  equal  favor  contradictory 
systems  of  faith  and  irreconcilable  principles  of  conduct.  As  an  honest  man,  not  deprived 



of  intelligence  nor  void  of  benevolence,  I  have,  as  I  think,  known  how  to  censure  as  well 
as  to  praise. 

The  first  edition  contained  an  account  of  more  than  seven  hundred  deceased  Americans, 
the  second  of  more  than  eighteen  hundred,  which  large  number,  in  the  present  edition, 
brought  down  to  the  present  time,  is  more  than  trebled ;  so  that  in  this  book  may  be 
found  an  account  of  nearly  seven  thousand  Americans,  of  some  note  and  worthiness  of 
being  remembered.  And  how  vast  must  be  the  number  of  American  citizens,  spread 
over  our  wide  country,  who  may  find  here  recorded  the  names  of  their  own  ancestors, 
which,  elsewhere,  they  may  not  be  able  to  find  ? 

If,  as  a  reviewer  regarded  this  book,  when,  many  years  ago,  the  second  edition  was  pub 
lished,  it  was  "  one  of  that  class  of  books  which  may  be  reckoned  as  among  the  necessaries 
of  literary  life,  the  implements  of  study,"  and  if  "  this  work  should  be  in  the  hands,  or  at 
least  within  the  reach,  of  every  literary  and  professional  man  throughout  the  country ; " 
then,  at  the  present  time,  after  the  lapse  of  a  quarter  of  a  century,  this  greatly  enlarged 
book  cannot  be  less  necessary  and  important. 

It  must  be  wanted,  if  I  mistake  not,  by  our  statesmen ;  it  must  be  wanted  by  every 
minister  of  the  gospel,  of  whatever  denomination ;  it  must  be  wanted  in  every  school  and 
town  library.  That  the  print  is  fair  and  easy  to  the  eye,  every  reader  will  perceive  ;  and 
I  rejoice  that  my  publishers  present  this  work  to  the  lovers  of  American  biography  in  a 
form  which  must  be  satisfactory  to  their  wishes,  associating  nothing  of  meanness  or  nar 
rowness  with  this  memorial  of  the  mighty  dead  of  our  country. 

Intelligent,  patriotic  inquirers  concerning  the  lives  of  their  predecessors  may  here  obtain 
the  information  which,  unaided  by  this  book,  it  might  be  impossible  for  them  to  procure ; 
and  which  they  certainly  will  not  find  in  the  books,  whether  called  dictionaries  or  cyclo 
paedias,  containing  abridgments  of  my  condensed  biography.  The  author  of  one  of  them  had 
indeed  the  grace  to  ask  of  me  permission  to  abridge  my  second  edition  for  his  own  purposes, — 
a  request  which  I  could  not  grant.  The  use  which,  without  my  consent,  has  been  actually 
made  of  my  book,  by  way  of  abridgment  or  abstracts,  will,  I  hope,  create  a  thirst  for  the 
more  copious  biography,  to  be  found  in  this  book.  It  may  be  added,  that  this  biographical 
book  will  not  —  like  many  other  works  which  have  only  a  temporary  interest  —  be  liable 
to  become  antiquated  by  years ;  for  the  memory  of  the  worthy  dead,  the  memory  of  the 
fathers,  will  ever  be  cherished  and  fresh  in  the  American  heart.  The  Pilgrims  who  landed 
on  the  rock  of  Plymouth  were  never  so  reverenced  as  they  are  now. 

It  is  rare  that  an  author  is  permitted  to  superintend  the  publication  of  a  book,  the  first 
edition  of  which  he  published  nearly  half  a  century  before.  To  the  kind  Providence 
which  has  preserved  my  life,  I  offer  my  grateful  acknowledgments ;  and,  as  my  age  and 
my  labors  in  this  book  of  record,  which  speaks  of  the  dead,  have  rendered  my  thoughts 
familiar  with  death,  I  may  be  allowed,  lastly,  to  utter  the  prayer  for  the  readers  of  this 
work,  that  God  will  give  us,  at  the  moment  of  our  departure  from  the  earth,  the  peace  and 
triumph  often  given,  as  here  recorded,  to  his  Christian  servants ;  and  that,  when  we  shall 
meet  in  a  great  company  of  hundreds  of  millions  of  revivified  men  of  all  countries,  He  will 
grant  that  we  may  meet  as  fellow-sharers  in  the  unutterable  blessings  revealed  in  the 
gospel  of  his  Son,  whose  death  has  made  atonement  for  our  sins,  and  by  whose  teach 
ing  and  resurrection  "  life  and  immortality  have  been  brought  to  light." 




ABBOT,  HULL,  a  respectable  minister  of 
Charlestown,  Mass.,  was  graduated  at  Harvard 
College  in  the  year  1720,  and  ordained  Feb.  5, 
1724,  as  colleague  with  Mr.  Bradstreet.  After 
continuing  fifty  years  in  the  ministry,  he  died 
April  19,  1774,  aged  80  years.  He  published 
the  following  sermons :  on  the  artillery  election, 
1735;  on  the  rebellion  in  Scotland,  1746;  against 
cm-sing  and  swearing,  1747. 

ABBOT,  SAMUEL,  one  of  the  founders  of  the 
Theological  Seminary  at  Andover,  died  in  that 
town,  of  which  he  was  a  native,  April  30,  1812, 
aged  80.  He  had  been  a  merchant  in  Boston. 
His  donation  for  establishing  the  Seminary,  August 
31,  1807,  was  20,000  dollars;  he  also  bequeathed 
to  it  more  than  100,000  dollars.  He  was  a 
humble,  conscientious,  and  pious  man,  remark 
able  for  prudence,  sincerity,  and  uprightness; 
charitable  to  the  poor,  and  zealous  for  the  inter 
ests  of  religion.  He  bestowed  several  thousands 
of  dollars  for  the  relief  of  ministers  of  the  gospel 
and  for  other  charitable  objects.  It  was  a 
maxim  with  him,  "  to  praise  no  one  in  his 
presence  and  to  dispraise  no  one  in  his  absence." 
In  his  last  sickness  he  enjoyed  a  peace,  which  the 
world  cannot  give.  "  I  desire  to  live,"  he  said, 
"  if  God  has  any  thing  more  for  me  to  do  or  to 
suffer."  When  near  his  end  he  said,  "there  is 
enough  in  God;  I  want  nothing  but  God."  He 
left  a  widow,  with  whom  he  had  lived  more  than 
fifty  years,  and  one  son.  —  Woods1  Funeral  Ser 
mon  ;  Panoplist,  Till.  337. 

ABBOT,  ABIEL,  D.  1).,  a  minister  in  Beverly, 
Mass.,  was  born  at  Andover  Aug.  17,  1770,  and 
graduated  at  Harvard  College  in  1787,  having  an 
unstained  character  and  a  high  rank  as  a  scholar. 
After  being  an  assistant  teacher  in  the  Academy 
at  Andover,  and  studying  theology  with  Mr. 
French,  he  was  settled  about  1794  as  the  minister 
of  Ilaverhill,  where  he  continued  eight  years. 
An  inadequate  support  for  his  family  induced  him 
to  ask  a  dismission,  though  with  great  reluctance. 
He  was  soon  afterwards,  about  1802,  settled  in 
Beverly,  as  the  successor  of  Mr.  McKecu,  who  had 

been  chosen  president  of  Bowdoin  College.  The 
remainder  of  his  life,  about  twenty-four  years,  was 
passed  in  Beverly  in  his  ministerial  office,  except 
Avhen  his  labors  were  interrupted  by  sickness. 
He  passed  the  winter  of  1827-1828  in  and  near 
Charleston,  S.  C.,  for  the  recovery  of  his  health. 
Early  in  Feb.,  1828,  he  embarked  for  Cuba, 
where  he  continued  three  months,  exploring 
different  parts  of  the  island,  and  making  a  dili 
gent  record  of  Ms  observations  in  letters  to  his 
family  and  friends.  On  his  return,  he  sailed  from 
the  pestilential  city  of  Havana,  with  his  health 
almost  restored.  He  preached  at  Charleston, 
June  1,  and  the  next  day  sailed  for  New  York. 
But,  although  able  to  go  on  deck  in  the  morning, 
he  died  at  noon,  June  7th,  just  as  the  vessel  came 
to  anchor  at  the  quarantine  ground  near  the  city 
of  New  York,  and  was  buried  on  Statcn  Island. 
It  is  probable,  that  he  was  a  victim  to  the  yellow 
fever,  the  contagion  of  which  he  received  at  Ha 
vana.  —  Dr.  Abbot  was.  very  courteous  and  inter 
esting  in  social  intercourse,  and  was  eloquent  in 
preaching.  His  religious  sentiments  are  not 
particularly  explained  by  his  biographer,  who 
says,  that  he  belonged  "  to  no  sect  but  that  of 
good  men."  Happy  are  all  they,  who  belong  to 
that  sect.  He  seems  to  have  been,  in  his  last 
days,  extremely  solicitous  on  the  subject  of  reli 
gious  controversy.  In  the  love  of  peace  all  good 
men  will  agree  with  him,  and  doubtless  there  has 
been  much  controversy  concerning  unimportant 
points,  conducted  too  in  an  unchristian  spirit ;  but, 
in  this  world  of  error,  it  is  not  easy  to  imagine 
how  controversy  is  to  be  avoided.  If  the  truth 
is  assailed,  it  would  seem,  that  those  who  love  it, 
should  engage  in  its  vindication ;  for  men  always 
defend  against  unjust  assault  what  they  deem 
valuable.  Besides,  if  an  intelligent  and  benevo 
lent  man  thinks  his  neighbor  has  fallen  into  a 
dangerous  mistake,  why  should  he  not,  in  a 
friendly  debate,  endeavor  to  set  him  right  ?  Es 
pecially  ought  the  preachers  of  truth  to  recom 
mend  it  to  others,  with  meekness  indeed  and  in 
love,  but  with  all  the  energy  which  its  relation  to 




human  happiness  demands.  When  this  is  done, 
the  enemies  of  the  truth,  by  resisting  it,  will  pre 
sent  to  the  world  the  form  of  religious  dissension. 
If  infidels  endeavor  to  subvert  the  foundations 
of  Christianity ;  if  corrupt  heretics  deny  the  plain 
doctrines  of  the  gospel ;  if  bewildered  enthusiasts 
bring  forward  their  whims  and  fancies  as  doc 
trines  revealed  from  heaven ;  shall  the  dread  of 
controversy  prevent  the  exposure  of  their  false 
reasonings,  their  presumptuous  comments,  and 
their  delusive  and  perilous  imaginations  ?  —  Since 
the  death  of  Dr.  Abbot  and  the  settlement  of  his 
Unitarian  successor,  many  of  the  congregation 
have  withdrawn  and  connected  themselves  with 
the  Second  Church  and  Society.  —  His  interesting 
and  valuable  letters  from  Cuba  were  published 
after  his  death,  Svo.,  Boston,  1829.  lie  published 
also  artillery  election  sermon,  1802;  sermons  to 
mariners,  1812;  address  on  intemperance,  1815; 
sermon  before  the  Salem  Missionary  Society,  1816 ; 
before  the  Bible  Society  of  Salem,  1817;  conven 
tion  sermon,  1827.  —  Flint's  Sermon;  Sketch  in 
Letters  from  Cuba. 

ABBOT,  Jonx,  died  at  Andover,  the  place  of 
his  birth,  July  2,  1843,  aged  84.  He  graduated 
at  Harvard  in  1754,  was  the  first  professor  of 
languages  at  Bowdoin  College,  and  for  many  years 
its  librarian  and  treasurer. 

ABBOT,  BENJAMIN,  LL.  I).,  brother  of  the 
preceding,  graduated  at  Harvard  in  1788,  and 
died  in  Exeter  Oct.  25,  1849,  aged  87.  From 
1788  to  1838  he  was  the  highly  respected  prin 
cipal  of  Phillips'  Exeter  Academy.  Many  emi 
nent  men  were  his  pupils  ;  and,  on  his  retire 
ment  in  1838,  they  united  in  a  testimonial  to  his 

ABBOT,  JACOB,  died  at  Farmington,  Me.,  Jan. 
25,  1847,  aged  70  —  a  worthy  and  useful  man,  the 
father  of  distinguished  sons,  Jacob,  John,  Gor- 
ham,  and  Charles.  He  was  a  native  of  Andover : 
for  many  years  he  lived  in  Brunswick.  His  sons 
write  the  family  name,  Abbott. 

ABBOT,  SAMUEL,  was  born  in  Wilton,  X.  II., 
in  178G,  graduated  at  Harvard  in  1808,  and  died 
in  1839.  He  invented  the  process  of  extracting 
and  clarifying  strach  from  the  potato. 

ABBOT,  JOHN  EMERY,  a  minister  in  Salem  ; 
died  in  1819,  aged  26.  He  was  a  graduate  of 
Bowdoin  in  1810.  His  sermons,  with  a  memoir 
by  II.  Ware,  were  published  in  1829. 

ABEEL,  JOHN  NELSON,  I).  IX,  an  eloquent 
preacher,  graduated  at  Princeton  College  in  1787. 
He  relinquished  the  study  of  the  law,  Avhich  he 
had  commenced  under  Judge  Patterson,  and  pur 
sued  the  study  of  divinity  with  Dr.  Livingston. 
He  was  licensed  to  preach  in  April,  1793.  After 
being  for  a  short  time  a  minister  of  a  Presby 
terian  church  in  Philadelphia,  he  was  in  1795 
installed  as  pastor  of  the  Reformed  Dutch  Church 
in  the  city  of  New  York.  He  died  Jan.  20,  1812, 

in  the  43d  year  of  his  age,  deeply  lamented  on 
account  of  his  unassuming,  amiable  manners,  and 
his  eloquence  as  a  preacher  of  the  gospel.  With 
a  discriminating  mind,  and  a  sweet  and  melo 
dious  voice,  and  his  soul  inflamed  with  pious  zeal, 
he  was  pre-eminent  among  extemporaneous  ora 
tors.  In  performing  his  various  pastoral  duties 
he  was  indefatigable.  —  Gunn's  Funeral  Sermon. 

ABEEL,  DAVID,  missionary  to  China,  died  at 
Albany,  Sept.  4,  1846,  aged  about  40.  He  em 
barked  at  New  York,  and  arrived  at  Canton  Feb. 
19,  1830,  and  at  Bankok  in  1831.  From  1833  to 
1839  he  was  from  ill  health  in  the  United  States, 
but  returned  to  Canton  in  1839.  In  1842  he 
commenced  a  mission  at  Amoy.  Ill  health  com 
pelled  his  return  to  America  in  1845.  He  was 
first  a  preacher  to  seamen  at  Canton ;  then  a 
useful,  respected,  and  important  missionary. 

ABEPcCIlOMBIE,  JAMES,  a  British  major-gen 
eral,  took  the  command  of  the  troops  assembled 
at  Albany  in  June,  1756,  bringing  over  with  him 
two  regiments.  It  was  proposed  to  attack  Crown 
Point,  Niagara,  and  Fort  Du  Quesne.  But  some 
difficulty  as  to  the  rank  of  the  provincial  troops 
occasioned  delay,  and  in  August  the  Earl  of 
Loudoun  took  the  command.  The  capture  of 
Oswego  by  Montcalm  disarranged  the  projected 
campaign.  In  1757  Montcalm  took  Fort  Wil 
liam  Henry ;  and  thus  the  French  commanded 
all  the  lakes.  The  British  spirit  was  now  roused. 
Mr.  Pitt  in  1758  placed  50,000  troops  under  the 
command  of  Abercrombie,  determined  to  recover 
the  places  which  had  been  captured  by  the 
French,  and  also  to  capture  Louisbourg.  Aber 
crombie,  at  the  head  of  15,000  men,  proceeded 
against  Ticonderoga,  which  he  assaulted  injudi 
ciously  and  unsuccessfully,  July  8th,  with  the  loss 
of  nearly  2,000  men,  killed,  wounded,  and  missing. 
He  then  retired  to  his  intrenched  camp  on  the 
south  side  of  Lake  George.  An  expedition  which 
he  sent  out  against  Fort  Frontenac,  under  Col. 
Bradstrect,  was  successful.  He  was  soon  super 
seded  by  Amherst,  who  the  next  year  recovered 
Ticonderoga  and  Crown  Point,  and  captured 
Quebec.  —  Marshall,  I.  4 C 2-3 6  ;  Holmes,  II.  82. 
Manic,  59,  107,  144,  161. 

ABEKCKOMBIE,  JAMES,  I).  D.,  died  at  Phil 
adelphia,  June  26,  1841,  aged  83,  the  oldest  Epis 
copal  minister  in  the  city.  He  had  been  a  teacher 
of  youth,  and  was  a  venerable  divine. 

ABE11NETIIEY,  HOBF.RT,  M.  D.,  died  in 
Woodbury,  Conn.,  Sept.  24,  1851,  aged  77.  He 
was  the  son  of  Dr.  William  A.,  of  Harwinton, 
and  practised  physic  in  Woodbury  for  25  vears. 
He  was  a  man  of  distinction,  and  the  delight  of 
his  friends ;  also  a  man  of  religion,  a  worthy  pro 
fessor  for  46  years,  loving  the  house  of  God  and 
the  assembly  of  Christians  for  conference  and 
prayer.  His  son,  John  J.  A.,  is  a  surgeon  in  the 



ACKLAXD,  Jonx  D.,  major,  a  British  offi 
cer,  was  at  the  head  of  the  grenadiers  on  the 
left,  in  the  action  near  Stillwater,  Oct.  7,  1777. 
lie  bravely  sustained  the  attack ;  but,  overpow 
ered  by  numbers,  the  British  were  obliged  to 
retreat  to  their  camp,  which  was  instantly  stormed 
by  Arnold.  In  this  action,  Major  Ackland  was 
shot  through  the  legs,  and  taken  prisoner.  —  He 
was  discovered  and  protected  by  Wilkinson.  His 
devoted  wife,  in  the  utmost  distress,  sought  him 
in  the  American  cam]),  favored  with  a  letter  from 
Burgoync  to  Gates. — After  his  return  to  England, 
Major  Ackland,  in  a  dispute  with  Lieut.  Lloyd, 
defended  the  Americans  against  the  charge  of 
cowardice,  and  gave  him  the  lie  direct.  A  duel 
followed,  in  which  Ackland  was  shot  through  the 
head.  Lady  Harriet,  his  wife,  in  consequence 
lost  her  senses  for  two  years ;  but  she  afterwards 
married  Mr.  Brudenell,  who  accompanied  her 
from  the  camp  at  Saratoga  in  her  perilous  pursuit 
of  her  husband.  When  will  there  cease  to  be 
victims  to  private  combat  and  public  war  ?  It 
will  be,  when  the  meek  and  benevolent  spirit  of 
the  gospel  shall  universally  reign  in  the  hearts 
of  men.  —  Remembrancer  for  1777,  p.  461,  465; 
Wilkinson's  Memoirs,  269,  376. 

ADAIIl,  JAMES,  a  trader  with  the  Indians  of 
the  Southern  States,  resided  in  their  country  forty 
years.  From  1735,  he  lived  almost  exclusively  in 
intercourse  with  the  Indians,  cut  off  from  the 
society  of  his  civilized  brethren,  chiefly  among 
the  Chickasaws,  with  whom  he  first  traded  in 
1744.  His  friends  persuaded  him  to  publish  a 
work,  which  he  had  prepared  with  much  labor, 
entitled,  "  The  History  of  the  American  Indians ; 
particularly  those  nations  adjoining  the  Missis 
sippi,  East  and  West;  Florida,  Georgia,  South 
and  North  Carolina,  and  Virginia.  London,  4to, 
177,3."  In  this  book  he  points  out  various  cus 
toms  of  the  Indians,  having  a  striking  resemblance 
to  those  of  the  Jews.  His  arguments  to  prove 
them  descended  from  the  Jews  are  founded  on 
their  division  into  tribes ;  their  worship  of  Je 
hovah  ;  their  festivals,  fasts,  and  religious  rites ; 
their  daily  sacrifice ;  their  prophets  and  high 
priests ;  their  cities  of  refuge ;  their  marriages 
and  divorces ;  their  burial  of  the  dead,  and 
mourning  for  them ;  their  language  and  choice 
of  names  adapted  to  circumstances  ;  their  manner 
of  reckoning  time  ;  and  various  other  particulars. 
Some  distrust  seems  to  have  fallen  upon  his 
statements,  although  he  says  that  his  account  is 
"neither  disfigured  by  fable  nor  prejudice."  Dr. 
Boudinot,  in  his  "  Star  in  the  West,"  has  adopted 
the  opinions  of  Aclair. 

AD  AIR,  JOHN,  general,  died  May  19,  1840, 
aged  ,82,  at  Harrodsburg,  Ky.  He  was  a  soldier  in 
the  early  north-western  wars,  and  commanded  the 
Kentucky  troops  at  Xew  Orleans  in  1814.  He 
was  a  senator  in  180,3,  and  a  representative  in 
congress  in  1831. 

ADAMS,  WILLIAM,  the  second  minister  of 
Dedham,  was  the  son  of  W.  A.,  and  born  in 
16*30,  at  Ipswich :  he  died  Aug.  17,  1685,  aged 
35.  He  graduated  in  1671,  and  was  ordained  as 
Mr.  Allen's  successor,  Dec.  3,  1673.  By  his  first 
wife,  Mary  Manning  of  Cambridge,  he  had  three 
children,  one  of  whom  was  Rev.  Eliphalet  A. 
His  second  wife  was  Alice  Bradford,  daughter  of 
William  B.,  and  grand-daughter  of  Gov.  Brad 
ford,  of  Plymouth ;  by  her  he  had  Elizabeth, 
who  married,  at  the  age  of  fifteen,  Rev.  S. 
Whiting,  of  Windham,  afterwards  Rev.  S.  Niles ; 
Alice,  who  married  Rev.  N.  Collins,  of  Enfield ; 
William ;  and  Abial,  born  after  his  death,  who 
married  Rev.  J.  Metcalf,  of  Falmouth.  His 
widow  married  James  Fitch.  He  published  a 
fast  sermon,  1679;  an  election  sermon,  1685. 

ADAMS,  ELIHIALET,  son  of  the  preceding, 
an  eminent  minister  of  New  London,  Conn.,  was 
graduated  at  Harvard  College  in  1694.  He  was 
ordained  Feb.  9,  1709,  and  died  Oct.  4,  1753, 
aged  76.  Dr.  Chauncey  speaks  of  him  as  a  great 
Hebrician.  —  His  son  William,  graduated  at  Yale 
in  1730,  and  died  in  1798,  having  been  a  preacher 
sixty  years,  but  never  settled  nor  married ;  he 
published  a  thanksgiving  sermon,  1760.  —  He  pub 
lished  a  sermon,  1706,  on  the  death  of  Rev.  James 
Noyes  of  Stonington ;  election  sermons,  1710  and 
1783 ;  a  discourse  occasioned  by  a  storm,  March 
3,  1717;  a  thanksgiving  sermon,  1721;  a  sermon 
on  the  death  of  Gov.  Saltonstall,  1724;  at  the 
ordination  of  William  Gager,  Lebanon.  May  27, 
1725;  of  Thomas  Clap,  Windham,  1726;  and  a 
discourse  before  young  men,  1727. 

ADAMS,  JOHN,  a  poet,  was  the  only  son  of 
John  Adams,  of  Nova  Scotia,  and  was  graduated 
at  Harvard  College  in  1721.  He  was  settled  in 
the  ministry  at  Newport,  R.  I.,  April  11,  1728,  in 
opposition  to  the  wishes  of  Mr.  Clap,  who  was 
pastor.  Mr.  Clap's  friends  formed  a  new  society, 
and  Mr.  Adams  was  dismissed  in  about  two 
years.  He  died  at  Cambridge  in  Jan.,  1740, 
at  the  age  of  36,  deeply  lamented  by  his  ac 
quaintance.  He  was  much  distinguished  for  his 
learning,  genius,  and  piety.  As  a  preacher  he 
was  much  esteemed.  His  uncle,  Matthew  Ad 
ams,  describes  him  as  "  master  of  nine  languages," 
and  conversant  with  the  most  famous  Greek, 
Latin,  Italian,  French,  and  Spanish  authors,  as 
well  as  with  the  noblest  English  writers.  He 
also  speaks  of  Ms  "  great  and  undissembled  piety, 
which  ran,  like  a  vein  of  gold,  through  all  his 
life  and  performances." — He  published  a  sermon 
on  his  ordination,  1728,  and  a  poem  on  the  love 
of  money.  A  small  volume  of  his  poems  was 
I  published  at  Boston,  in  1745,  which  contains  imi- 
I  tations  and  paraphrases  of  several  portions  of 
Scripture,  translations  from  Horace,  and  the 
whole  book  of  Revelation  in  heroic  verse,  to 
gether  with  original  piece's.  The  versification  is 



remarkably  harmonious  for  the  period  and  the 
country.  Mr.  Adams'  productions  evince  a  lively 
fancy,  and  breathe  a  pious  strain.  The  following 
is  an  extract  from  his  poem  on  Cotton  Mather : 

"  What  numerous  volumes  scattered  from  his  hand, 
Lightened  his  own,  and  warmed  each  foreign  land? 
What  pious  breathings  of  a  glowing  soul 
Live  in  each  page,  and  animate  the  whole? 
The  breath  of  heaven  the  savory  pages  show, 
As  we  Arabia  from  its  spices  know. 
Ambitious,  active,  towering  was  his  soul, 
But  flaming  piety  inspired  the  whole." 

—  Mass.  Magazine  for  April,  1789;  Backus' 
Hist.  Abridged,  158;  Preface  to  his  Poems; 
Specimens  of  American  Poetry,  I.  67. 

ADAMS,  MATTHEW,  a  distinguished  writer  in 
Boston,  though  a  mechanic  or  "  tradesman,"  yet 
had  a  handsome  collection  of  books,  and  culti 
vated  literature.  Dr.  Franklin  acknowledges  his 
obligations  for  access  to  his  library.  He  was  one 
of  the  writers  of  the  Essays  in  the  New  England 
Journal.  He  died  poor,  but  with  a  reputation 
more  durable  than  an  estate,  in  1733.  —  His  son, 
Her.  John  Adams,  a  graduate  of  1745,  was  the 
minister  of  Durham,  N.  II.,  from  1748  to  1778. 
By  a  grant  of  400  acres  of  land,  he  was  induced 
to  remove  to  the  small  plantation  of  Washington, 
or  Xewfield,  county  of  York,  Me.,  having  only 
five  families,  in  Feb.,  1781.  Here  he  passed 
the  remainder  of  his  life,  preaching  and  prac 
tising  physic  in  Newfield,  Limington,  Parsons- 
field,  and  Limerick,  till  his  death,  June  4,  1792, 
aged  GO.  He  was  .subject,  occasionally,  to  a  deep 
depression  of  feeling ;  and,  at  other  times,  was 
borne  away  by  a  sudden  excitement,  which  gave 
animation  to  his  preaching.  A  fine  letter  from 
Durham  to  the  town  of  Boston  in  1774,  with  a 
donation,  was  written  by  him.  —  Eliot :  Green- 
Icuf's  Ecclesiastical  History  of  Maine,  113. 

ADAMS,  AMOS,  minister  of  Itoxbury,  Mass., 
was  graduated  at  Harvard  College,  in  1752.  He 
was  ordained  as  successor  to  Mr.  Peabody,  Sept. 
12, 1753,  and  died  at  Dorchester,  Oct.  5, 1775,  aged 
47,  of  the  dysentery,  which  prevailed  in  the  camp 
at  Cambridge  and  Roxbury.  His  son,  Thomas 
Adams,  was  ordained  in  Boston  as  minister  for 
Camdcn,  S.  C.,  where,  after  a  residence  of  eight 
years,  he  died  Aug.  16,  1797. 

Mr.  Adams,  in  early  life,  devoted  himself  to 
the  service  of  his  Redeemer ;  and  he  continued 
his  benevolent  labors  as  a  preacher  of  the  gospel 
with  unabated  vigor  till  his  death.  He  was  fer 
vent  in  devotion  ;  and  his  discourses,  always  ani 
mated  by  a  lively  and  expressive  action,  were 
remarkably  calculated  to  warm  the  heart.  He 
was  steadfast  in  his  principles,  and  umvearied  in 

lie  published  the  following  sermons :  On  the 
death  of  Lucy  Dudley,  1756;  at  the  artillery 
election,  1759;  on  a  thanksgiving  for  the  reduc 
tion  of  Quebec,  1759;  at  the  ordination  of  S. 

Kingsbury,  Edgartown,  Xov.  25,  1761 ;  at  the 
ordination  of  John  "\Vyeth,  Gloucester,  Feb.  5, 
1766;  the  only  hope  and  refuge  of  sinners,  1767 ; 
two  discourses  on  religious  liberty,  1767 ;  a  view 
of  New  England,  in  two  discourses  on  the  fast, 
April  6,  1769;  sermons  at  the  ordination  of  Jon 
athan  Moore,  Rochester,  Sept.  25,  1768,  and  of 
Caleb  Prentice,  Reading,  Oct.  25,  1769.  He 
preached  the  Dudleian  lecture  of  Harvard  Col 
lege  in  1770,  entitled,  "  Diocesan  Episcopacy,  as 
founded  on  the  supposed  Episcopacy  of  Timothy 
and  Titus,  subverted."  This  work  is  a  specimen 
of  the  learning  of  the  writer.  It  is  lodged  in 
manuscript  in  the  library  of  the  college. 

ADAMS,  JOSEPH,  minister  of  Newington,  N. 
H.,  was  graduated  at  Harvard  College  in  1710, 
was  ordained  in  1715,  and  died  in  1783,  aged 
almost  95,  —  a  descendant  of  Henry  A.,  of  Quincy. 
He  preached  till  just  before  his  death.  He  pub 
lished  a  sermon  on  the  death  of  John  Fabian, 
1757;  and  a  sermon  on  the  necessity  of  rulers 
exerting  themselves  against  the  growth  of  im 
piety,  1760. 

ADAMS,  ZABDIEL,  minister  of  Lunenburg, 
Mass.,  was  born  in  Braintree,  now  Quincy,  Nov.  5, 
1739.  His  father  was  the  uncle  of  John  Adams. 
He  was  graduated  at  Harvard  College  in  1759, 
having  made  while  in  that  seminary  great  profi 
ciency  in  learning,  and  much  improved  the  vigor 
ous  powers  of  mind  with  which  he  was  endued. 
He  was  ordained  Sept.  5,  1764,  and  died  March 
1,  1801,  in  the  62d  year  of  his  age,  and  37th 
of  his  ministry. 

Mr.  Adams  was  eminent  as  a  preacher  of  the 
gospel,  often  explaining  the  most  important  doc 
trines  in  a  rational  and  scriptural  manner,  and 
enforcing  them  with  plainness  and  pungency. 
His  language  was  nervous ;  and,  while  in  his 
public  performances  he  gave  instruction,  he  also 
imparted  pleasure.  In  his  addresses  to  the  throne 
of  grace  he  was  remarkable  for  pertinency  of 
thought  and  readiness  of  utterance.  Though  by 
bodily  constitution  he  was  liable  to  irritation,  yet 
he  treasured  no  ill  will  in  his  bosom.  His  heart 
was  easily  touched  by  the  afflictions  of  others,  and 
his  sympathy  and  benevolence  prompted  him  to 
administer  relief,  when  in  his  power.  About  the 
year  1774  he  wrote  a  pamphlet,  maintaining, 
without  authority  from  the  platform  of  1648,  that 
a  pastor  has  a  negative  upon  the  proceedings  of 
the  Church.  Some  ministers,  who  embraced  his 
principles,  lost  by  consequence  their  parishes. 
He  preached  the  Dudleian  lecture  on  Presbyterian 
ordination  in  1794.  —  He  published  a  sermon  on 
church  music,  1771;  on  Christian  unity,  1772; 
the  election  sermon,  1782;  on  the  19th  of  April, 
1783 ;  at  the  ordination  of  Enoch  Whipplc,  1788. 
—  Whitney's  Funeral  Sermon. 

ADAMS,  ANDREW,  LL.  D.,  chief  justice  of 
Connecticut,  was  appointed  to  that  place  in  1793, 



having  been  upon  the  bench  with  reputation  as  a  ' 
judge  from  1789.  He  was  a  native  of  Stratford, 
a  graduate  of  Yale  College  in  1760,  and  a  mem 
ber  of  Congress  about  the  year  1782.  He  re 
sided  at  Litclificld,  and  died  Nov.  26,  1797,  aged 
61  years. 

ADAMS,  SAMUEL,  governor  of  Massachusetts, 
and  a  most  distinguished  patriot  in  the  American 
Revolution,  was  born  in  Boston  Sept.  16,  O.  S., 
1722.  His  father,  Samuel,  the  son  of  John  and 
Hannah  A.,  was  born  in  1689,  and  died  in  1747, 
whose  wife  was  Mary  Fifield.  Mr.  S.  A.  married 
in  1749  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Ilev.  S.  Checkley ; 
and  his  second  wife  in  1764,  Elizabeth,  daughter  of 
Francis  Wells.  He  was  graduated  at  Harvard 
College  in  1740.  When  he  commenced  master  of 
arts  in  1743,  he  proposed  the  following  question 
for  discussion :  "  Whether  it  be  lawful  to  resist  the 
supreme  magistrate,  if  the  Commonwealth  cannot 
otherwise  be  preserved  ?  "  He  maintained  the 
affirmative,  and  thus  early  showed  his  attachment 
to  the  liberties  of  the  people. 

Early  distinguished  by  talents  as  a  writer,  his 
first  attempts  were  proofs  of  his  filial  piety.  By 
his  efforts  he  preserved  the  estate  of  his  father, 
which  had  been  attached  on  account  of  an  engage 
ment  in  the  land  bank  bubble.  He  was  known 
as  a  political  writer  during  the  administration  of 
Shirley,  to  which  he  was  opposed,  as  he  thought 
the  union  of  so  much  civil  and  military  power  in 
one  man  was  dangerous.  His  ingenuity,  wit,  and 
profound  argument  are  spoken  of  with  the  high 
est  respect  by  those,  who  were  contemporary  with 
him.  Ac  this  early  period  he  laid  the  founda 
tion  of  public  confidence  and  esteem.  His  first 
office  of  tax-gatherer  made  him  acquainted  with 
every  shipwright  and  mechanic  in  Boston,  and 
over  their  minds  he  ever  retained  a  powerful  in 
fluence.  From  this  employment  the  enemies  of 
liberty  styled  him  Samuel,  the  Publican. 

In  176.5  he  was  elected  a  member  of  the  Gen 
eral  Assembly  of  Massachusetts,  in  the  place  of 
Oxenbridge  Thachcr,  deceased.  He  was  soon 
chosen  clerk,  and  he  gradually  acquired  influence 
in  the  Legislature.  This  was  an  eventful  time. 
But  Mr.  Adams  possessed  a  courage,  which  no 
dangers  could  shake.  He  was  undismayed  by 
the  prospect,  which  struck  terror  into  the  hearts 
of  many.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Legislature 
nearly  ten  years,  and  he  was  the  soul,  which  ani 
mated  it  to  the  most  important  resolutions.  No 
man  did  so  much.  He  pressed  his  measures  with 
ardor;  yet  he  was  prudent;  he  knew  how  to 
bend  the  passions  of  others  to  his  purpose.  Gov. 
Hutchinsou  relates  that,  at  a  town  meeting  in 
1769,  an  objection  having  been  made  to  a  motion 
because  it  implied  an  independency  of  parlia 
ment,  Mr.  Adams,  then  a  representative,  con 
cluded  his  speech  with  these  words  :  "  Independ 
ent  we  arc,  and  independent  we  will  be."  He 

represents,  too,  that  Mr.  Adams,  by  a  defalcation 
as  collector,  had  injured  his  character ;  but  he 
adds :  "  The  benefit  to  the  town  from  his  defence 
of  their  liberties  he  supposed  an  equivalent  to 
his  arrears  as  their  collector."  As  a  political 
writer  he  deemed  him  the  most  artful  and  insin 
uating  of  all  men,  whom  he  ever  knew,  and  the 
most  successful  in  "  robbing  men  of  their  char 
acters,"  or  "calumniating  governors,  and  other 
servants  of  the  crown." 

When  the  charter  was  dissolved,  he  was  chosen 
a  member  of  the  Provincial  Convention.  In  1774 
he  was  elected  a  member  of  the  General  Con 
gress.  In  this  station,  in  which  he  remained  a 
number  of  years,  he  rendered  the  most  impor 
tant  services  to  his  country.  His  eloquence  was 
adapted  to  the  times,  in  which  he  lived.  The 
energy  of  his  language  corresponded  with  the 
firmness  and  vigor  of  his  mind.  His  heart 
glowed  with  the  feeh'ngs  of  a  patriot,  and  his 
eloquence  was  simple,  majestic,  and  persuasive. 
He  was  one  of  the  most  efficient  members  of 
Congress.  He  possessed  keen  penetration,  un 
shaken  fortitude,  and  permanent  decision.  Gor 
don  speaks  of  him  in  1774  as  having  for  a  long 
time  whispered  to  his  confidential  friends,  that 
this  country  must  be  independent.  Walking  in 
the  fields,  the  day  after  the  battle  of  Lexing 
ton,  he  said  to  a  friend  :  "  It  is  a  fine  day,  —  I 
mean,  this  day  is  a  glorious  day  for  America." 
He  deemed  the  blow  to  be  struck,  which  would 
lead  to  independence.  In  the  last  official  act 
of  the  British  government  in  Massachusetts  he 
was  proscribed  with  John  Hancock,  when  a  gen 
eral  pardon  was  offered  to  all  who  had  rebelled. 
This  act  Avas  dated  June  12,  1775,  and  it  teaches 
Americans  what  they  owe  to  the  denounced 

In  1776  he  united  with  Franklin,  J.  Adams, 
Hancock,  Jefferson,  and  a  host  of  worthies  in 
declaring  the  United  States  no  longer  an  ap 
pendage  to  a  monarchy,  but  free  and  independent. 

When  the  constitution  of  Massachusetts  was 
adopted,  he  was  chosen  a  member  of  the  Senate, 
of  which  body  he  was  elected  president.  He 
was  soon  sent  to  the  western  counties  to  quiet  a 
disturbance,  which  was  rising,  and  he  was  suc 
cessful  in  his  mission.  He  was  a  member  of  the 
convention  for  examining  the  constitution  of  the 
United  States.  He  made  objections  to  several 
of  its  provisions;  but  his  principal  objection  was 
to  that  article,  which  rendered  the  several  States 
amenable  to  the  courts  of  the  nation.  He  thought 
this  reduced  them  to  mere  corporations ;  that  the 
sovereignty  of  each  would  be  dissolved ;  and  that 
a  consolidated  government,  supported  by  an 
army,  would  be  the  consequence.  The  consti 
tution  was  afterwards  altered  in  this  point,  and 
in  most  other  respects  according  to  his  wishes. 

In   1789  he  was  chosen    lieutenant-governor, 



and  was  continued  in  this  office  till  1794,  when 
he  was  elected  governor,  as  successor  to  Mr. 
Hancock.  He  was  annually  replaced  in  the  chair 
of  the  first  magistrate  of  Massachusetts  till  1797, 
when  his  age  and  infirmities  induced  him  to  retire 
from  public  life.  He  died  Oct.  2,  1803,  in  the 
8l2d  year  of  his  age.  His  only  son,  of  the  same 
name,  was  born  in  1751,  graduated  at  Harvard 
College  in  1770,  and,  after  studying  under  Dr. 
Joseph  Warren,  served  his  country  as  a  surgeon 
during  the  war.  lleturning  home  with  a  broken 
constitution,  he  at  length  died  Jan.  17,  1788. 
The  avails  of  his  claims  for  services  in  the  army 
gave  his  father  a  competency  in  liis  declining 

The  leading  traits  in  the  character  of  Mr.  Ad 
ams  were  an  unconquerable  love  of  liberty,  in 
tegrity,  firmness,  and  decision.  Some  acts  of  his 
administration  as  chief  magistrate  were  censured, 
though  all  allowed,  that  his  motives  were  pure. 
A  division  in  political  sentiments  at  that  time 
existed,  and  afterwards  increased.  When  he  dif 
fered  from  the  majority,  he  acted  with  great  inde 
pendence.  At  the  close  of  the  Avar  he  opposed 
peace  with  Great  Britain,  unless  the  Northern 
States  retained  their  full  privileges  in  the  fisheries. 
In  1787  he  advised  the  execution  of  the  condign 
punishment,  to  which  the  leaders  of  the  rebellion 
in  1786  had  been  sentenced.  It  was  his  settled 
judgment,  that  in  a  republic,  depending  for  its 
existence  upon  the  intelligence  and  virtue  of  the 
people,  the  law  should  be  rigidly  enforced.  At 
tached  to  the  old  confederation,  he  often  gave  as 
a  toast  — "  The  States  united,  and  the  States 
separated."  He  was  opposed  to  the  treaty  with 
Great  Britain,  made  by  Mr.  Jay  in  1794,  and  he 
put  his  election  to  hazard  by  avowing  his  dislike 
of  it.  The  three  topics,  on  which  lie  delighted  to 
dwell,  were  British  thraldom,  the  manners,  laws, 
and  customs  of  New  England,  and  the  impor 
tance  of  common  schools. 

Mr.  Adams  was  a  man  of  incorruptible  integ 
rity.  Gov.  Hutchinson,  in  answer  to  the  inquiry 
"  Why  Mr.  Adams  was  not  taken  off  from  his 
opposition  by  an  office  ? "  writes  to  a  friend  in 
1  '.•,!"•! -uid,  "Such  is  the  obstinacy  and  inflexible 
disposition  of  the  man,  that  he  never  can  be  con 
ciliated  by  any  office  or  gift  whatever." 

He  was  poor.  While  occupied  abroad  in  the 
most  important  and  responsible  public  duties,  the 
partner  of  his  cares  supported  the  family  at  home 
by  her  industry.  Though  his  resources  were  very 
small,  yet,  such  were  the  economy  and  dignity  of 
his  house,  that  those,  who  visited  him,  found 
nothing  mean  or  unbecoming  his  station.  His 
country,  to  whose  interests  he  devoted  his  life, 
permitted  him  to  remain  poor ;  but  there  were 
not  wanting  a  few  friends,  who  showed  him  their 
regard.  In  this  honorable  poverty  he  continued 
to  a.  very  late  period  of  his  life;  and  had  not  a 


decent  competency  fallen  into  his  hands  by  the 
very  afflicting  event  of  the  death  of  an  only  son, 
he  must  have  depended  for  subsistence  upon  the 
kindness  of  his  friends,  or  the  charity  of  the 

To  a  majestic  countenance  and  dignified  man 
ners  there  was  added  a  suavity  of  temper,  which 
conciliated  the  affection  of  his  acquaintance.  Some, 
Avho  disapproved  of  his  political  conduct,  loved 
and  revered  him  as  a  neighbor  and  friend.  He 
could  readily  relax  from  severer  cares  and  studies 
to  enjoy  the  pleasures  of  private  conversation. 
Though  somewhat  reserved  among  strangers,  yet 
with  his  friends  he  was  cheerful  and  compan 
ionable,  a  lover  of  chaste  wit,  and  remarkably 
fond  of  anecdote.  He  faithfully  discharged  the 
duties  arising  from  the  relations  of  social  life. 
His  house  was  the  seat  of  domestic  peace,  regu 
larity,  and  method. 

Mr.  Adams  was  a  Christian.  His  mind  was 
early  imbued  with  piety,  as  well  as  cultivated  by 
science.  He  early  approached  the  table  of  the 
Lord  Jesus,  and  the  purity  of  his  life  witnessed 
the  sincerity  of  his  profession.  On  the  Christian 
Sabbath  he  constantly  went  to  the  temple  ;  and 
the  morning  and  evening  devotions  in  his  family 
proved,  that  his  religion  attended  him  in  his  sea 
sons  of  retirement  from  the  world.  His  senti 
ments  were  strictly  Calvinistic.  The  platform  of 
the  New  England  churches  he  deemed  an  ample 
guide  in  all  matters  of  ecclesiastical  discipline 
and  order.  The  last  production  of  his  pen  was 
in  favor  of  Christian  truth.  He  died  in  the  faith 
|  of  the  gospel. 

He  was  a  sage  and  a  patriot.  The  independ 
ence  of  the  United  States  of  America  is  perhaps 
to  be  attributed  as  much  to  his  exertions,  as  to 
the  exertions  of  any  one  man.  Though  he  was 
called  to  struggle  with  adversity,  he  was  never 
discouraged.  He  was  consistent  and  firm  under 
the  cruel  neglect  of  a  friend  and  the  malignant 
rancor  of  an  enemy;  comforting  himself  in  the 
darkest  seasons  with  reflections  upon  the  wisdom 
and  goodness  of  God. 

Mr.  John  Adams  speaks  of  him  in  the  follow 
ing  terms  :  "  The  talents  and  virtues  of  that  great 
man  were  of  the  most  exalted,  though  not  of  the 
most  showy  land.  His  love  of  his  country,  his 
exertions  in  her  service  through  a  long  course  of 
years,  through  the  administrations  of  the  gov 
ernors  Shirley,  Pownall,  Bernard,  Ilutchinson, 
and  Gage,  under  the  royal  government  and 
through  the  whole  of  the  subsequent  revolution, 
and  always  in  support  of  the  same  principles ; 
his  inflexible  integrity,  his  disinterestedness,  his 
invariable  resolution,  his  sagacity,  his  patience, 
perseverance,  and  pure  public  virtue  were  not 
exceeded  by  any  man's  in  America.  A  collection 
of  his  writings  would  be  as  curious  as  voluminous. 
It  would  throw  light  upon  American  history  for 



fifty  years.  In  it  would  be  found  specimens  of  a 
nervous  simplicity  of  reasoning  and  eloquence, 
that  have  never  been  rivalled  in  America." 

His  writings  exist  only  in  the  perishable  col 
umns  of  a  newspaper  or  pamphlet.  In  his  more 
advanced  life,  in  the  year  1790,  a  few  letters 
passed  between  him  and  John  Adams,  in  which 
the  principles  of  government  are  discussed ;  and 
there  seems  to  have  been  some  difference  of  sen 
timent  between  those  eminent  patriots  and  states 
men,  who  had  toiled  together  through  the  Revo- 
lution.  Tlus  correspondence  was  published  in 
1800.  An  oration,  which  Mr.  Adams  delivered 
at  the  State  House  in  Philadelphia  Aug.  1,  177G, 
was  published.  The  object  is  to  support  Ameri 
can  Independence,  the  declaration  of  which  by 
Congress  had  been  made  a  short  time  before. 
He  opposes  kingly  government  and  hereditary 
succession  with  warmth  and  energy.  Not  long 
before  liis  death  he  addressed  a  letter  to  Paine, 
expressing  his  disapprobation  of  that  unbeliever's 
attempts  to  injure  the  cause  of  Christianity. — 
Thachcr's  Sermon;  Sullivan's  character  of  him 
in  public  papers  ;  Polyanthos,  in.  73-82 ;  Gor 
don,  I.  347,  410;  BYissot,  Nouv.  Voy.,  I.  151; 
Thacker's  Medical  Biography ;  Ilutchinson's 
Last  History,  265  ;  Eliot's  Biographical  Dic 
tionary  ;  Encyclopaedia  Americana,  and  liees. 

ADAMS,  Joiix,  president  of  the  United  States, 
was  born  at  Braintrec,  Mass.,  Oct.  19,  1735,  O.S., 
or  Oct.  30th,  present  style.  His  father,  John, 
was  a  deacon  of  the  church,  a  farmer,  and  a 
mechanic,  and  died  May  25,  1761,  aged  69;  his 
grandfather,  Joseph,  died  Feb.  12,  1737,  aged 
82 ;  his  great-grandfather,  Joseph,  was  born  in 
England,  and  died  at  Braintrce  Dec.  6,  1697, 
aged  03 ;  the  father  of  this  ancestor  was  Henry, 
who,  as  the  inscription  on  his  monument,  erected 
by  John  Adams,  says, "  took  his  flight  from  the 
Dragon  Persecution,  in  Devonshire,  England,  and 
alighted  with  eight  sons  near  Mount  Wollaston." 
Of  these  sons  four  removed  to  Medfield  and  the 
neighboring  towns,  and  two  to  Chclmsford.  The 
year  of  Henry's  arrival  at  Braintree,  now  Quincy, 
is  not  known,  but  is  supposed  to  be  1632 ;  he 
died  Oct.  8,  1646.  His  ancestry  has  been  traced 
up  six  or  seven  hundred  years  to  John  Ap  Adam, 
of  the  Marches  of  Wales. 

John  Adams,  while  a  member  of  Harvard  Col 
lege,  where  he  was  graduated  in  1755,  Avas  dis 
tinguished  by  diligence  in  his  studies,  by  boldness 
of  thought,  and  by  the  powers  of  his  mind. 
While  he  studied  law  at  Worcester  with  Col. 
James  Putnam,  an  able  lawyer  in  extensive  prac 
tice,  from  1755  to  1758,  he  instructed  pupils  in 
Latin  and  Greek,  as  a  means  of  subsistence. 
At  this  early  period  he  had  imbibed  a  prejudice 
against  the  prevailing  religious  opinions  of  New 
England,  and  became  attached  to  speculations 
hostile  to  those  opinions.  Nor  were  his  views 

afterwards  changed.  Perhaps  the  religious  sen 
timents  of  most  men  become  settled  at  as  early  a 
period  of  their  lives.  If  therefore  the  cherished 
views  of  Christianity  have  any  relation  to  prac 
tice  and  to  one's  destiny  hereafter;  with  what 
sobriety,  candor,  and  diligence,  and  with  what 
earnestness  of  prayer  for  light  and  guidance  from 
above  ought  every  young  man  to  investigate  re 
vealed  truth  ?  In  April,  1756,  he  was  deliberating 
as  to  his  profession.  Some  friends  advised  him 
to  study  theology.  In  a  few  months  afterwards 
he  fixed  upon  the  profession  of  law.  He  had 
not  "  the  highest  opinion  of  what  is  called  Or 
thodoxy."  He  had  known  a  young  man,  worthy 
of  the  best  parish,  despised  for  being  suspected 
of  Arminianism.  He  was  more  desirous  of  being 
an  eminent,  honorable  lawyer,  than  of  "  heading 
the  whole  army  of  Orthodox  preachers."  In  a 
letter  to  Dr.  Morse  in  1815  he  says :  "  Sixty-five 
years  ago  my  own  minister,  Rev.  Lemuel  Bryant ; 
Dr.  Mayhew,  of  the  West  Church  in  Boston ; 
Rev.  Mr.  Shute,  of  Hingham ;  Rev.  John  Brown, 
of  Cohasset ;  and  perhaps  equal  to  all,  if  not 
above  all,  Rev.  Mr.  Gay,  of  Hingham,  were  Uni 
tarians.  Among  the  laity  how  many  could  I 
name,  lawyers,  physicians,  tradesmen,  and  farmers  ? 
More  than  fifty-six  years  ago  I  read  Dr.  S. 
Clarke,  Emlyn,  etc." 

In  Oct.,  1758,  Mr.  Adams  presented  himself — 
a  stranger,  poor  and  friendless  —  to  Jeremy 
Gridley,  of  Boston,  attorney-general  of  the 
crown,  to  ask  of  him  the  favor  to  offer  him  to 
the  Superior  Court  of  the  province,  then  sitting, 
for  admission  to  the  bar.  Mr.  Gridley  examined 
him  in  his  office,  and  recommended  him  to  the 
court ;  and  at  the  same  time  gave  him  excellent 
paternal  advice.  For  his  kindness  Mr.  Adams 
was  ever  grateful,  and  was  afterwards  his  intimate 
personal  and  professional  friend.  As  Mr.  Gridley 
was  grand  master  of  the  Massachusetts  Grand 
Lodge  of  Free  Masons,  Mr.  Adams  once  asked 
his  advice,  whether  it  was  worth  his  while  to  be 
come  a  member  of  the  society ;  the  reply  of  the 
grand  master  was,  "  No  " ;  adding,  that  he  did 
not  need  the  artificial  support  of  the  society,  and 
that  there  was  "  nothing  in  the  Masonic  Institu 
tion  worthy  of  his  seeking  to  be  associated  with 
it."  In  consequence  of  this  advice  he  never 
sought  admission  to  the  lodge. 

Mr.  Adams  commenced  the  practice  of  the  law 
at  Quincy,  then  in  the  county  of  Suffolk,  and 
soon  had  a  sufficiency  of  lucrative  business.  In 
1761  he  was  admitted  to  the  degree  of  barrister- 
at-law.  In  this  year  a  small  estate  became  his 
by  the  decease  of  his  father.  At  this  period  his 
zeal  for  the  rights  of  his  country  was  inflamed  by 
the  attempt  of  the  British  cabinet  to  introduce  in 
Massachusetts  writs  of  assistance  —  a  kind  of 
general  search-^  arrant  for  the  discovery  of  goods 
not  discharged  from  the  parliamentary  taxes. 

8  ADAMS. 

The  affair  was  argued  in  Boston  by  Mr.  Otis. 
Mr.  Adams  says,  "  Every  man  of  an  immense, 
crowded  audience  appeared  to  me  to  go  away,  as 
I  did,  ready  to  take  arms  against  writs  of  as 
sistance." —  "Then  and  there  the  child  Inde 
pendence  was  bom." 

In  1764,  he  married  Abigail  Smith,  daughter 
of  Rev.  William  Smith  of  Weymouth,  and  grand 
daughter  of  Colonel  Quincy,  a  lady  of  uncommon 
endowments  and  excellent  education.  —  In  the 
next  year  he  published  an  essay  on  Canon  and 
Feudal  Law,  reprinted  at  London  in  1768,  and  at 
Philadelphia  in  1783.  His  object  was  to  show 
the  conspiracy  between  Church  and  State  for  the 
purpose  of  oppressing  the  people.  He  wished  to 
enlighten  his  fellow-citizens,  that  they  might  prize 
their  liberty,  and  be  ready,  if  necessary,  to  assert 
their  rights  by  force. 

He  removed  to  Boston  in  1765,  and  there  had 
extensive  legal  practice.  In  1768  Gov.  Bernard 
offered  him,  through  his  friend  Mr.  Sewall,  the 
place  of  advocate-general  in  the  Court  of  Ad 
miralty,  a  lucrative  post;  but  he  decidedly  de 
clined  the  offer.  He  was  not  a  man  thus  to  be 
bribed  to  desert  the  cause  of  his  country.  The 
office  was  the  same  which  Mr.  Otis  had  resigned, 
in  1761  in  order  to  oppose  the  writs  of  assistance. 
Yet  Mr.  Hutchinson  states,  that  he  was  at  a  loss 
which  side  to  take,  and  that  the  neglect  of  Ber 
nard  to  make  him  a  justice  of  the  peace  roused 
his  patriotism !  He  adds :  "  His  ambition  was 
without  bounds  ;  and  he  has  acknowledged  to  his 
acquaintance,  that  he  could  not  look  with  com 
placency  upon  any  man,  who  was  in  possession 
of  move  wealth,  more  honor,  or  more  knowledge 
than  himself."  In  1769,  he  was  chairman  of  the 
committee  of  the  town  of  Boston  for  drawing  up 
instructions  to  their  representatives  to  resist  the 
British  encroachments.  His  colleagues  were  R. 
Dana  and  Joseph  Warren.  These  instructions 
were  important  links  in  the  chain  of  revolutionary 
events.  —  In  consequence  of  the  affray  with  the 
British  garrison  March  5,  1770,  in  which  several 
of  the  people  of  Boston  were  killed,  the  soldiers 
were  arraigned  before  the  civil  authority.  Not 
withstanding  the  strong  excitement  against  them, 
Mr.  Adams,  with  J.  Quincy  and  S.  S.  Blowers, 
defended  them,  and  procured  the  acquittal  of  all 
except  two,  who  were  convicted  of  manslaughter, 
and  branded  in  punishment.  This  triumph  of 
justice,  for  the  soldiers  were  first  attacked,  was 
honorable  to  the  cause  of  America.  In  May, 
1770,  he  was  chosen  a  member  of  the  Legisla 
ture,  in  which  he  took  a  prominent  part. 

In  1773  he  wrote  ably  in  the  Boston  Gazette 
against  the  regulation,  making  judges  dependent 
for  their  salaries  upon  the  crown.  In  1773  and 
1774  he  was  chosen  into  the  council  by  the  as 
sembly,  but  negatived  by  the  governor.  To  the 
struggle,  at  tin's  period,  betAvcen  the  house  and 


the  governor  in  respect  to  the  council,  his  friend 
Sewall,  pleasantly  alludes  thus  :  "  We  have  some 
times  seen  half-a-dozen  sail  of  tory  navigation 
unable,  on  an  election  day,  to  pass  the  bar,  formed 
by  the  flux  and  reflux  of  the  tides  at  the  entrance 
of  the  harbor,  and  as  many  whiggish  ones  stranded 
the  next  morning  on  Governor's  Island."  —  June 
17,  1774,  he  was  chosen  by  the  assembly,  to 
gether  with  T.  Cashing,  *S.  Adams,  and  II.  T. 
Paine,  to  the  first  Continental  Congress.  To 
Sewall,  who,  while  they  were  attending  the  court 
at  Portland,  endeavored  to  dissuade  him,  in  a 
morning  walk  on  "  the  great  hill,"  from  accepting 
this  appointment,  he  said :  "  The  die  is  now  cast ; 
I  have  passed  the  Rubicon ;  swim  or  sink,  live  or 
die,  survive  or  perish  with  my  country  is  my  un 
alterable  determination."  Thus  he  parted  with 
his  tory  friend,  nor  did  he  converse  with  him 
again  till  1788. 

He  took  his  seat  in  Congress  Sept.  5, 1774,  and 
was  on  the  committee,  which  drew  up  the  state 
ment  of  the  rights  of  the  colonies,  and  on  that, 
which  prepared  the  address  to  the  king.  At  this 
period  the  members  of  Congress  generally  were 
not  determined  on  independence.  It  was  thought, 
the  British  would  relinquish  their  claims.  —  He 
returned  to  Boston  in  November,  and  soon  wrote 
the  papers,  with  the  signature  of  Novanglus,  in 
answer  to  those  of  his  friend  Sewall,  with  the 
signature  of  Massachusettensis.  The  latter  are 
dated  from  Dec.  12,  1774,  to  April  3,  177o;  the 
former  from  Jan.  23  to  April  17,  l"o.  These 
papers  were  reprinted  in  1819,  with  a  preface  by 
Mr.  Adams,  with  the  addition  of  letters  to  W. 

A  short  review  of  them  may  be  interesting,  as 
they  relate  to  a  period  immediately  preceding  the 
commencement  of  hostilities.  In  this  controversy 
Mr.  Sewall  said :  "  I  saw  the  small  seed  of  sedi 
tion,  when  it  was  implanted ;  it  was  as  a  grain  of 
mustard.  I  have  watched  the  plant,  until  it  has 
become  a  great  tree ;  the  vilest  reptiles,  that 
crawl  upon  the  earth,  arc  concealed  at  the  root ; 
the  foulest  birds  of  the  air  rest  on  its  branches. 
I  now  would  induce  you  to  go  to  work  immedi 
ately  with  axes  and  hatchets,  and  cut  it  down,  for 
a  twofold  reason  —  because  it  is  a  pest  to  society, 
and  lest  it  be  felled  suddenly  by  a  stronger  arm, 
and  crush  its  thousands  in  the  fall."  In  the  first 
place,  he  maintained,  that  resistance  to  Great 
Britain  would  be  unavailing.  The  militia  he  con 
sidered  undisciplined  and  ungovernable,  each  man 
being  a  politician,  puffed  up  with  his  own  opinion. 
"  An  experienced  British  officer  would  rather  take 
his  chance  with  five  thousand  British  troops,  than 
fifty  'thousand  such  militia."  The  sea  coast  he 
regarded  as  totally  unprotected.  Our  trade, 
fishery,  navigation,  and  maritime  towns  were 
liable  to  be  lost  in  a  moment.  The  back  settle- 
j  ments  would  fall  a  prey  to  the  Canadians  and 



Indians.  The  British  army  would  sweep  all  be 
fore  it  like  a  wliirlwind.  Besides,  New  England 
would  probably  be  alone,  unsupported  by  the 
other.  States,  llebellion,  therefore,  would  be  the 
height  of  madness.  In  considering  the  reasons 
for  resistance  he  maintained,  that  the  parliament 
had  a  right  to  pass  a  stamp  act,  in  order  that  the 
colonies  should  bear  a  part  of  the  national  burden. 
Similar  acts  had  been  before  passed.  We  had 
paid  postage  agreeably  to  act  of  parliament,  du 
ties  imposed  for  regulating  trade,  and  even  for 
raising  a  revenue  to  the  crown,  without  question 
ing  the  right.  This  right,  he  says,  Avas  first 
denied  by  the  resolves  of  the  house  of  burgesses 
in  Virginia.  "  We  read  them  with  wonder ;  they 
savored  of  independence."  The  three-penny  duty 
on  tea,  he  thought,  should  not  be  regarded  as 
burdensome ;  for  the  duty  of  a  shilling,  laid  upon 
it  for  regulating  trade,  and  therefore  allowed  to 
be  constitutional,  was  taken  ofl';  so  that  we  were 
gainers  ninepence  in  the  pound  by  the  new  regu 
lation,  which  was  designed  to  prevent  smuggling, 
and  not  to  raise  a  revenue.  The  act  declaratory 
of  the  right  to  tax  was  of  no  consequence,  so  long 
as  there  was  no  grievous  exercise  of  it,  especially 
as  we  had  protested  against  it,  and  our  assemblies 
had  ten  times  resolved,  that  no  such  right  ex 
isted.  But  demagogues  were  interested  in  in 
flaming  the  minds  of  the  people.  The  pulpit 
also  was  a  powerful  engine  in  promoting  discon 
tent.  —  Though  the  small  duty  of  three  pence 
was  to  be  paid  by  the  East  India  company,  or 
their  factors,  on  landing  the  tea,  for  the  purpose 
of  selling  it  at  auction,  and  no  one  was  obliged  to 
purchase ;  yet  the  mob  of  Boston,  in  disguise, 
forcibly  entered  the  three  ships  of  tea,  split  open 
the  chests,  and  emptied  the  whole,  10,000  pounds 
sterling  in  value,  into  the  dock,  "  and  perfumed 
the  town  with  its  fragrance."  Yet  zealous  rebel 
merchants  were  every  day  importing  teas,  subject 
to  the  same  duty.  The  act  interfered  with  their 
interest,  not  with  the  welfare  of  the  people.  The 
blockade  act  against  Boston  was  a  just  retaliatory 
measure,  because  the  body-meeting,  contrived 
merely  as  a  screen  to  the  town,  consisting  of 
thousands,  had  resolved,  that  the  tea  should  not  pay 
the  duty.  Now  sprung  up  from  the  brain  of  a 
partizan  the  "  committee  of  correspondence  "  — 
"  the  foulest,  subtlest,  and  most  venomous  ser 
pent,  that  ever  issued  from  the  eggs  of  sedition." 
A  new  doctrine  had  been  advanced,  that,  as  the 
Americans  are  not  represented  in  parliament,  they 
are  exempt  from  acts  of  parh'ament.  But,  if  the 
colonies  are  not  subject  to  the  authority  of  par 
liament,  Great  Britain  and  the  colonies  must  be 
distinct  States.  Two  independent  authorities  can 
not  co-exist.  The  colonies  have  only  power  to 
regulate  their  internal  police,  but  are  necessarily 
subject  to  the  control  of  the  supreme  power  of 
the  State.  Had  any  person  denied,  fifteen  years 

ago,  that  the  colonies  were  subject  to  the  authority 
of  parh'ament,  he  would  have  been  deemed  a 
fool  or  a  madman.  It  was  curious  to  trace  the 
history  of  rebellion.  When  the  stamp  act  was 
passed,  the  right  of  parliament  to  impose  internal 
taxes  was  denied ;  but  the  right  to  impose  ex 
ternal  ones,  to  lay  duties  on  goods  and  mer 
chandize,  was  admitted.  On  the  passage  of  the 
tea  act  a  new  distinction  was  set  up ;  duties  could 
be  laid  for  the  regulation  of  trade,  but  not  for 
raising  a  revenue ;  parliament  could  lay  the  for 
mer  duty  of  a  shilling  a  pound,  but  not  the 
present  duty  of  three  pence.  There  was  but  one 
more  step  to  independence  —  the  denial  of  the 
right  in  parliament  to  make  any  laws  whatever, 
which  should  bind  the  colonies  ;  and  this  step  the 
pretended  patriots  had  taken.  Mr.  Otis,  the 
oracle  of  the  whigs,  in  1764  never  thought  of 
this.  On  the  contrary,  he  maintained  in  respect 
to  the  colonies,  that  "  the  parliament  has  an  un 
doubted  power  and  lawful  authority  to  make  acts 
for  the  general  good."  Obedience,  in  his  view, 
was  a  solemn  duty.  The  original  charter  of  the 
colony  exempted  it  from  taxes  for  a  definite  pe 
riod,  implying  the  right  to  tax  afterwards.  The 
grant  of  all  the  liberties  of  natural  subjects  within 
the  realm  of  England  affords  no  immunity  from 
taxes.  If  a  person,  born  in  England,  should 
remove  to  Ireland,  or  to  Jersey,  or  Guernsey, 
whence  no  member  is  sent  to  parliament,  he 
would  be  in  the  same  predicament  with  an  emi 
grant  to  America,  all  having  the  rights  of  natural 
born  subjects.  In  the  charter  by  King  William 
the  powers  of  legislation  were  restricted,  so  that 
nothing  should  be  done  contrary  to  the  laws  of 
the  realm  of  England.  Even  Dr.  Eranklin  in 
176o  admitted,  that  the  British  had  "  a  natural 
and  equitable  right  to  some  toll  or  duty  upon 
merchandizes,"  carried  through  the  American 
seas.  Mr.  Otis  also,  in  the  same  year,  admitted 
the  same  equitable  right  of  parliament  "  to  im 
pose  taxes  on  the  colonies,  internal  and  external, 
on  lands  as  well  as  on  trade."  Indeed,  for  more 
than  a  century  parliament  had  exercised  the  now 
controverted  right  of  legislation  and  taxation. 

On  the  whole,  Mr.  Sewall  was  convinced,  that 
the  avarice  and  ambition  of  the  leading  whigs 
were  the  causes  of  the  troubles  of  America : 
"  they  call  themselves  the  people ;  and,  when 
their  own  measures  are  censured,  cry  out  —  'the 
people,  the  people  are  abused  and  insulted ! ' " 
He  deplored  the  condition  of  the  dupes  of  the 
republican  party  —  the  men  who,  every  morning, 
"  swallowed  a  chimera  for  breakfast."  By  the  in 
famous  methods  resorted  to,  "  many  of  the  an 
cient,  trusty,  and  skilful  pilots,  who  had  steered 
the  community  safely  in  the  most  perilous  times, 
were  driven  from  the  helm,  and  their  places  occu 
pied  by  different  persons,  some  of  whom,  bank 
rupts  in  fortune,  business,  and  fame,  are  now 



striving  to  run  the  ship  on  the  rocks,  that  they 
may  have  an  opportunity  of  plundering  the 
Vi'reck ! " 

To  this  Mr.  Adams  replied,  that  parliament 
had  authority  over  America  by  no  law :  not  by 
the  law  of  nature  and  nations ;  nor  by  common 
law,  which  never  extended  beyond  the  four  seas ; 
nor  by  statute  law,  for  none  existed  before  the 
settlement  of  the  colonies;  and  that  we  were 
under  no  religious,  moral,  or  political  obligations 
to  submit  to  parliament  as  a  supreme  executive. 
He  asked,  "  Is  the  three  pence  upon  tea  our  only 
grievance  ?  Are  we  not  deprived  of  the  privilege 
of  paying  our  governors,  judges,  etc.  ?  Are  not 
trials  by  jury  taken  from  us  ?  Are  we  not  sent  to 
England  for  trial  ?  Is  not  a  military  government 
put  over  us  ?  Is  not  our  constitution  demolished 
to  the  foundation  ?  " — "  Xip  the  shoots  of  ar 
bitrary  power  in  the  bud  is  the  only  maxim, 
winch  can  ever  preserve  the  liberties  of  any 
people."  He  maintained,  that  the  pretence  to 
tax  for  revenue,  and  not  merely  for  the  regula 
tion  of  trade,  had  never  been  advanced  till  re 
cently;  that,  in  1754,  Dr.  Franklin  denied  such  a 
right;  that,  more  than  a  century  before,  both 
Massachusetts  and  Virginia  had  protested  against 
the  act  of  navigation,  and  refused  obedience,  be 
cause  not  represented  in  parliament.  He  denied, 
that  there  was  a  whig  in  the  province,  who  wished 
to  set  up  an  independent  republic.  But  resistance 
to  lawless  violence,  he  said,  is  not  rebellion  by 
the  law  of  God  or  of  the  land.  And,  as  to  ina 
bility  to  cope  with  Great  Britain,  he  maintained, 
that,  "  in  a  land  war  this  continent  might  defend 
itself  against  all  the  world."  As  to  old  charters, 
that  of  Virginia  in  1609  exempted  the  company 
forever  from  taxes  on  goods  and  merchandizes. 
The  same  exemption  was  given  to  Maryland  in 
1 633.  The  Plymouth  colony  was  settled  without 
a  charter,  on  the  simple  principle  of  nature,  and 
thus  continued  an  independent  government  sixty- 
eight  years.  The  same  was  the  case  with  the 
colonies  in  Connecticut.  In  Massachusetts,  the 
general  court  in  1677  declared,  that  the  laws  of 
England  were  bounded  within  the  four  seas,  and 
did  not  reach  America.  The  only  power  of  par 
liament,  which  he  would  allow,  was  that  arising 
from  our  voluntary  cession  of  regulating  trade. 
The  first  charter  erected  a  corporation  within  the 
realm  of  England ;  there  the  governor  and  com 
pany  were  to  reside,  and  their  agents  only  were 
1')  come  to  America.  But  they  came  themselves, 
and  brought  their  charter  with  them,  and  thus, 
being  out  of  the  realm,  were  not  subject  to  par 
liament.  The  king  of  England  could  by  law 
grant  nothing  out  of  England,  or  the  realm. 
The  great  seal  had  no  authority  out  of  the  realm, 
except  to  mandatory  or  prcccptory  writs;  and 
such  was  not  the  charter.  In  case  of  the  for 
feiture  of  a  charter,  the  people  born  here  could 


be  under  no  allegiance  to  the  king.  —  Such 
briefly  were  the  opposite  views  of  these  distin 
guished  men.  These  writings  of  Mr.  Adams, 
with  those  of  Otis,  Thachcr,  and  others,,  con 
tributed  much  to  the  emancipation  of  America 
from  British  thraldom. 

Mr.  Adams   attended   the   next   Congress  in 

1775.  On  hearing  of  the  battle  of  Lexington, 
war  was  determined  on.     At  his  suggestion,  Gov. 
Johnstone  nominated  Washington  as  commander- 
in-chief,  and  he  was  unanimously  chosen.     "When 
he  returned   to   Massachusetts,  he  declined   the 
office  of  chief  justice,  to  which  he  had  been  in 
vited.     In  Congress  he  was  among  the  foremost, 
who  were  in  favor  of  independence.     He  moved, 
May  6,  1776,  to  recommend  to  the  colonies  "to 
adopt  such  a  government,  as  would,  in  the  opinion 
of  the  representatives  of  the  people,  best  con 
duce  to  the  happiness  and  safety  of  their  con 
stituents   and  of  America."    This   passed,  after 
earnest  debate,  on  the  15th.     H.  II.  Lee  moved, 
on  the  7th  June,  and  the  motion  was  seconded 
by  Mr.  Adams,  "  that  these  united  colonies  are, 
and  of  right  ought  to  be,  free  and  independent 
States."    The  debate  continued  to  the  10th,  and 
was  then  postponed  to  the  1st  of  July.     A  com 
mittee  of  five,  consisting  of   Jefferson,  Adams, 
Franklin,  Sherman,  and  R.  R.  Livingston,  was 
appointed  to  draw  up  a  declaration  of  independ 
ence.     The   two   first  were   the   sub-committee. 
The   instrument,  at   the  request  of  Mr.  Adams, 
was  written  by  Jefferson.     The  resolution  of  Lee 
was  debated  again  July  1st,  and  adopted  on  the 
2d.     Then  the  Declaration  was  considered  and 
passed,  with  a  few  omissions  and  changes,  July 
4th ;  but  not  without  vigorous  opposition,  particu 
larly  from  John  Dickinson,  one  of  the  ablest  men 
and   finest  writers   in  Congress.     The   opposing 
arguments  were  met  by  Mr.  Adams  in  a  speech 
of  unrivalled  power.    Of  him  Mr.  Jefferson  said,  — 
"  the  great  pillar  of  support  to  the  declaration  of 
independence  and  its  ablest  advocate  and  cham 
pion  on  the  floor  of  the  house  was  John  Ad 
ams." —  "He  was  the  colossus  of  that  Congress: 
not  graceful,  not  eloquent,  not  always  fluent  in 
his   public   addresses,  he   yet   came   out  with  a 
power   both   of  thought   and   expression,  which 
moved  his  hearers  from  their  seats." 

On  the  next  day  Mr.  Adams  wrote  the  follow 
ing  letter  to  his  wife,  dated  Philadelphia,  July  5, 

"  Yesterday  the  greatest  question  was  decided, 
which  was  ever  debated  in  America,  and  a 
greater,  perhaps,  never  was,  or  will  be,  decided 
among  men.  A  resolution  has  passed  without 
one  dissenting  colony,  '  That  these  colonies  are, 
and  of  rigid  ought  to  be,  Free  and  Independent 

"  The  day  is  passed.     The  fourth  day  of  July, 

1776,  will  be  a  memorable  cpocli  in  the  history 


of  America.  I  am  apt  to  believe,  it  will  be  cele 
brated  by  succeeding  generations  as  the  great 
anniversary  festival.  It  ought  to  be  commem 
orated,  as  the  day  of  deliverance,  by  solemn  acts 
of  devotion  to  Almighty  God.  It  ought  to  be 
solemnized  with  pomp,  shows,  games,  sports, 
guns,  bells,  bonfires,  and  illuminations  from  one 
end  of  the  continent  to  the  other,  from  this  time 
forward,  forever.  You  will  think  me  transported 
with  enthusiasm ;  but  I  am  not.  I  am  well  aware 
of  the  toil  and  blood  and  treasure,  that  it  will 
cost  us  to  maintain  this  declaration,  and  support 
and  defend  these  States ;  yet  through  all  the 
gloom  I  can  see  the  rays  of  light  and  glory.  I 
can  see,  that  the  end  is  more  than  worth  all  the 
means,  and  that  posterity  will  triumph,  although 
you  and  I  may  rue,  which  I  hope  we  shall  not." 

Mr.  Silas  Deane,  commissioner  with  Franklin 
and  A.  Lee  at  the  French  court,  having  been 
recalled,  Mr.  Adams  was  appointed  in  his  place 
Nov.  28,  1777. — lie  was  thus  released  from  his 
duties  as  chairman  of  the  board  of  war,  in  which 
he  had  been  engaged  since  June  13,  1776.  It  is 
said,  that  he  had  been  a  member  of  ninety  com 
mittees,  and  chairman  of  twenty-five.  —  Embark 
ing  in  about  two  months  in  the  Boston  frigate,  he 
arrived  safely ;  but  the  treaties  of  commerce  and 
alliance  had  been  signed  before  his  arrival.  — 
Soon  after  his  return  he  assisted,  in  the  autumn 
of  1779,  as  a  member  of  the  convention,  and  as 
one  of  the  sub-committee  in  preparing  a  form  of 
government  for  the  State  of  Massachusetts.  He 
wrote  the  clause  in  regard  to  the  patronage  of 
literature.  Sept.  29, 1779,  he  was  appointed  min 
ister  plenipotentiary  to  negotiate  a  peace,  and 
had  authority  to  form  a  commercial  treaty  with 
Great  Britain.  He  sailed  in  the  French  frigate 
Sensible,  Nov.  17,  landed  at  Ferrol,  and  after  a 
toilsome  journey  arrived  at  Paris  in  Feb.,  1780. 
He  was  accompanied  by  Francis  Dana  as  secre 
tary  of  legation,  and  by  John  Thaxtcr  as  private 
secretary.  Deeming  a  residence  in  Holland  more 
favorable  to  his  country  than  in  Paris,  he  deter 
mined  to  proceed  to  Amsterdam  as  soon  as  per 
mission  could  be  obtained  from  the  French  min 
ister,  Count  de  Vergcnncs,  who  was  displeased 
by  the  refusal  of  Mr.  Adams  to  communicate  to 
him  his  instructions  in  regard  to  the  treaty  of 
commerce.  In  August  he  repaired  to  Amster 
dam,  having  previously  been  instructed  to  procure 
loans  in  Holland,  and  soon  afterwards  receiving 
power  to  negotiate  a  treaty  of  amity  and  com 
merce.  Amidst  great  difficulties,  arising  from 
the  hostility  of  England  and  the  intrigues  of 
France  herself,  he  toiled  incessantly  for  the  in 
terest  of  his  country.  In  a  series  of  twenty-six 
letters  to  Mr.  Kalkoen,  he  gave  an  account  of 
the  controversy  with  Great  Britain,  and  of  the 
resources,  determination,  and  prospects  of  America. 
These  papers  were  reprinted  in  the  Boston  Patriot, 



and  in  a  pamphlet  form  in  1809.  They  had 
much  effect  in  enlightening  the  people  of  Hol 
land.  Yet  he  could  not  persuade  the  States 
General  to  acknowledge  him  as  ambassador  of 
the  United  States  until  April,  1782.  Associated 
with  Franklin,  Jay,  and  Laurens,  he  formed  the 
definitive  treaty  of  peace,  which  was  ratified  Jar. 
14,  1784. — After  assisting  in  other  treaties,  Mr. 
Adams  was  in  1785  appointed  the  first  minister 
to  London.  In  that  city  he  published  his  "  De 
fence  of  the  American  constitutions"  in  1787. — 
At  this  time  the  constitution  of  the  United  States 
had  not  been  formed.  The  object  of  the  work 
was  to  oppose  the  theories  of  Turgot,  the  Abbe 
de  Mably,  and  Dr.  Price  in  favor  of  a  single 
legislative  assembly  and  the  consolidation  into 
one  tribunal  of  the  powers  of  government.  He 
maintained  the  necessity  of  keeping  distinct  the 
legislative,  executive,  and  judicial  departments ; 
and,  to  prevent  encroachment  by  the  legislative 
branch,  he  proposed  a  division  of  it  into  two 
chambers,  each  as  a  check  upon  the  other.  He 
carried  his  views  into  effect  in  drafting  the  con 
stitution  of  Massachusetts,  —  which  form  has  been 
copied  in  its  chief  features  by  most  of  the  other 
States.  —  After  an  absence  of  nine  years,  he  re 
turned  to  America,  and  landed  at  Boston  June 
17,  1788.  Congress  had  passed  a  resolution  of 
thanks  for  his  able  and  faithful  discharge  of  vari 
ous  important  commissions.  His  "  Discourses  on 
Davila"  were  written  in  1790. 

After  his  return  he  was  elected  the  first  vice- 
president  of  the  United  States  under  the  new 
constitution,  wliich  went  into  operation  in  March, 
1789.  Having  been  re-elected  to  that  office,  he 
held  it,  and  of  course  presided  in  the  Senate 
during  the  whole  of  the  administration  of  Wash 
ington,  whose  confidence  he  enjoyed  in  an  emi 
nent  degree.  The  Senate  being  nearly  balanced 
between  the  two  parties  of  the  day,  his  casting 
vote  decided  some  important  questions ;  in  this 
way  Clarke's  resolution  to  prohibit  all  intercourse 
with  Great  Britain  on  account  of  the  capture  of 
several  American  vessels  was  rejected.  —  On  the 
resignation  of  Washington  Mr.  Adams  became 
president  of  the  United  States  March  4,  1797. 
He  was  succeeded  by  Mr.  Jefferson  in  1801,  who 
was  elected  by  a  majority  of  one  vote. 

After  March,  1801,  Mr.  Adams  lived  in  retire 
ment  at  Quincy,  occupied  in  agricultural  pursuits, 
though  occasionally  addressing  various  communi 
cations  to  the  public.  —  In  a  letter  to  the  founder 
of  the  peace  society  of  Massachusetts  in  1816  he 
says :  "  I  have  read,  almost  all  the  days  of  my 
life,  the  solemn  reasonings  and  pathetic  declama 
tions  of  Erasmus,  of  Fenelon,  of  St.  Pierre,  and 
many  others,  against  war  and  in  favor  of  peace. 
My  understanding  and  my  heart  accorded  witli 
them  at  first  blush.  But,  alas !  a  longer  and 
more  extensive  experience  has  convinced  mo,  that 



wars  are  necessary,  and  as  inevitable  in  our  sys 
tem  as  hurricanes,  earthquakes,  and  volcanoes. 
Universal  and  perpetual  peace  appears  to  me  no 
more  nor  less  than  everlasting  passive  obedience 
and  non-resistance.  The  human  flock  would  soon 
be  fleeced  and  butchered  by  one  or  a  few.  I 
cannot  therefore,  sir,  be  a  subscriber  or  a  member 
of  your  society.  —  I  do,  sir,  most  humbly  suppli 
cate  the  theologians,  the  philosophers,  and  the 
politicians  to  let  me  die  in  peace.  I  seek  only 
repose."  Mr.  Jefferson  expressed  his  opinions 
more  calmly  on  the  subject. 

In  1816  he  was  chosen  a  member  of  the  elec 
toral  college,  which  voted  for  Mr.  Monroe  as 
president.  In  1818  he  sustained  his  severest 
affliction  in  the  loss,  in  October,  of  his  wife,  with 
whom  he  had  lived  more  than  half  a  century. 
His  only  daughter,  Mrs.  Smith,  died  in  1813.  In 
1820,  at  the  age  of  eighty-five,  he  was  a  member 
of  the  convention  for  revising  the  constitution  of 
Massachusetts.  In  the  last  years  of  his  life  he 
had  a  friendly  correspondence  with  Mr.  Jefferson. 
He  enjoyed  the  singular  happiness  in  182<3  of  see 
ing  his  son,  John  Quincy  Adams,  elevated  to  the 
office  of  president  of  the  United  States.  In  this 
year  he  was  the  only  survivor  of  the  first  Con 
gress,  lie  died  July  4,  1826. 

On  the  morning  of  the  jubilee  he  was  roused 
by  the  ringing  of  bells  and  the  firing  of  cannon, 
and,  when  asked  by  his  servant  if  he  knew  what 
day  it  was,  he  replied,  "  O  yes !  it  is  the  glorious 
4th  of  July  —  God  bless  it  —  God  bless  you  all." 
In  the  forenoon  the  orator  of  the  day,  his  parish 
minister,  called  to  see  him,  and  found  him  seated 
in  an  arm-chair,  and  asked  him  for  a  sentiment, 
to  be  given  at  the  public  table.  He  replied,  "  I 
will  give  you  —  Independence  forever ! "  In  the 
course  of  the  day  he  said,  "  It  is  a  great  and  glo 
rious  day;"  and  just  before  he  expired,  exclaimed, 
"  Jefferson  survives,"  shewing  that  his  thoughts 
were  dwelling  on  the  scenes  of  17~6.  But 
Jefferson  was  then  dead,  having  expired  at  one 
o'clock.  He  liimself  died  at  twenty  minutes  be 
fore  six  P.  M. 

That  two  such  men  as  Jefferson  and  Adams, 
both  of  whom  had  been  presidents  of  the  United 
States,  the  two  last  survivors  of  those,  who  had 
voted  for  the  Declaration  of  Independence,  the 
former  having  drawn  it  up,  and  the  latter  having 
been  its  most  powerful  advocate  on  the  floor  of 
Congress,  should  have  died  on  the  4th  of  July, 
just  fifty  years  after  the  "glorious  day"  of  the 
Declaration  of  American  Independence,  presented 
such  an  extraordinary  concurrence  of  events  as  to 
overwhelm  the  mind  with  astonishment.  Some 
of  the  eulogists  of  these  illustrious  men  seemed 
to  regard  the  circumstances  of  their  removal  from 
the  earth  as  a  signal  proof  of  the  favor  of  God, 
and  spoke  of  their  spirits  as  beyond  doubt  thus 
wonderfully,  on  the  day  of  their  glory,  translated 


to  heaven.  But  surely  these  circumstances  ought, 
not  to  be  regarded  as  indications  of  the  eternal 
destiny  of  these  men  of  political  eminence.  Like 
others,  they  must  appear  at  the  bar  of  Jesus 
Christ,  to  be  judged  agreeably  to  the  settled  prin 
ciples  of  the  Divine  government,  according  to 
their  works  and  characters.  If  they  believed  in 
the  name  of  the  Son  of  God  and  were  his  follow 
ers,  they  will  doubtless,  if  the  Scriptures  are  true, 
be  saved ;  otherwise  they  will  be  lost.  It  is  not 
always  easy  to  ascertain  the  design  of  Providence. 
If  some  imagine,  that  the  extraordinary  deaths 
of  these  men  indicate  the  Divine  approbation  of 
their  patriotism ;  others  may  imagine,  that  their 
deaths  on  the  day,  in  which  a  kind  of  idolatry  had 
often  been  offered  them,  and  in  which  the  Ameri 
can  people  had  been  often  elated  with  the  emotions 
of  vanity  and  pride,  instead  of  rendering  due 
thanksgivings  to  the  Almighty,  were  designed  to 
frown  upon  the  erring  people  and  to  teach  them, 
that  their  boasted  patriots  and  statesmen,  their 
incensed  demi-gods,  were  but  frail  worms  of  the 
dust.  A  new  and  similar  wonder  occurred  in 
the  decease  of  another  president,  Monroe,  on  the 
4th  day  of  July,  1830. 

Mr.  Adams  was  somewhat  irritable  in  his 
temper,  and  at  times  was  frank  in  the  utterance 
of  his  indignant  feelings.  In  reply  to  a  birth-day 
address  in  1802,  the  year  after  the  termination  of 
his  presidency,  he  said :  "  Under  the  continual 
provocations,  breaking  and  pouring  in  upon  me, 
from  unexpected  as  well  as  expected  quarters, 
during  the  last  two  years  of  my  administration,  he 
must  have  been  more  of  a  modern  epicurian 
philosopher,  than  ever  I  was-  or  ever  will  be,  to 
have  borne  them  all  without  some  incautious  ex 
pressions,  at  times,  of  an  unutterable  indignation.. 
I  have  no  other  apology  to  make  to  individuals  or 
the  public." — This  confession  may  teach  the  am 
bitious,  that  the  high  station  of  president  may  be 
a  bed  of  thorns.  Mr.  Adams  added  the  senti 
ment,  which  is  worthy  of  perpetual  remembrance 
by  our  statesmen  and  citizens :  "The  union  is  our 
rock  of  safety,  as  well  as  our  pledge  of  grandeur." 
—  Mr.  Adams,  it  is  believed,  was  a  professor  of 
religion  in  the  church  at  Quincy.  In  his  views  he 
accorded  with  Dr.  Bancroft,  an  Unitarian  minister 
of  Worcester,  of  whose  printed  sermons  he  ex 
pressed  his  high  approbation. 

In  his  person,  Mr.  Adams  was  of  middling 
stature.  With  passions  somewhat  impetuous,  his 
manners  were  courteous.  Industry  carried  him 
honorably  through  his  immense  public  labors  ; 
temperance  procured  him  the  blessing  of  a 
healthful  old  age.  He  lived  to  see  but  one  name 
before  his  imstarrcd  in  the  catalogue  of  Harvard 
College :  excepting  the  venerable  Dr.  Holyoke, 
all  before  him  were  numbered  with  the  dead.  He 
was  a  scholar,  versed  in  the  ancient  languages. 
In  his  writings  he  was  perspicuous  and  energetic. 




To  his  native  town  he  gave  his  whole  library,  and 
made  bequests  for  the  endowment  of  an  academy 
and  the  building  of  a  stone  church. 

His  chief  writings  are — History  of  the  dispute 
with  America,  1774;  twenty-six  letters  on  the 
American  llcvolution,  written  in  Holland  in  1780; 
memorial  to  the  States  general,  1782;  essay  on 
canon  and  feudal  law,  1783;  defence  of  the 
American  Constitution,  3  vols.,  1788;  answers  to 
patriotic  addresses,  1798;  letters  on  government, 
to  Sam.  Adams,  1802 ;  discourses  on  Davila, 
1805;  correspondence,  1809;  Novanglus,  re-pub 
lished,  1819;  correspondence  with  W.  Cunning 
ham,  1823;  letters  to  Jefferson. — Encyclopedia 
Amer. ;  Amer.  Ann.  Reg.  I.  225-240;  Boston 
Weekly  Messenger,  vi.  306 ;  /.  Q.  Adams'  letters 
in  Boston  Patriot,  Sept.  3,  1831;  Holmes,  II. 

ADAMS,  Jonx  QONCY,  president  of  the  United 
States,  died  at  Washington  Feb.  23,  1848,  aged 
80  years,  being  born,  the  son  of  John  A.,  July  11, 
1767.  At  the  age  of  ten  he  accompanied  his 
father  to  France ;  at  the  age  of  fifteen  he  was  private 
secretary  of  Mr.  Dana,  minister  to  Russia.  At 
Harvard  college  he  was  graduated  in  1787,  and 
then  studied  law  with  Mr.  Parsons  at  Ncwbury- 
port.  Living  in  Boston,  he  published  in  1791 
the  papers,  signed  Publicolu,  remarking  on 
Paine's  Rights  of  Man,  distrusting  the  issue  of 
the  French  Revolution.  From  1794  to  1801  he 
was  minister  in  Holland,  Fngland,  and  Prussia. 
From  1803  to  1808  he  was  a  senator  of  the  U.  S. ; 
but  resigned  from  disagreement  with  lu's  own 
State  Legislature.  He  was  a  professor  of  rhetoric 
at  Harvard  from  1806  to  1809.  He  assisted  in 
negotiating  the  treaty  of  Ghent  in  Dec.,  1814, 
and  afterwards  assisted  in  the  convention  of  com 
merce  with  Great  Britain.  In  1817  he  was  sec 
retary  of  state  in  the  cabinet  of  Monroe.  In  1825 
he  was  chosen  president  of  the  U.  S.  The  elec 
toral  votes  were  99  for  Jackson,  84  for  Adams, 
41  for  Crawford,  37  for  Clay.  The  votes  of  thir 
teen  States,  represented  in  the  house,  elected  him 
president.  He  served  for  four  years.  In  Decem 
ber,  1831,  he  became  a  member  of  Congress, 
and  was  continued  in  that  post  till  his  death. 
While  in  his  seat  in  the  House  of  Rep 
resentatives,  Feb.  21st,  he  fell  over  on  one  side, 
and  was  removed  to  Mr.  Speaker  Winthrop's 
apartment,  in  which  he  died.  He  was  only  able 
to  say:  "This  is  the  last  of  earth;  I  am  con 
tent."  His  wife,  Louisa,  daughter  of  Joshua 
Johnson  of  Maryland,  whom  he  married  in  1797, 
survived  him ;  but  died  at  Washington  May 
15,  1852,  aged  76. 

As  a  member  of  Congress  he  in  his  old  age 
gained  imperishable  honor  by  watching  the  move 
ments  and  withstanding  the  progress  of  the  slave- 
holding  power,  which  threatened  to  gain  the  as 
cendency  in  our  general  government,  over  all  the 

interests  of  justice  and  human  freedom,  and  to 
render  this  land  of  liberty  the  scorn  of  the  des 
potisms  of  Europe.  At  the  present  day  the  battle 
between  slavery  and  freedom  rages  with  increased 
vehemence;  and,  had  "the  old  man  eloquent" 
lived  to  see  the  border-ruffianism  of  Missouri 
tolerated  by  our  rulers,  and  allowed  to  create  a 
government  and  bear  sway  in  the  Territory  of 
Kansas,  and  also  to  see  a  Southern  ruffian  striking 
down  a  Massachusetts  senator  in  his  seat,  and 
supported  in  the  act  by  the  whole  South,  his  voice 
would  have  rung  like  a  clarion  through  the  hall 
of  Congress  and  through  our  land. 

He  published  letters  on  Silesia,  1804;  lectures 
on  rhetoric  and  oratory,  2  vols.,  1810;  Dermot 
MacMorrogh,  a  poetic  historical  tale,  1832 ;  poems 
of  religion  and  society,  and  various  occasional 

ADAMS,  HANNAH,  died  Dec.  15,  1831,  aged 
74,  and  was  the  first  tenant  of  the  burying-ground 
at  Mount  Auburn.  She  was  born  in  Medfield, 
Mass. ;  her  father  kept  a  store ;  her  mother  died 
when  she  was  ten  years  old.  She  was  perhaps 
the  first  American  lady  who  devoted  her  life  to 
literature ;  but  the  profits  of  her  labors  were  in 
considerable.  She  was  under  the  middle  stature, 
very  deaf,  a  great  rappee  snuff-taker,  and  very 
fond  of  strong  tea.  A  few  noble-minded  friends 
bestowed  upon  her  the  comforts  of  life.  A  jour 
ney  to  Chelmsford  was  the  farthest  she  had  been 
by  land,  and  a  trip  from  Boston  to  Nahant,  only 
ten  miles,  her  only  voyage  by  water.  She  pub 
lished  a  history  of  New  England,  1799;  a  view 
of  religions,  1801;  history  of  the  Jews,  1812; 
controversy  with  Dr.  Morse,  1814;  letters  on 
the  Gospels,  2d  ed.,  1826.  A  memoir,  written  by 
herself,  with  additions  by  a  friend,  1832. 

ADAMS,  EBENEZER,  professor  of  languages 
and  of  mathematics  at  Dartmouth  college,  died 
Aug.  15,  1841,  aged  77.  He  was  born  at  Xew 
Ipswich,  and  graduated  in  1791  at  Dartmouth. 
His  daughter  married  Professor  Young  of  the 
same  college. 

ADAMS,  BENJAMIN,  died  at  Uxbridge  March 
28,  1837,  aged  72.  A  graduate  of  Brown  univer 
sity  in  1788,  he  was  a  lawyer,  and  a  member  of 
Congress  from  1816  to  1821;  a  man  of  integrity 
and  worth,  and  much  respected. 

ADAMS,  JOHN  W.,  presbyterian  minister,  died 
at  Syracuse  March  4,  1850,  aged  54.  He  was 
the  son  of  Rev.  Roger  A.,  of  Conn.,  and  Avas 
settled  over  the  first  church  Dec.  14,  1824.  The 
church  members  were  three  hundred  and  sixty- 
five  in  number. 

ADAMS,  NEWTON,  M.  D.,  missionary  among 
the  Zulus  in  S.  Africa,  died  Sept.  16,  1851,  aged 
47.  Born  in  East  Bloomfield,  X.  Y.,  he  decided 
to  become  a  missionary  in  1834,  and  went  out  as 
a  physician ;  but  was  ordained  in  1844.  He  was 
one  of  the  six  men,  who  with  their  wives  sailed 



from  Boston  in  Dec.,  1834,  to  lay  the  foundation 
of  the  Zulu  mission. 

ADAMS,  CHARLES  BAKER,  died  at  St.  Thomas 
of  the  fever  Jan.  19,  1853,  aged  38.  He  was 
professor  at  Amhcrst  college  of  zoology  and  as 
tronomy  from  1847,  and  had  been  professor  of 
chemistry  and  natural  history  at  Middlcbury. 
He  published  Ileports  as  State  geologist  of  Ver 
mont,  and  a  work  with  Prof.  Gray  on  geology. 
Some  of  his  writings  on  zoology  are  in  the  annals 
of  the  Lyceum  of  Natural  History  of  Xew  York. 

ADAMS,  ZABDIEL  BOYLSTON,  M.  D.,  died  in 
Boston  Jan.  25,  185-5,  aged  62.  Born  in  Rox- 
bury,  he  graduated  in  1813,  and  was  a  skilful  and 
beloved  physician. 

ADDLXGTOX,  ISAAC,  secretary  of  the  proA-- 
incc  of  Massachusetts,  died  at  Boston  March  19, 
1715,  aged  70  years.  His  father  was  Isaac ;  his 
mother  was  Anne,  daughter  of  elder  Thomas 
Leverett,  sister  of  Gov.  L. ;  his  sister  Rebecca 
married  Capt.  E.  Davenport;  his  sister  Sarah 
married  Col.  Penn  Townscnd.  He  sustained  a 
high  character  for  talents  and  learning,  and  for 
integrity  and  diligence  in  his  public  services.  He 
was  secretary  more  than  twenty  years,  and  for 
many  years  a  magistrate  and  member  of  the 
council,  elected  by  the  people ;  and  was  also  some 
times  "useful  in  practicing  physic  and  chirurgery." 
lie  was  singularly  meek  and  humble  and  disinter 
ested.  In  his  family  he  was  a  daily  worshipper 
of  God.  The  religion,  which  he  professed,  gave 
him  peace,  as  he  went  down  to  the  dead. — 
Wadswortlis  Funeral Serm. ;  Hutchinson,!.  414; 
II.  212. 

ADDIS,  ASA,  chief  justice  of  Vt.,  died  at  St. 
Albans  Oct.  15,  1847,  aged  77.  He  was  a  grad 
uate  of  Brown  university. 

ADDISOX,  ALEXANDER,  a  distinguished  lawyer, 
died  at  Pittsburg,  Pcnn.,  Nov.  24,  1807,  aged  48.  \ 
In  the  office  of  a  judge  for  twelve  years  he  was  a 
luminous  expounder  of  the  law,  prompt  and  im 
partial,  and  never  was  there  an  appeal  from  his  j 
judgment.  His  various  powerful  talents  and  ex 
tensive  learning  were  displayed  in  numerous  writ 
ings,  which  evinced  not  only  a  cogency  in  reason 
ing,  but  a  classic  purity  of  style,  and  a  uniform 
regard  to  the  interests  of  virtue.  He  was  dis 
interested,  generous,  beneficent.  He  published 
observations  on  Gallatin's  speech,  1798;  analysis 
of  report  of  committee  of  Virginia  Assembly, 
1800;  reports  in  Pcnns.  1800. 

ADRAIX,  ROBERT,  LL.  I).,  died  at  Xew  | 
Brunswick,  X.  J.,  Aug.  10,  1843,  aged  68.  A  ! 
native  of  Ireland,  he  came  to  this  country  with  j 
Emmet.  He  was  professor  of  mathematics  at  j 
Rutgers  college,  also  at  Columbia  college. 

AGATE,  FREDERICK  S.,  died  at  Xew  York  in 
May,  1844,  aged  37;  an  historical  painter  of  con 
siderable  reputation  among  American  artists. 

AHvEX,  DANIEL,  died   at  Wcxford,   Canada 


West,  in  Jan.,  1847,  aged  120.  He  was  seven 
times  married :  his  grandchildren  Avere  370  boys 
and  200  girls. 

AITKEX,  ROBERT,  a  printer  in  Philadelphia, 
came  to  this  country  in  1769,  and  died  July,  1802, 
aged  68.  For  his  attachment  to  American  liberty, 
he  was  thrown  into  prison  by  the  British.  Among 
his  publications  were  a  magazine,  an  edition  of  the 
Bible,  and  the  transactions  of  the  Amer.  Phil. 
Soc.  He  was  the  author,  it  is  believed,  of  an 
inquiry  concerning  the  principles  of  a  commercial 
system  for  the  United  States,  1787.  Jane  Aitken, 
his  daughter,  continued  the  business ;  she  printed 
Thompson's  Septuagint. —  Thomas,  II.  77. 

AKERLY,  SAMUEL,  M.  D.,  died  at  Staten 
Island  July  6, 1845,  aged  60.  He  studied  with  his 
brother-in-law,  Mitchell,  and  contributed  largely 
to  medical  and  scientific  journals.  He  was  one 
of  the  founders  of  the  institutions  for  the  deaf 
and  dumb,  and  the  blind. 

ALBERT,  PIERRE  ANTONIE,  rector  of  the 
French  Protestant  Episcopal  Church  in  Xew 
York,  was  the  descendant  of  a  highly  respectable 
family  in  Lausanne,  Switzerland.  Being  invited 
to  take  the  charge  of  the  church  in  the  city 
of  Xew  York,  which  was  founded  by  the  perse 
cuted  Huguenots  after  the  revocation  of  the  edict 
of  Xantes,  he  commenced  his  labors  July  26, 
1797,  and  died  July  12,  1806,  aged  40.  He  was 
an  accomplished  gentleman,  an  erudite  scholar,  a 
profound  theologian,  and  a  most  eloquent  preacher. 
A  stranger,  of  unobtrusive  manners  and  invincible 
modesty,  he  led  a  very  retired  life.  His  worth, 
however,  could  not  be  concealed.  He  was  es 
teemed  and  beloved  by  all  his  acquaintance.  — 
Massachusetts  Missionary  Magazine,  iv.  78. 

ALDEX,  JOHN,  a  magistrate  of  Plymouth 
colony,  was  one  of  the  first  company  which  settled 
Xew  England.  He  arrived  in  16CO,  and  his  life 
was  prolonged  till  Sept.  12,  1687,  when  he  died, 
aged  about  89  years.  When  sent  by  his  friend, 
Capt.  Standish,  to  make  for  him  proposals  of 
marriage  to  Priscilla  Mullins,  the  lady  said  to 
him,  —  "Prithee,  John,  why  do  you  not  speak  for 
yourself  ?  "  This  intimation  of  preference  from 
the  lips  of  one  of  the  Pilgrim  beauties  was  not 
to  be  overlooked.  Priscilla  became  his  wife.  He 
was  a  very  worthy  and  useful  man,  of  great  hu 
mility  and  eminent  piety.  He  was  an  assistant 
in  the  administration  of  every  governor  for  many 
years.  A  professed  disciple  of  Jesus  Christ,  he 
lived  in  accordance  with  his  profession.  In  his 
last  illness  he  was  patient  and  resigned,  fully  be 
lieving  that  God,  who  had  imparted  to  him  the 
love  of  excellence,  would  perfect  the  work,  which 
he  had  begun,  and  would  render  him  completely 
holy  in  heaven. 

ALDEX,  JOHN,  died  at  Middlcborough,  in 
1821,  aged  102;  the  great  grandson  of  J.  A.,  of 
the  Mavflower. 




ALDEX,  JUDAII,  died  at  Duxbury  March  2, 
1845,  aged  94.  He  was  a  patriot  and  officer  of 
the  Revolution,  and  president  of  the  Cincinnati. 

ALDEX,  SETH,  died  at  Titicut  Feb.  22,  1855, 
aged  83  ;  a  descendant  of  John  Alden,  the  young 
est  of  nineteen  children. 

ALDEX,  TIMOTHY,  a  descendant  of  John  Al 
den,  was  graduated  at  Harvard  college  in  1762, 
and  settled  Dec.  13,  17G9,  at  Yarmouth,  Mass., 
where  he  died  Nov.  13,  1828,  aged  91  years. 
For  more  than  half  a  century  he  was  a  faithful 
laborer  in  the  cause  of  religion.  His  people,  in 
their  affection  to  him,  gave  him  a  comfortable 
support  for  years  after  he  had  ceased  to  teach 
them.  He  published  a  dedication  sermon,  1795. 

ALDEX,  TIMOTHY,  I).  D.,  son  of  the  pre 
ceding,  died  at  Pittsburg  July  5,  1839,  aged  G8. 
He  was  a  graduate  of  Harvard  in  1794,  a  minis 
ter  in  Portsmouth,  and  president  of  Allcghany 
college  at  Meadville.  lie  published  a  sermon  on 
the  death  of  Washington,  1800;  account  of  socie 
ties  in  Portsmouth,  1808  ;  a  century  sermon,  1811 ; 
Xcw  Jersey  Register,  1811 ;  collection  of  epitaphs, 
5  vols.,  1814;  Alleghany  Magazine,  1816. 

ALDEX,  ICHABOD,  colonel,  was  killed  by  the 
Indians  at  Cherry  Valley  in  Xov.,  1778.  He 
commanded  a  Massachusetts  regiment  in  the  war. 
He  was  the  descendant  of  John  Alden ;  and  a  son 
of  Samuel,  of  Duxbury,  who  died  in  1780,  aged  93. 

ALDEX,  ROGER,  major,  an  officer  of  the  Revo 
lution,  died  at  West  Point  Xov.  5,  1836,  aged  88. 

ALEXAXDER,  an  Indian,  was  the  son  and 
successor  of  Massassoit,  and  brother  of  King 
Philip.  His  Indian  name  was  Wamsutta.  He 
received  his  English  name  in  1656.  Being  sus 
pected  of  conspiring  with  the  Xarragansetts 
against  the  English,  he  was  captured  by  surprise, 
by  Major  Winslowin  1662,  and  carried  to  Marsh- 
field.  The  indignant  sachem  fell  sick  of  a  fever ,- 
and  was  allowed  to  return,  under  a  pledge  of  ap 
pearing  at  the  next  court ;  but  he  died  on  his 
way.  Judge  Davis  gives  a  minute  account  of 
this  affair.  Dr.  Holmes  places  the  occurrence  in 
1657.  —  Davis'  Morton,  287;  Holmes,  I.  308. 

ALEXAXDER,  JAMES,  secretary  of  the  prov 
ince  of  Xew  York,  and  many  years  one  of  the 
council,  arrived  in  the  colony  in  1715.  He  was  a 
Scotch  gentleman,  who  was  bred  to  the  law. 
Gov.  Burnett  was  particularly  attached  to  him. 
Though  not  distinguished  for  his  talents  as  a 
public  speaker,  he  was  at  the  head  of  his  pro 
fession  for  sagacity  and  penetration.  Eminent 
for  Iris  knowledge,  he  was  also  communicative 
and  easy  of  access.  By  honest  practice  and  un 
wearied  application  to  business,  he  acquired  a 
great  estate.  He  died  in  the  beginning  of 
1756.  —  Smith's  New  York,  152. 

ALEXAXDER,  WILLIAM,  commonly  called 
Lord  Stirling,  a  major-general  in  the  American 
army,  was  a  native  of  the  city  of  New  York,  the 

son  of  the  secretary,  James  Alexander,  but  spent 
a  considerable  part  of  his  life  in  Xew  Jersey. 
He  was  considered  by  many  as  the  rightful  heir 
to  the  title  and  estate  of  an  earldom  in  Scotland, 
of  which  country  his  father  was  a  native ;  and 
although,  when  he  went  to  Xorth  Britain  in  pur 
suit  of  this  inheritance,  he  failed  of  obtaining  an 
acknowledgment  of  his  claim  by  government,  yet 
among  his  friends  and  acquaintances  he  received 
by  courtesy  the  title  of  Lord  Stirling.  —  He  dis 
covered  an  early  fondness  for  the  study  of  mathe 
matics  and  astronomy,  and  attained  great  emi 
nence  in  these  sciences. 

In  the  battle  on  Long  Island  Aug.  27,  1776, 
he  was  taken  prisoner,  after  having  secured  to  a 
large  part  of  the  detachment  an  opportunity  to 
escape  by  a  bold  attack  with  four  hundred  men 
upon  a  corps  under  Lord  Cornwallis.  His  at 
tachment  to  Washington  was  proved  in  the  latter 
part  of  1777,  by  transmitting  to  him  an  account 
of  the  disaffection  of  Gen.  Conway  to  the  com- 
mander-in-chief.  In  the  letter  he  said :  "  Such 
wicked  duplicity  of  conduct  I  shall  always  think 
it  my  duty  to  detect."  He  died  at  Albany  Jan. 
15,  1783,  aged  57  years.  He  was  a  brave,  dis 
cerning,  and  intrepid  officer.  —  He  married  Sarah, 
daughter  of  Philip  Livingston.  His  eldest  daugh 
ter,  Mary,  married  John  Watts,  of  a  wealthy 
family  in  Xew  York.  He  published  a  pamphlet, 
"The  conduct  of  Maj.-Gen.  Shirley  briefly  stated." 
—  Miller,  II.  390;  Holmes,  II.  247;  Marshall, 
in.  Note  No  v. 

ALEXAXDER,  NATHANIEL,  governor  of 
Xorth  Carolina,  was  graduated  at  Princeton  in 

1776,  and  after  studying   medicine  entered   the 
army.     At  the  close  of  the  war  he  resided  at  the 
High  Hills  of  Santee,  pursuing   his   profession, 
and  afterwards  at  Mecklenburg.     While  he  held 
a  seat  in  Congress,  the  Legislature  elected   him 
governor  in  1806.     He  died  at  Salisbury  March 
8,  1808,  aged  52.     In  all  his  public  stations  he 
discharged  his  duty  with  ability  and  firmness.  — 
Charleston  Courier,  March  23. 

ALEXAXDER,  CALEB,  I).  D.,  a  native  of 
Xorthfield,  Mass.,  and  a  graduate  of  Yale  in 

1777,  was  ordained  at  Xew  Marlborough,  Mass., 
in  1781,  and  dismissed  in  1782.     He  was  again 
settled  at  Mendon,and  dismissed  in  1803.     After 
an  ineffectual  attempt  to  establish  a  college  at 
Fairfield,  State  of  Xew  York,  he  took  the  charge 
of  the  academy  at  Onondaga  Hollow,  where  he 
died  in  April,  1828.     He  published  an  essay  on 
the  deity  of  Jesus  Christ,  with  strictures  on  Em- 
lyn,  1791;  a  Latin  grammar,  1794;    an  English 
grammar,  and  grammar  elements.  —  History  of 
Berkshire,  293. 

ALEXAXDER,  ARCHIBALD,  D.  D.,  professor 
of  theology  at  Princeton,  was  the  descendant  of  a 
Scotch-Irish  family,  which  came  over  about  1736 
and  settled  in  the  great  valley  of  Virginia;  and 



•was  the  son  of  William  A.  lie  died  Oct.  22, 
1851,  aged  79.  About  1801  lie  was  president  of 
Hampdcn  Sidney  college,  and  married  Janetta, 
daughter  of  Rev."  Dr.  Waddel,  of  LotuVa  county, 
Va.  In  1806  he  succeeded  Dr.  Milledoler  in  Tine 
street  church  in  Phila.  In  1812  he  became  the 
professor  of  theology  in  the  new  seminary  at 
Princeton.  Dr.  Miller  came  in  Dec.,  1813.  He 
remained  with  honor  in  this  important  station 
until  his  death.  He  left  six  sons  and  a  daughter; 
three  were  ministers,  two  lawyers,  one  a  physician. 
His  brother,  Maj.  John  A.,  who  served  in  the  war 
of  1812,  died  at  Lexington  in  1853. 

He  published  a  sermon  at  Philadelphia,  1808; 
on  the  burning  of  the  theatre,  1811;  missionary, 
1813;  inaugural;  Christian  evidences,  1825;  canon 
of  Bible;  to  young  men,  1826;  on  Sunday  schools, 
1829;  growth  in  grace;  before  Amer.  Board, 
1829;  hymns,  selected,  1831;  on  pastoral  office; 
lives  of  patriarchs;  history  of  Israel;  house  of 
God;  the  people  of  God  led,  1842;  at  Washing 
ton  college,  1843;  sketches  in  regard  to  the  log 
college,  1845;  history  of  colonization  ;  outlines  of 
moral  science ;  introd.  to  Henry,  Bates,  Jay,  and 
Watcrbury;  practical  sermons;  letters  to  the 
aged ;  counsels  to  the  young ;  against  Universal- 
ism;  compend  of  Bible  truth;  on  experience; 
life  of  Baxter ;  of  Melville ;  of  Knox ;  way  of 
salvation,  with  various  other  tracts,  as  on  justifica 
tion  by  faith;  the  day  of  judgment;  and  the 
misery  of  the  lost.  His  life  by  his  son,  Dr.  J. 
W.  A.,  was  published  in  1854  by  C.  Scribner,  N. 

ALFORD,  ABIGAIL,  died  at  Northampton  Aug. 
26,  1756,  aged  102. 

ALICE,  a  slave,  died  in  Bristol,  Penn.,  in  1802, 
aged  116.  She  was  born  in  Philadelphia,  which 
place  she  remembered  as  chiefly  a  wilderness 
inhabited  by  Indians.  For  forty  years  she  was 
employed  in  ferrying.  She  retained  her  hearing, 
but  was  blind  at  the  age  of  one  hundred ;  though 
her  sight  was  gradually  restored.  Her  hair  be 
came  white.  Unable  to  read,  she  loved  to  have 
the  Bible  read  to  her.  A  worthy  member  of  the 
Episcopal  church,  she  anticipated  the  happiness  of 
dwelling  in  the  presence  of  her  Saviour. 

ALFORD,  JOHN,  founder  of  the  professorship 
of  natural  religion,  moral  philosophy,  and  civil 
polity  in  Harvard  college,  died  at  Charlestown 
Sept.  29,  1761,  aged  75.  He  had  been  a  member 
of  the  council.  His  executors  determined  the 
particular  objects,  to  which  his  bequest  for  charit 
able  uses  should  be  applied,  and  divided  it 
equally  between  Harvard  college,  Princeton  col 
lege,  and  the  society  for  the  propagation  of  the 
Gospel  among  the  Indians.  To  the  latter  10,6 
dollars  were  paid  in  1787.  Levi  Frisbie  was  the 
first  Alford  professor. 

ALLEN,  Jonx,  first  minister  of  Dcdham, 
Mass.,  was  born  in  England  in  1596,  and  was 


driven  from  his  native  land  during  the  persecution 
of  the  Puritans.  He  had  been  for  a  number  of 
years  a  faithful  preacher  of  the  Gospel.  Soon 
after  he  arrived  in  New  England,  he  was  settled 
pastor  of  the  church  in  Dedham  April  24,  1639. 
Here  he  continued  till  his  death  Aug.  26,  1671, 
aged  74.  He  was  a  man  of  great  meekness  and 
humility,  and  of  considerable  distinction  in  his 
day.  Mr.  Cotton  speaks  of  him  with  respect  in 
his  preface  to  Norton's  answer  to  Apollonius. 
He  published  a  defence  of  the  nine  positions,  in 
which,  with  Mr.  Shepard  of  Cambridge,  he  dis 
cusses  the  .points  of  church  discipline ;  and  a 
defence  of  the  Synod  of  1662,  against  Mr. 
Chauncy,  under  the  title  of  Animadversions  upon 
the  Antisynodalia,  4to,  1664.  This  work  is  pre 
served  in  the  New  England  library.  The  last 
two  sermons,  which  he  preached,  were  printed 
after  his  death.  —  Magnolia,  in.  132;  Prenliss' 
Funeral  Sermon  on  Haven. 

ALLEN,  THOMAS,  minister  of  Charlestown,  was 
born  at  Norwich  in  England,  in  1608,  and  was 
educated  at  Cambridge.  He  was  afterwards  min 
ister  of  St.  Edmond's  in  Norwich,  but  was 
silenced  by  bishop  Wren,  about  the  year  1636,  for 
refusing  to  read  the  book  of  sports  and  conform 
to  other  impositions.  In  1638  he  fled  to  New 
England,  and  was  the  same  year  installed  in 
Charlestown,  where  he  was  a  faithful  preacher  of 
the  Gospel  till  about  1651,  when  he  returned  to 
Norwich,  and  continued  the  exercise  of  his  minis 
try  till  1662.  He  afterwards  preached  to  his 
church  on  all  occasions,  that  offered,  till  his  death, 
Sept.  21,  1673,  aged  65.  He  was  a  very  pious 
man,  greatly  beloved,  and  an  able,  practical 

He  published  an  imitation  to  thirsty  sinners  to 
come  to  their  Saviour ;  the  way  of  the  Spirit  in 
bringing  souls  to  Christ ;  the  glory  of  Christ  set 
forth,  with  the  necessity  of  faith,  in  several  ser 
mons  ;  a  chain  of  Scripture  chronology  from  the 
creation  to  the  death  of  Christ,  in  seven  periods. 
This  was  printed  in  1658,  and  was  regarded  as  a 
very  learned  and  useful  work.  It  is  preserved  in 
the  New  England  library,  established  by  Mr. 
Prince,  by  whom  the  authors  quoted  in  the  book 
arc  written  in  the  beginning  of  it  in  his  own 
hand.  Mr.  Allen  wrote  also,  with  Mr.  Shepard,  in 
1645,  a  preface  to  a  treatise  on  liturgies,  &c.  com 
posed  by  the  latter.  He  contends,  that  only 
visible  saints  and  believers  should  be  received  to 
communion.  —  Magnal.  III.  215 ;  Nonconformists' 
Memorial,!.  254;  in.  11,  12. 

ALLEN,  MATTHEW,  one  of  the  first  settlers  of 
Connecticut,  came  to  this  country  with  Mr.  Hooker 
in  1632,  and  become  a  landholder  in  Cambridge, 
in  the  records  of  which  town  his  lands  and  houses 
are  described.  He  accompanied  Mr.  Hooker  to 
Hartford  in  1636,  and  was  a  magistrate.  In  the 
charter  of  1662  he  is  named  as  one  of  the  com- 




pany.  His  public  services  were  various.  In  1664 
he  is  called  Mr.  Allen,  senior.  He  might  have 
been  the  father  of  John.  There  was,  however,  a 
Mr.  Matthew  Allen,  a  magistrate,  in  1710 ;  another 
of  the  same  name  in  Windsor,  in  1732.  Trum- 
bell  gives  the  name  Allen;  but  Mather  wrote 

ALLEN,  JOIEV,  secretary  of  the  colony  of 
Connecticut,  was  chosen  a  magistrate  under  the 
charter  in  1662  and  treasurer  in  1663.  He  was 
on  the  committee,  with  Matthew  Allen  and  John 
Talcott,  respecting  the  union  with  New  Haven  in 
1663.  He  appears  to  have  been  secretary  as 
early  as  Dec.,  1664 ;  Joseph  Allen  had  been  sec 
retary  before  him.  He  was  also  secretary  in  1683 
and  on  the  committee  respecting  the  boundary  of 
New  York.  The  time  of  his  death  is  not  known. 
One  of  his  name  was  magistrate  as  late  as  1709. 
The  history  of  the  Pequot  war,  given  by  Increase 
Mather  in  his  Relation  in  1677,  w7as  not  written 
by  Mr.  Allen,  as  Judge  Davis  erroneously  sup 
poses,  but  merely  communicated  by  him  to  Mr. 
Mather.  —  Davis'  Morton,  196;  Prince's  Introd. 
to  Mason's  Hist. 

ALLEN,  JAMES,  minister  in  Boston,  came  to 
this  country  in  1662,  recommended  by  Mr.  Good 
win.  He  had  been  a  fellow  of  New  college, 
Oxford.  He  was  at  this  time  a  young  man,  and 
possessed  considerable  talents.  He  was  very 
pleasing  to  many  of  the  church  in  Boston,  and  an 
attempt  was  made  to  settle  him  as  assistant  to 
Mr.  Wilson  and  Mr.  Norton.  He  was  ordained 
teacher  of  the  first  church  Dec.  9,  1668,  as 
colleague  with  Mr.  Davenport,  who  was  at  the 
same  time  ordained  pastor.  After  the  death  of 
Mr.  Davenport,  he  had  for  his  colleague  Mr. 
Oxcnbridge,  and  after  his  decease  Mr.  Wadsworth. 

In  1669  seventeen  ministers  published  their 
testimony  against  the  conduct  of  Mr.  Allen  and 
Mr.  Davenport  in  relation  to  the  settlement  of 
the  latter.  They  were  charged  with  communica 
ting  parts  only  of  letters  from  the  church  of  New 
Haven  to  the  church  of  Boston,  by  which  means, 
it  was  said,  the  church  was  deceived ;  but  they  in 
defence  asserted,  that  the  letters  retained  did  not 
represent  things  differently  from  what  had  been 
stated.  The  whole  colony  was  interested  in  the 
controversy  between  the  first  and  the  new,  or  third 
church.  At  length  the  General  Court,  in  1670, 
declared  the  conduct  of  those  churches  and  elders, 
who  assisted  in  establishing  the  third  church,  to 
be  illegal  and  disorderly.  At  the  next  session, 
however,  as  there  was  a  change  of  the  members 
of  the  General  Court,  the  censure  was  taken  off. 
It  seems,  the  act  of  censure  was  expressed  in  lan 
guage  very  intemperate,  and  invasion  of  the  rights 
of  churches  and  assumption  of  prelatical  power 
were  declared  in  it  to  be  among  the  prevailing 
evils  of  the  day.  The  charge  was  so  general,  and 
it  threatened  to  operate  so  unfavorably  on  religion, 

that  a  number  of  the  very  ministers,  who  had 
published  their  testimony  against  the  elders  of 
the  first  church,  wrote  an  address  to  the  court, 
representing  the  intemperate  nature  of  the  vote ; 
and  it  was  in  consequence  revoked,  and  the  new 
church  was  exculpated.  Mr.  Allen  died  Sept. 
22,  1710,  aged  78  years.  His  sons  were  James, 
John,  and  Jeremiah,  born  in  1670,  1672,  and 
1673.  The  last  was  chosen  treasurer  of  the  prov 
ince  in  1715. 

He  published  healthful  diet,  a  sermon ;  New 
England's  choicest  blessings,  an  election  sermon, 
1679 ;  serious  advice  to  delivered  ones ;  man's 
self-reflection  a  means  to  further  his  recovery 
from  his  apostasy  from  God ;  and  two  practical 
discourses.  —  Hutchinson's  Hist,  of  Mass.  I.  173, 
222,  225,  270 ;  Collections  of  the  Hist.  Society, 
IX.  173 ;  Calami/. 

ALLEN,  SAMUEL,  a  merchant  of  London,  pro 
prietor  of  a  part  of  New  Hampshire,  made  the 
purchase  of  the  heirs  of  Mason  in  1691.  The 
territory  included  Portsmouth  and  Dover,  and 
extended  sixty  miles  from  the  sea.  The  settlers 
resisting  his  claims,  a  perplexing  litigation  fol 
lowed.  In  the  midst  of  it  Mr.  Allen  died  at 
Newcastle  May  5,  1705,  aged  69.  He  sustained 
an  excellent  character.  Though  attached  to  the 
church  of  England,  he  attended  the  Congregational 
meeting.  His  son,  Thomas  Allen  of  London, 
continued  the  suit.  The  final  verdict  was  against 
him,  in  1707,  in  the  case,  Allen  vs.  Waldron;  — 
he  appealed,  yet  his  death  in  1715,  before  the 
appeal  was  heard,  put  an  end  to  the  suit.  The 
principal  reliance  of  the  defendant  w'as  on  the 
Indian  deed  to  Wheelright  of  1629.  This  Mr. 
Savage  has  satisfactorily  showrn  to  be  a  forgery  of 
a  later  date.  If  so,  it  would  seem,  that  the 
Aliens  were  wrongfully  dispossessed  of  a  valuable 
province.  —  Belknap's  N.  II.  I. ;  Savage's  Win- 
tlirop,  I.  405 ;  N.  H.  Coll.  II.  137. 

ALLEN,  JAMES,  first  minister  of  Brookline, 
Mass.,  was  a  native  of  Roxbury,  and  was  gradua 
ted  at  Harvard  college  in  1710.  He  was  ordained 
Nov.  5,  1718,  and  after  a  ministry  of  twenty-eight 
years  died  of  a  lingering  consumption  Feb.  18, 
1747,  aged  55  years,  with  the  reputation  of  a 
pious  and  judicious  divine.  His  successors  were 
Cotton  Brown  from  1748  to  1751;  Nathaniel 
Potter  from  1755  to  1759;  Joseph  Jackson  from 
1760  to  1796 ;  and  John  Pierce  from  1797  to  1849. 
In  July,  1743,  he  gave  his  attestation  to  the  revival 
of  religion,  which  took  place  throughout  the 
country,  and  made  known  the  success,  which  had 
attended  his  own  exertions  in  Brookline.  Almost 
every  person  in  his  congregation  was  impressed 
in  some  degree  with  the  important  concerns  of 
another  world,  and  he  could  no  more  doubt,  he 
said,  that  there  was  a  remarkable  work  of  God, 
than  he  could,  that  there  was  a  sun  in  the 
heavens.  Afterwards,  from  peculiar  circumstances, 




perhaps  from  the  apostasy  of  some,  who  had  ap 
peared  strong  in  the  faith,  he  was  led  to  speak 
of  this  revival  "  unadvisedly  with  his  lips."  This 
produced  an  alienation  among  some  of  his  former 
friends.  In  his  last  hours  he  had  a  hope,  which 
he  would  not  part  with,  as  he  said,  for  a  thousand 

He  published  a  thanksgiving  sermon,  1722 ;  a 
discourse  on  Providence,  1727 ;  the  doctrine  of 
merit  exploded,  and  humility  recommended,  1727 ; 
a  fast  sermon,  on  the  earthquake,  1727  ;  a  sermon 
to  young  men,  1731 ;  a  sermon  on  the  death  of 
S.  Aspinwall,  1733;  an  election  sermon,  1744. 
—  Pierce's  Cent.  Discourse;  Christian  Hist.  I. 

ALLEN,  JAMES,  member  of  the  House  of 
Representatives  of  Massachusetts  a  number  of 
years,  and  a  councillor,  was  graduated  at  Harvard 
college  in  1717,  and  died  Jan.  8,  1755,  aged  57. 

In  the  beginning  of  1749  he  made  a  speech  in 
the  House,  censuring  the  conduct  of  the  governor, 
for  which  he  was  required  to  make  an  acknowl 
edgment.  As  he  declined  doing  this,  the  House 
issued  a  precept  for  the  choice  of  a  new  repre 
sentative.  When  re-elected,  he  was  not  permitted 
to  take  his  seat ;  but  next  year  he  took  it,  and 
retained  it  till  his  death.  —  Minofs  Hist.  Mass. 
I.  104-107. 

ALL  EX,  WILLIAM,  the  first  minister  of  Green 
land,  N.  II.,  died  in  1760,  aged  84.  A  graduate 
of  Harvard  in  1703,  and  settled  in  1707,  he  had 
been  a  minister  fifty-three  years.  Mr.JNIacClin- 
tock  became  his  colleague  in  17,36.  Before  his 
settlement  the  people  of  G.,  then  a  part  of 
Portsmouth,  were  accustomed  to  walk  six  or 
eight  miles  to  P.  to  meeting. 

ALLEN,  "WILLIAM,  chief  justice  of  Pennsyl 
vania,  was  the  son  of  William  Allen,  an  eminent 
merchant  of  Philadelphia,  who  died  in  1725. 
On  the  approach  of  the  Revolution  he  retired  to 
England,  where  he  died  Sept.,  1780.  His  wife 
•was  a  daughter  of  Andrew  Hamilton,  whom  he 
succeeded  as  recorder  of  Philadelphia  in  1741. 
He  was  much  distinguished  as  a  friend  to  litera 
ture.  He  patronized  Sir  Benjamin  West,  the 
painter.  By  his  counsels  and  exertions  Dr. 
Franklin  was  much  assisted  in  establishing  the 
college  in  Philadelphia.  He  published  the 
American  crisis,  London,  1774,  in  which  he  sug 
gests  a  plan  "for  restoring  the  dependence  of 
America  to  a  state  of  perfection."  His  principles 
seem  to  have  been  not  a  little  arbitrary.  On  his 
resignation  of  the  office  of  chief  justice,  to  which 
he  had  been  appointed  in  1750,  he  was  succeeded, 
till  the  Revolution,  by  Mr.  Chew,  attorney-general, 
and  Mr.  Chew  by  his  son,  Andrew  Allen.  This 
son  died  in  London  March  7,  1825,  aged  85.  At 
the  close  of  177G  he  put  himself  under  the 
protection  of  Gen.  Howe  at  Trenton,  with  his 
brothers  John  and  William.  He  had  been  a 

member  of  Congress  and  of  the  Committee  of 
Safety;  and  William  a  lieutenant-colonel  in  the 
continental  service,  but  in  1778  he  attempted  to 
raise  a  regiment  of  tories.  —  Miller's  Retrospect, 
n.  352;  Proud's  Hist.  of-Pcnnsylvania,ll.  188; 
Amer.  Remembrancer,  1777,  p.  56. 

ALLEN,  HEXRY,  a  preacher  in  Nova  Scotia, 
was  born  at  Newport,  R.  I.,  June  14,  1748,  and 
began  to  propagate  some  very  singular  sentiments, 
about  the  year  1778.  He  was  a  man  of  good 
capacity,  though  his  mind  had  not  been  much 
cultivated,  and  though  he  possessed  a  warm 
imagination.  He  believed,  that  the  souls  of  all 
men  arc  emanations  or  parts  of  the  one  great 
Spirit,  and  that  they  were  present  Avith  our  first 
parents  in  Eden  and  participated  in  the  first 
transgression  ;  that  our  first  parents  in  innocency 
were  pure  spirits  without  material  bodies ;  that 
the  body  will  not  be  raised  from  the  grave ;  and 
that  the  ordinances  of  the  Gospel  are  matters  of 
indifference.  The  Scriptures,  he  contended,  have 
a  spiritual  meaning,  and  are  not  to  be  understood 
in  a  literal  sense.  He  died  at  the  house  of  Rev. 
I).  M'Clurc,  Northampton,  N.  II.,  Eel).  2,  1784, 
aud  since  his  death  his  party  has  much  declined. 
He  published  a  volume  of  hymns;  and  several 
treatises  and  sermons.  —  Adams'  View  of  Re 
ligions  ,  Benedict,!..  282. 

ALLEN,  ETHAN,  brigadier-general,  was  born 
in  173.8,  in  Woodbury,  Conn.  His  ancestor, 
Nehcmiah,  was  a  brother  of  Samuel,  of  North 
ampton.  His  parents  removed  to  Salisbury ;  at 
an  early  age  he  himself  emigrated  to  Vermont. 
At  the  commencement  of  the  disturbances  in  this 
territory  about  the  year  1770  he  took  a  most 
active  part  in  favor  of  the  "  Green  Mountain  Boys," 
as  the  settlers  were  then  called,  in  opposition  to 
the  government  of  New  York.  An  act  of  out 
lawry  against  him  was  passed  by  this  State,  and 
50  pounds  were  offered  for  his  apprehension ;  but 
his  party  was  too  numerous  and  faithful  to  permit 
him  to  be  disturbed  by  any  apprehensions  for  his 
safety ;  in  all  the  struggles  of  the  day  he  was 
successful;  and  he  not  only  proved  a  valuable 
friend  to  thore,  whose  cause  he  had  espoused,  but 
he  was  humane  and  generous  towards  those,  with 
whom  he  had  to  contend.  When  called  to  take 
the  field,  he  showed  himself  an  able  leader  and 
an  intrepid  soldier. 

The  news  of  the  battle  of  Lexington  deter 
mined  Col.  Allen  to  engage  on  the  side  of  his 
country,  and  inspired  him  with  the  desire  of 
demonstrating  his  attachment  to  liberty  by  some 
bold  exploit.  While  his  mind  was  in  this  state,  a 
plan  for  taking  Ticonderoga  and  Crown  Point  by 
surprise  was  formed  by  Capts.  Edward  Mott  and 
Noah  Phelps,  of  Hartford,  Conn.  They  marched 
privately  April  29th,  with  sixteen  unarmed  men. 
Arriving  at  Pittsfield,  the  residence  of  Col.  James 
Easton  and  John  Brown,  Esq.,  they  communicated 




the  project  to  them  and  to  Col.  Ethan  Allen,  then 
at  Pittsfield.  These  gentlemen  immediately  en 
gaged  to  co-operate  and  to  raise  men  for  the  pur 
pose.  Of  the  Berkshire  men  and  the  "  Green  Moun 
tain  Boys  "  two  hundred  and  thirty  were  collected, 
under  the  command  of  Allen,  and  proceeded  to 
Castleton.  Here  he  was  unexpectedly  joined 
by  Col.  Arnold,  who  had  been  commissioned  by 
the  Massachusetts  committee  to  raise  four  hundred 
men  and  effect  the  same  object,  which  was  now 
about  to  be  accomplished.  As  he  had  not  raised 
the  men,  he  was  admitted  to  act  as  an  assistant  to 
Col.  Allen.  They  reached  the  lake  opposite 
Ticonderoga  Tuesday  evening,  May  9,  1775. 
With  the  utmost  difficulty  boats  were  procured, 
and  eighty-three  men  were  landed  near  the  gar 
rison.  The  approach  of  day  rendering  it  danger 
ous  to  wait  for  the  rear,  it  was  determined  imme 
diately  to  proceed.  The  commander-in-chief  now 
addressed  his  men,  representing,  that  they  had 
been  for  a  number  of  years  a  scourge  to  arbitrary 
power,  and  famed  for  their  valor,  and  concluded 
with  saying,  "  I  now  propose  to  advance  before 
you,  and  in  person  conduct  you  through  the 
wicket  gate,  and  you,  that  will  go  with  me  volun 
tarily  in  this  desperate  attempt,  poise  your  fire 
locks."  At  the  head  of  the  centre  file  he  marched 
instantly  to  the  gate,  where  a  sentry  snapped  his 
gun  at  him  and  retreated  through  the  covered 
way ;  he  pressed  forward  into  the  fort,  and  formed 
his  men  on  the  parade  in  such  a  manner  as  to 
face  two  opposite  barracks.  Three  huzzas  awoke 
the  garrison.  A  sentry,  who  asked  quarter, 
pointed  oat  the  apartments  of  the  commanding 
officer ;  and  Allen,  with  a  drawn  sword  over  the 
head  of  Capt.  De  la  Place,  who  was  undressed, 
demanded  the  surrender  of  the  fort.  "  By  what 
authority  do  you  demand  it?"  inquired  the 
astonished  commander.  "  I  demand  it,"  said 
Allen,  "  in  the  name  of  the  great  Jehovah  and  of 
the  Continental  Congress."  The  summons  could 
not  be  disobeyed,  and  the  fort,  with  its  very 
valuable  stores  and  forty-nine  prisoners,  was  im 
mediately  surrendered  on  May  10th.  There 
were  from  112  to  120  iron  cannon  from  6  to  24 
pounders,  2  brass  cannon,  50  swivels,  2  mortars, 
10  tons  of  musket  balls,  3  cartloads  of  flints,  10 
casks  of  powder,  30  new  carriages,  100  stand  of 
small  arms,  30  barrels  of  flour,  and  18  barrels  of 
pork.  Crown  Point  was  taken  the  same  day,  and 
the  capture  of  a  sloop  of  war  soon  afterwards 
made  Allen  and  his  brave  party  complete  masters 
of  Lake  Champlain.  May  18th,  Arnold  with 
thirty-five  men  surprised  the  fort  of  St.  John's  in 
Canada,  taking  fourteen  prisoners,  a  sloop,  and 
two  brass  cannon.  Allen,  arriving  the  same  day 
with  ninety  men,  resolved,  against  the  advice  of 
Arnold,  to  attempt  to  hold  the  place.  But  he  was 
attacked  the  next  day  by  a  larger  force  from 
Montreal,  and  compelled  to  retreat.  In  the  fall 

of  1775  lie  was  sent  twice  into  Canada,  to  observe 
the  dispositions  of  the  people,  and  attach  them, 
if  possible,  to  the  American  cause.  During  tin's 
last  tour  Col.  Brown  met  him,  and  proposed  an 
attack  on  Montreal  in  concert.  The  proposal  was 
eagerly  embraced,  and  Col.  Allen,  with  one  hun 
dred  and  ten  men,  nearly  eighty  of  whom  were 
Canadians,  crossed  the  river  in  the  night  of  Sept. 
24.  In  the  morning  he  waited  with  impatience 
for  the  signal  from  Col.  Brown,  who  agreed  to  co 
operate  with  him ;  but  he  waited  in  vain.  He 
made  a  resolute  defence  against  an  attack  of  five- 
hundred  men,  and  it  was  not  till  his  own  party 
was  reduced  by  desertions  to  the  number  of 
thirty-one,  and  he  had  retreated  near  a  mile,  that 
he  surrendered.  A  moment  afterwards  a  furious 
savage  rushed  towards  him,  and  presented  his 
firelock  with  the  intent  of  killing  him.  It  was 
only  by  making  use  of  the  body  of  the  officer,  to 
whom  he  had  given  his  sword,  as  a  shield,  that  he 
escaped  destruction.  This  rash  attempt  was  made 
without  authority  from  Gen.  Schuyler.  He  was 
kept  for  some  time  in  irons,  and  then  sent  to 
England  as  a  prisoner,  being  assured  that  the 
halter  would  be  the  reward  of  his  rebellion,  when 
he  arrived  there.  On  his  passage,  handcuffed 
and  fettered,  he  was  shut  up  with  his  fellow 
prisoners  in  the  cable  tier,  a  space  twelve  feet  by 
ten.  After  his  arrival,  about  the  middle  of  Decem 
ber,  he  was  lodged  for  a  short  time  in  Pcndennis 
castle,  near  Falmouth.  On  the  8th  of  Jan.,  1776, 
he  was  put  on  board  a  frigate  and  by  a  circuitous 
route  carried  to  Halifax.  Here  he  remained 
confined  in  the  gaol  from  June  to  October,  when 
he  was  removed  to  New  York.  During  the  pas 
sage  to  tin's  place,  Capt.  Burke,  a  daring  prisoner, 
proposed  to  kill  the  British  captain  and  seize  the 
frigate ;  but  Col.  Allen  refused  to  engage  in  the 
plot,  and  was  probably  the  means  of  preserving 
the  life  of  Capt.  Smith,  who  had  treated  him 
very  politely.  He  was  kept  at  New  York  about  a 
year  and  a  half,  sometimes  imprisoned,  and  some 
times  permitted  to  be  on  parole.  While  here,  he 
had  an  opportunity  to  observe  the  inhuman  man 
ner,  in  which  the  American  prisoners  were  treated. 
In  one  of  the  churches,  in  which  they  were 
crowded,  he  saw  seven  lying  dead  at  one  time,  and 
others  biting  pieces  of  chips  from  hunger.  He 
calculated,  that  of  the  prisoners,  taken  at  Long 
Island  and  Fort  Washington,  near  two  thousand 
perished  by  hunger  and  cold,  or  in  consequence 
of  diseases  occasioned  by  the  impurity  of  their 

Col.  Allen  was  exchanged  for  Col.  Campbell 
May  6,  1778,  and  after  having  repaired  to  head 
quarters  and  offered  his  services  to  Gen.  Wash 
ington  in  case  his  health  should  be  restored,  he 
returned  to  Vermont.  His  arrival,  on  the  evening 
of  the  last  of  May,  gave  his  friends  great  joy,  and 
it  was  announced  by  the  discharge  of  cannon. 



As  an  expression  of  confidence  in  his  patriotism 
and  military  talents,  he  was  very  soon  appointed 
to  the  command  of  the  State  militia.  It  does  not 
appear,  however,  that  his  intrepidity  was  ever 
again  brought  to  the  test,  though  his  patriotism 
was  tried  by  an  unsuccessful  attempt  of  the 
British  to  bribe  him  to  effect  a  union  of  Vermont 
with  Canada.  Sir  II.  Clinton  wrote  to  Lord 
Germaine,  Feb.,  1781,  "There  is  every  reason  to 
suppose,  that  Ethan  Allen  has  quitted  the  rebel 
cause."  He  died  of  apoplexy  at  his  estate  in 
Colchester  Feb.  13,  1789,  aged  51.  His  first  wife 
was  Mary  Brownson  of  Itoxbury ;  his  second  wife 
was  Frances,  daughter  of  Col.  Brush  of  the 
British  army,  whom  he  met  in  Boston  on  his 
return  from  his  captivity  in  England.  Her 
mother  was  the  daughter  of  James  Calcraft,  a 
soldier  and  a  schoolmaster,  whose  name  is  now 
changed  to  Schoolcraft.  After  his  death  she 
married  Dr.  Pcnniman  of  Colchester.  The 
names  of  the  other  children  of  Joseph,  Ethan's 
father,  were  Ileman,  Lydia,  Hebcr,  Levi,  Lucy, 
Zimri,  and  Ira ;  their  mother's  name  was  Remem 
brance  Baker.  His  daughter  Pamela  married  E. 
W.  Keyes,  Esq.,  in  1803.  Another  daughter 
entered  a  nunnery  in  Canada.  He  had  lived  for 
a  time  in  Sunderland.  It  was  his  project  to  make 
a*  city,  Vergennes,  a  mile  square.  His  son,  Capt. 
Ethan  A.  Allen,  formerly  of  the  army,  died  at 
Norfolk  Jan.  6,  1855 ;  his  grandson,  Col.  Hitch 
cock  of  the  army,  is  said  to  resemble  him.  From 
this  likeness  Kinncy's  statue  of  him  was  framed. 

Gen.  Allen  possessed  strong  powers  of  mind, 
but  they  never  felt  the  influence  of  education. 
Though  he  was  brave,  humane,  and  generous,  yet 
his  conduct  does  not  seem  to  have  been  much 
influenced  by  considerations  respecting  that  holy 
and  merciful  Being,  whose  character  and  whose 
commands  arc  disclosed  to  us  in  the  Scriptures. 
His  notions  with  regard  to  religion  Avere  such,  as 
to  prove  that  they,  who  rather  confide  m  their 
own  wisdom  than  seek  instruction  from  heaven, 
may  embrace  absurdities,  which  would  disgrace  the 
understanding  of  a  child.  He  believed,  with 
Pythagoras,  that  men  after  death  would  trans 
migrate  into  beasts,  birds,  fishes,  reptiles,  etc.,  and 
often  informed  his  friends,  that  he  himself  ex 
pected  to  live  again  in  the  form  of  a  large  white 

Besides  a  number  of  pamphlets  in  the  contro 
versy  with  New  York,  he  published  in  1779  a 
narrative  of  his  observations  during  his  captivity, 
which  was  afterwards  reprinted  ;  a  vindication  of 
the  opposition  of  the  inhabitants  of  Vermont  to 
the  government  of  New  York,  and  their  right  to 
form  an  independent  State,  1779;  and  Allen's 
theology,  or  the  oracles  of  reason,  1786.  Tin's 
last  work  was  intended  to  ridicule  the  doctrine  of 
Moses  and  the  prophets.  It  would  be  unjust  to 
bring  against  it  the  charge  of  having  effected 


great  mischief  in  the  Avorld,  for  few  have  had  the 
patience  to  read  it.  —  Allen's  Narrative;  Boston 
Weekly  Magazine,  II. ;  Holmes'  Annals,  n.  207; 
Williams'  Vermont;  Chronicle,  March  5,  1789; 
Marshall's  Wash.,  II.  203-;  III.  24;  Gordon,  II. 
13,  160;  Graham's  Vermont;  Encyc.  Amer. ; 
Du'ight's  Travels,  II.  409,  421 ;  Amer.  Eemenib., 
1778,  p.  50. 

ALLEN,  IRA,  first  secretary  of  Vermont,  the 
brother  of  Ethan,  was  born  at  Cornwall,  Conn, 
about  1752,  and  in  early  life  co-operated  with  his 
brother  in  the  controversy  between  Vermont  and 
New  York,  being  a  lieutenant  under  him.  He 
also  took  an  active  part  on  the  lakes  in  the  war 
of  1775.  Being  a  member  of  the  Legislature  in 
1776  and  1777,  he  was  zealous  in  asserting  the 
independence  of  Vermont.  In  Dec.,  1777,  he 
assisted  in  forming  the  constitution  of  Vermont; 
and  soon  afterwards  was  nominated  surveyor- 
general  and  treasurer.  He  and  Bradley  and  Fay 
were  commissioners  to  Congress  for  Vermont  in 
1780  and  1781.  In  the  politic  negotiations  with 
Canada  in  1781,  designed  to  protect  the  people 
of  the  "  New  Hampshire  grants  "  from  invasion, 
Mr.  Allen  and  Jonas  Fay  were  the  principal 
agents.  In  1789  he  drew  up  a  memorial  in  favor 
of  the  establishment  of  a  college  at  Burlington. 
Having  risen  to  the  rank  of  eldest  major-general 
of  the  militia,  he  proceeded  to  Europe  in 
Dec.,  1795,  to  purchase  arms,  by  the  advice  of  the 
governor,  for  the  supply  of  the  State,  but  as  a 
private  speculation  by  the  sale  of  his  lands,  of 
which  he  asserted,  that  he  and  the  heirs  of  Ethan 
held  nearly  three  hundred  thousand  acres.  He 
went  to  France  and  purchased  of  the  French  re 
public  twenty-four  brass  cannon  and  twenty 
thousand  muskets  at  twenty-five  livres,  expecting 
to  sell  them  at  fifty,  a  part  of  which  he  shipped 
at  Ostend  in  the  Olive  Branch ;  but  he  was  cap 
tured  Nov.  9,  1796,  and  carried  into  England.  A 
litigation  of  eight  years  in  the  court  of  admiralty 
followed.  He  Avas  charged  Avith  the  purpose  of 
supplying  the  Irish  rebels  Avith  arms.  In  1798 
he  Avas  imprisoned  in  France.  He  returned  to 
America  in  1801.  At  length  he  procured  a 
decision  in  his  favor.  His  residence,  when  in 
Vermont,  was  at  Colchester;  but  he  died  at 
Philadelphia  Jan.  7,  1814,  aged  62,  leaving  seA'eral 
children.  He  published  the  natural  and  political 
history  of  Vermont,  1798,  and  statements  appli 
cable  to  the  Olive  Branch,  Phila.  1807. — Pub. 
Char.,  1802,  p.  234-248;  Holmes,  II.  472;  Amer. 
Eememb.,  1782,  p.  351,  Part  II.  74. 

ALLEN,  TIMOTHY,  died  at  Chesterfield  Jan. 
12,  1806,  aged  91.  He  Avas  a  minister  of  note  in 
his  day.  A  graduate  of  Yale  in  1736,  he  Avas 
ordained  at  West  IlaA'en  in  1738,  and  dismissed 
in  1742.  In  the  time  of  Mr.  "Whitfield  he  was  a 
zealous  preacher,  as  mentioned  by  Trumbull. 
His  second  settlement  was  at  Ashford ;  his  last  at 


Chesterfield.  He  published  a  sermon  at  his  in 
stallation,  Ashford,  1761;  answer  to  Pilate's  ques 
tion;  the  main  point,  1166. 

ALLEN,  MOSES,  minister  of  Midway,  Ga.,  and 
a  distinguished  friend  of  his  country,  was  born  in 
Northampton,  Mass.,  Sept.  14,  1748.  He  was 
educated  at  the  college  in  New  Jersey,  where  he 
was  graduated  in  1772 ;  and  was  licensed  by  the 
Presbytery  of  New  Brunswick  Feb.  1,  1774,  and 
recommended  by  them  as  an  ingenious,  prudent, 
pious  man.  In  his  journal  of  this  year  he  speaks 
of  passing  a  few  days  in  December,  at  his  earnest 
request,  with  his  friend,  James  Madison,  in  Vir 
ginia,  at  the  house  of  his  father,  Col.  Madison, 
and  of  preaching  repeatedly  at  the  court  house, 
and  of  being  solicited  to  pass  the  winter  there. 
In  March  following  he  preached  first  at  Christ's 
church  parish,  about  twenty  miles  from  Charleston, 
in  South  Carolina.  Here  he  was  ordained 
March  16,  1775,  by  Mr.  Zubly,  Mr.  Edmonds,  and 
William  Tcnnent.  He  preached  his  farewell  ser 
mon  in  this  place  June  8,  1777,  and  was  soon 
afterwards  established  at  Midway,  to  which  place 
he  had  been  earnestly  solicited  to  remove. 

The  British  army  from  Florida  under  Gen. 
Prevost  dispersed  his  society  in  1778,  and  burned 
the  meeting  house,  almost  every  dwelling  house, 
and  the  crops  of  rice  then  in  stacks.  In  Decem 
ber,  when  Savannah  was  reduced  by  the  British 
troops,  he  was  taken  prisoner.  The  continental 
officers  were  sent  to  Sunbury  on  parole,  but  Mr. 
Allen,  who  was  chaplain  to  the  Georgia  brigade, 
was  denied  that  privilege.  His  warm  exhorta 
tions  from  the  pulpit  and  his  animated  exertions 
in  the  field  exposed  him  to  the  particular  resent 
ment  of  the  British.  They  sent  him  on  board  the 
prison  ships.  Wearied  with  a  confinement  of  a 
number  of  weeks  in  a  loathsome  place,  and  seeing 
no  prospect  of  relief,  he  determined  to  attempt 
the  recovery  of  his  liberty  by  throwing  himself 
into  the  river  and  swimming  to  an  adjacent 
point ;  but  he  was  drowned  in  the  attempt  on  the 
evening  of  Feb.  8,  1779,  aged  30.  His  body  was 
washed  on  a  neighboring  island,  and  was  found 
by  some  of  his  friends.  They  requested  of  the 
captain  of  a  British  vessel  some  boards  to  make 
a  coffin,  but  could  not  procure  them. 

Mr.  Allen,  notwithstanding  his  clerical  function, 
appeared  among  the  foremost  in  the  day  of  battle, 
and  on  all  occasions  sought  the  post  of  danger  as 
the  post  of  honor.  The  friends  of  independence 
admired  him  for  his  popular  talents,  his  courage, 
and  his  many  virtues.  The  enemies  of  indepen 
dence  could  accuse  him  of  nothing  more,  than  a 
vigorous  exertion  of  all  his  powers  in  defending 
the  rights  of  his  injured  country.  He  Avas 
eminently  a  pious  man.  —  Ramsay,  II.  6;  Hist. 
Coll.  IX.  157  ;  Allen's  Ser.  on  M.  Allen ;  Hart. 

ALLEN,  THOMAS,  brother  of  the  preceding 
and  first  minister  of  Pittsfield,  Mass.,  was  born 



Jan.  17,  1743,  at  Northampton,  of  which  town 
his  great-grandfather,  Samuel,  was  one  of  the  first 
settlers,  receiving  a  grant  of  land  from  the  town 
Dec.  17,  1657.  In  the  records  of  the  town  the 
name  is  written  variously,  Allen,  Allin,  Allyn,  and 
Alyn.  His  grandfather,  Samuel,  who  died  in 
1739,  was  a  deacon  of  the  church,  of  which 
Jonathan  Edwards  was  pastor.  His  father, 
Joseph,  who  died  Dec.  30,  1779,  and  his  mother, 
Elizabeth  Parsons,,  who  died  Jan.  10,  1800,  both 
eminent  for  piety,  were  the  steady  friends  of  Mr. 
Edwards  during  the  popular  commotion,  which 
caused  the  removal  of  that  excellent  minister. 
The  church  records  commend  her  character,  and 
say,  she  assisted  at  the  birth  of  three  thousand 

Through  the  bequest  of  an  uncle  of  his  father, 
—  Mr.  Thomas  Allen,  who  died  in  1754,  —  Mr. 
Allen  was  educated  at  Harvard  college,  where  he 
was  graduated  in  1762,  being  ranked  among  the 
best  classical  scholars  of  the  day. 

After  studying  theology  under  the  direction  of 
Mr.  Hooker  of  Northampton,  Mr.  Allen  was 
ordained  April  18, 17G4,  the  first  minister  of  Pitts- 
field,  so  named  in  honor  of  William  Pitt,  —  then 
a  frontier  town,  in  which  a  garrison  had  been 
kept  during  the  French  war.  The  Indian  name 
of  the  place  was  Pontoosuc.  At  the  time  of  his 
settlement  there  were  in  Pittsfield  but  half  a 
dozen  houses  not  made  of  logs.  He  lived  to  see 
it  a  rich  and  beautiful  town,  containing  nearly 
three  thousand  inhabitants.  During  a  ministry 
of  forty-six  years  he  was  unwearied  in  dispensing 
the  glorious  Gospel.  Besides  his  stated  labors  on 
the  Sabbath,  he  frequently  delivered  lectures,  and 
in  the  course  of  his  life  preached  six  or  seven 
hundred  funeral  sermons.  In  the  early  part  of 
his  ministry  he  also  occasionally  preached  in  the 
neighboring  towns,  not  then  supplied  with  settled 

The  same  benevolence,  which  awakened  his 
zeal  in  guiding  men  in  the  way  to  heaven,  made 
him  desirous  of  rendering  them  happy  also  in 
this  world.  His  charities  to  the  poor  excited 
their  gratitude  and  rendered  his  religious  instruc 
tions  the  more  effectual.  His  house  was  the  seat 
of  hospitality.  Towards  other  denominations  of 
Christians,  though  strict  in  his  own  principles,  he 
was  yet  exemplarily  candid,  neither  believing  that 
true  piety  was  confined  to  his  own  sect,  nor  that 
gentleness  and  forbearance  were  useless  in  the 
attempt  to  reclaim  men  from  error.  At  the  com 
mencement  of  the  American  Revolution,  like 
most  of  his  brethren,  he  engaged  warmly  in  the 
support  of  the  rights  and  independence  of  his 
country,  for  he  believed,  that  the  security  and  per 
manence  of  the  best  of  earthly  enjoyments,  as 
well  as  the  progress  of  genuine  religion,  were  in 
timately  connected  with  public  liberty.  Twice  he 
went  out  as  a  volunteer  chaplain  for  a  short 



time;  —  from  Oct.  3  to  Nov.  23,  1776,  ho  was 
absent  from  home,  with  the  army  at  White 
Plains,  near  New  York,  and  in  June  and  July, 
1777,  he  was  at  Ticonderoga.  On  the  retreat  of 
St.  Clair  before  Burgoyne  he  returned  home. 
But  the  next  month,  when  a  detachment  from 
Burgoyne's  troops  under  the  command  of  Col. 
Baum  had  penetrated  to  the  neighborhood  of 
Bennington,  and  threatened  to  desolate  the  coun 
try,  he  accompanied  the  volunteer  militia  of 
rittsficld,  who  marched  to  repel  the  invasion. 
Previously  to  the  assault  of  a  particular  intrench- 
ment,  which  was  filled  with  refugees,  he  deemed 
it  his  duty  to  advance  towards  the  enemy  and 
exhort  them  to  surrender,  assuring  them  of  good 
treatment,  in  a  voice  distinctly  heard  by  them ; 
but  being  fired  upon,  he  rejoined  the  militia,  and 
was  among  the  foremost,  who  entered  the  breast 
work.  His  exertions  and  example  contributed 
somewhat  to  the  triumph  of  that  day,  August 
16th,  which  checked  the  progress  of  the  British 
and  led  to  the  capture  of  Burgoyne.  After  the 
battle  he  found  a  Hessian  surgeon's  horse,  loaded 
with  panniers  of  bottles  of  wine.  The  wine  he 
administered  to  the  wounded  and  the  weary ;  but 
two  large  square  white  glass  bottles  he  carried 
home  with  him,  as  trophies  of  his  campaign  of 
three  or  four  days.  During  the  rebellion  of 
Shays,  which  extended  to  the  county  of  Berk 
shire,  Mr.  Allen  supported  the  authority  of  the 
established  government  of  Massachusetts.  The 
insurgents  at  one  period  threatened  to  seize  him 
and  carry  him  as  a  hostage  into  the  State  of  New 
York.  But  in  his  intrepidity  he  was  not  to  be 
shaken  from  his  purpose  and  his  duty.  He  slept 
with  arms  in  his  bedroom,  ready  to  defend  him 
self  against  the  violence  of  lawless  men.  In  the 
new  political  controversy,  which  sprung  up  after 
the  adoption  of  the  federal  constitution,  Mr.  Al 
len's  principles  attached  him  to  what  was  called 
the  Democratic  or  Republican  party.  Among  his 
parishioners  were  some,  who  were  tories  in  the 
revolutionary  war  and  who  remembered  with  no 
good  will  the  zeal  of  their  whig  minister ;  others 
were  furious  politicians,  partaking  fully  of  the 
malevolent  spirit  of  the  times,  intent  on  accom 
plishing  their  object,  though  with  the  weapons 
of  obloquy  and  outrage.  "  During  the  presidency 
of  Mr.  Jefferson,"  says  the  history  of  Berkshire, 
"  that  spirit  of  political  rancor,  that  infected  every 
class  of  citizens  in  this  country,  arraying  fathers, 
brothers,  sons,  and  neighbors  against  each  other, 
entered  even  the  sanctuary  of  the  church.  A 
number  of  Mr.  Allen's  church  and  congregation 
withdrew,  and  were  incorporated  by  the  legisla 
ture  into  a  separate  parish  in  1808 ;  thus  present 
ing  to  the  world  the  ridiculous  spectacle  of  a  church 
divided  on  party  politics  and  known  by  the  party 
names  of  the  day."  This  division  was,  however, 
healed  in  a  few  years  ;  though  not  until  after  the 


death  of  him,  whose  last  days  were  thus  em 
bittered,  as  well  as  by  domestic  afflictions  in  the 
loss  of  his  eldest  son  and  daughter. 

In  Mr.  Allen  the  strength  of  those  affections, 
which  constitute  the  charm  of  domestic  and  social 
life,  was  remarkable ;  giving  indeed  peculiar 
poignancy  to  the  arrows  of  affliction,  but  also 
swelling  in  a  high  degree  the  amount  of  good, 
found  in  the  pilgrimage  of  the  earth. 

After  the  death  of  his  brother  Moses  Allen  in 
1779,  he  took  a  journey  on  horseback  to  Savan 
nah,  out  of  regard  to  the  welfare  of  the  widow  and 
her  infant  son,  whom,  while  the  war  was  raging  at 
the  south,  he  placed  for  a  time  in  a  happy  refuge 
at  his  house.  Mr.  Allen's  first-born  daughter, 
who  married  William  P.  White  of  Boston,  died 
in  London,  leaving  an  infant,  unprotected  by  any 
relatives,  her  husband  being  then  in  the  East 
Indies.  Though  the  child  was  left  under  the  care 
of  a  very  respectable  gentleman,  who  was  con 
nected  with  its  father  in  large  mercantile  busi 
ness,  yet  such  was  his  solicitude  for  its  welfare, 
that  in  the  year  1799  he  encountered  the  dangers 
of  a  voyage  across  the  Atlantic  and  brought  his 
grandchild  home  to  his  own  family. 

He  sailed  in  the  ship  Argo,  Capt.  Rich. —  On 
the  voyage  many  fears  were  awakened  by  a  vessel 
of  force,  which  pursued  the  Argo,  and  was  sup 
posed  to  be  a  French  ship.  The  idea  of  a  prison 
in  France  was  by  no  means  welcome.  In  the 
expectation  of  a  fight  Mr.  Allen  obtained  the 
captain's  consent  to  offer  a  prayer  with  the  men 
and  to  make  an  encouraging  speech  to  them 
before  the  action.  The  frigate  proved  to  be 
British  ;  and  the  deliverance  was  acknowledged  in 
a  thanksgiving  prayer.  On  his  arrival  at  London 
he  was  received  with  great  kindness  by  his 
friends,  Mr.  liobert  Cowic  and  Mr.  llobert  Steel, 
and  was  made  acquainted  with  several  of  the  dis 
tinguished  evangelical  ministers  of  England ; 
with  Newton,  and  Ilawcis,  and  Rowland  Hill,  and 
Bogue,  and  others,  from  whom  he  caught  a  pious 
zeal  for  the  promotion  of  foreign  missions,  which 
on  his  return  he  diffused  around  him.  He 
regarded  the  London  missionary  society  as  the 
most  wonderful  work  of  Divine  Providence  in 
modern  times.  It  appears  from  his  journal,  that 
he  was  absent  from  Pittsfiekl  from  July  3d  to 
Dec.  30,  1799.  His  return  passage  was  boisterous 
and  extended  to  the  great  length  of  eighty-five 
days.  Among  other  objects  of  curiosity,  which 
attracted  his  attention  in  London,  he  went  to  .see 
the  king,  as  he  passed  from  St.  James'  to  the 
parliament  house  in  a  coach,  drawn  by  six  cream- 
colored  horses.  On  this  sight  he  recorded  the 
following  reflections  :  "  This  is  he,  who  desolated 
my  country ;  who  ravaged  the  American  coasts ; 
annihilated  our  trade ;  burned  our  towns ;  plun 
dered  our  cities ;  sent  forth  his  Indian  allies  to 
scalp  our  wives  and  children ;  starved  our  youth 


in  his  prison  ships ;  and  caused  the  expenditure 
of  a  hundred  millions  of  money  and  a  hundred 
thousand  of  precious  lives.  Instead  of  being  the 
father  of  his  people,  he  has  been  their  destroyer. 
May  God  forgive  him  so  great  guilt !  And  yet  he 
is  the  idol  of  the  people,  who  think,  they  cannot 
live  without  him."  In  this  journal  he  also  re 
corded  with  much  confidence  the  following  pre 
diction  :  "  This  country  will  work  the  subversion 
and  ruin  of  the  freedom  and  government  of  my 
country,  or  my  country  will  work  the  melioration 
if  not  the  renovation  of  this  country."  Late 
events  seem  to  prove,  that  the  example  of  Ameri 
can  liberty  has  not  been  without  a  beneficial  effect 
in  Great  Britain. 

His  health  had  been  declining  for  several  years 
before  his  death,  and  more  than  once  he  was 
brought  to  the  brink  of  the  grave.  For  several 
months  he  was  unable  to  preach.  He  was  fully 
aware  of  his  approaching  dissolution,  and  the 
prospects  of  eternity  brightened,  as  he  drew  near 
the  close  of  life.  Those  precious  promises,  which 
with  peculiar  tenderness  he  had  often  announced 
to  the  sick  and  dying,  were  now  his  support.  The 
all-sufficient  Saviour  was  his  only  hope ;  and  he 
rested  on  him  with  perfect  confidence.  He  was 
desirous  of  departing,  and  was  chiefly  anxious, 
lest  he  should  be  impatient, 

KnoAving  his  dependence  upon  God,  he  contin 
ually  besought  those,  who  were  around  his  bed, 
to  pray  for  him.  He  took  an  affecting  leave  of 
lu's  family,  repeating  his  pious  counsels  and  be 
stowing  upon  each  one  his  valedictory  blessing. 
"When  he  was.  reminded  by  a  friend  of  his  great 
labors  in  the  ministry,  he  disclaimed  all  merit  for 
what  he  had  done,  though  he  expressed  his 
belief,  that  he  had  plainly  and  faithfully  preached 
the  Gospel.  He  forgave  and  prayed  for  his 
enemies.  When  one  of  his  children,  a  day  or 
two  before  his  death,  pressed  him  to  take  some 
nourishment,  or  it  would  be  impossible  for  him  to 
live,  he  replied,  "Live?  I  am  going  to  live 
forever ! "  He  frequently  exclaimed,  "  Come, 
Lord  Jesus ;  come  quickly."  In  the  morning  of 
the  Lord's  day,  Feb.  11,  1810,  he  fell  asleep  in 
Jesus,  in  the  GSth  year  of  his  age  and  the  46th 
of  his  ministry.  Among  his  children,  who  have 
deceased  since  his  departure,  was  one  son,  who 
was  a  captain  in  service  during  the  Avar  of  1812. 
Another,  ])r.  Elisha  Lee  Allen,  officiated  as  sur 
geon  in  the  same  Avar  on  the  Niagara  frontier,  and 
was  retained  on  the  peace  establishment  May, 
1815.  His  account  of  the  battle  of  ChippeAva 
was  published  in  the  Boston  Centinel  Aug.  10, 
1814.  He  died  of  the  yclloAV  fever  at  Pas 
Christian,  near  New  Orleans,  Sept.  5,  1817. 
Another  son,  Prof.  Solomon  M.  Allen,  died  a  feAv 
days  afterwards,  Sept,  23,  1817.  And  Mrs. 
Piiplcy,  the  wife  of  Maj.-Gcn.  llipley,  died  at  the 
Bay  of  St.  Louis  of  the  yellow  fever  Sept.  11, 



1820.  Mr.  Allen's  Avidow,  Elizabeth,  died  March 
31,  1830,  aged  82  years.  She  Avas  the  daughter 
of  RCA-.  J.  Lee  of  Salisbury,  and  a  descendant 
from  GOAT.  Bradford. 

He  published  a  sermon  on  the  death  of  his 
daughter,  Elizabeth  White,  1798;  on  the  death 
of  Moses  Allen,  son  of  Hcv.  Moses  Allen,  1801 ; 
on  the  death  of  Anna  Collins,  1803 ;  on  the  death 
of  his  son  Thomas  Allen,  Jr.,  180G ;  election  ser 
mon,  1808.  Several  of  his  letters  on  the  sickness 
and  death  of  his  daughter  Avere  published  in  the" 
Edinburgh  Missionary  Magazine  for  Oct.  Nov.  and 
Dec.,  1199.  — Panoplist,- March,  1810;  Hist,  of 
Berkshire,  377;  Pittsfidd  Sun,  Feb.  21. 

ALLEN,  SOLOMON,  a  useful  minister  of  the 
Gospel,  brother  of  the  preceding,  Avas  born  at 
Northampton  Feb.  23,  1701.  He  and  four  of  his 
brothers  entered  the  army  in  the  ReA-olutionary 
Avar.  Of  these,  tAvo,  Moses  and  Thomas,  Avhose 
lives  are  here  recorded,  Avcrc  chaplains.  Another, 
Maj.  Jonathan  Allen,  after  escaping  the  perils  of 
the  sendee,  Avas  shot  by  his  companion,  Mr.  Seth 
Lyman,  Avhile  hunting  deer  in  a  deep  snoAv  in  the 
neighborhood  of  Northampton,  in  January,  1780, 
aged  42  years.  To  such  families  of  daring,  self- 
denying,  zealous  patriots  and  soldiers  America  is 
indebted,  through  the  blessing  of  God  on  their 
sacrifices  and  toils,  for  her  freedom  and  inde 

Mr.  Solomon  Allen,  in  the  course  of  the  war, 
rose  to  the  rank  of  major.  At  the  time  of  the 
capture  of  Andre  he  Avas  a  lieutenant  and  adju 
tant,  on  serA'ice  near  the  lines  not  far  from  NCAV 
York.  His  account  of  the  removal  of  Andre  to 
West  Point,  received  from  his  OAATI  lips,  will  cor 
rect  the  errors  of  the  other  accounts,  Avliich  have 
been  given  to  the  world.  When  the  British  spy 
was  brought  to  the  American  post,  Col.  Jameson 
ordered  Lieut.  Allen  to  select  a  guard  of  nine 
men  out  of  three  hundred,  who  were  detached 
from  West  Point  as  a  covering  party  to  Col.  Weld's 
(or  Sheldon's)  light  horse  on  the  hues  sixty  miles 
from  West  Point,  and  to  carry  the  prisoner  to  Gen. 
Arnold,  the  commanding  officer  at  West  Point, 
with  a  letter  from  Jameson  to  Arnold.  Just  at 
night,  Sept,  23,  1780,  he  set  out  Avith  his  prisoner, 
Avho  wore  an  old,  torn  crimson  coat,  nankeen  A'est, 
and  small  clothes,  old  boots  and  flapped  hat. 
Andre's  arms  being  bound  behind  him,  one  of  the 
soldiers  held  the  strap,  which  was  around  his 
arm,  and  the  guard  on  each  side  as  well  as  before 
and  behind  Avcre  ordered  to  run  him  through,  if 
he  attempted  to  escape.  Lieut,  Allen,  riding 
behind,  assured  Andre  of  good  treatment,  and 
offered,  if  he  should  be  tired,  to  dismount  and 
give  him  his  horse.  HaA'ing  thus  proceeded 
seven  miles,  AAith  much  cheerfulness  on  the  part 
of  the  prisoner,  an  express  overtook  them  Avith  a 
letter  from  Jameson  of  this  import,  that  as  the 
enemy  might  have  parties  landed  between  them 



and  West  Point,  Lieut.  Allen  was  ordered  to  leave 
the  river  road  and  take  the  prisoner  immediately 
over  east  to  lower  Salem  and  deliver  him  to  Capt. 
Hoogland,  commanding  there  a  company  of  light 
horse ;  then  to  take  one  of  the  guard  and  proceed 
with  Jameson's  letter  to  Arnold  at  West  Point, 
sending  the  eight  men  back  under  the  command 
of  the  sergeant.  The  guard  were  unwilling  to 
comply,  for  they  wished  to  get  back  to  West 
Point.'  They  said,  there  was  no  danger,  and  it 
would  be  best  to  proceed ;  and  Andre  seconded 
the  proposal.  lie  thought,  the  fear  of  a  rescue 
was  very  idle.  But  Lieut.  Allen  replied,  like  a 
soldier,  I  must  obey  orders.  From  this  moment 
Andre  appeared  downcast.  The  same  night 
Allen  delivered  him  to  Hoogland,  having  travelled 
twenty  miles.  In  the  morning  of  Sept.  24th  he 
proceeded  with  one  of  the  guard  to  West  Point, 
it  being  arranged,  that  Andre  should  soon  follow 
him ;  but  the  man  being  on  foot,  and  the  distance 
forty  or  fifty  miles,  they  did  not  arrive  till  the 
forenoon  of  the  25th,  at  llobinson's  house,  the 
east  side  of  the  river,  opposite  West  Point,  —  the 
residence  of  Arnold  and  the  quarters  of  the 
general  officers.  Arnold  was  in  the  buttery 
eating,  it  being  10  or  11  o'clock ;  on  receiving  the 
letter  from  Jameson  he  was  thrown  into  great 
confusion;  he,  however,  in  a  short  time  asked 
Lieut.  Allen  up  stairs  to  sit  with  Mrs.  Arnold, 
probably  to  keep  him  from  an  interview  with  the 
other  officers,  and  precipitately  left  the  house  and 
fled.  Such  was  Mr.  Allen's  statement.  Wash 
ington  soon  arrived,  at  12  o'clock  on  the  same 
day,  from  Hartford,  and  in  the  afternoon  the 
treason  was  discovered  by  the  arrival  of  the 
packet  from  Jameson  for  Washington ;  Andre 
was  brought  to  head-quarters  the  next  day.  On 
the  same  day  Adj.  Allen  was  invited  to  dine  at 
head-quarters ;  and  at  dinner  he  heard  Gen. 
Knox  remark,  "What  a  \eryfoTtunatc  discovery 
this  was!  Without  it  we  should  all  have  been 
cut  up."  To  which  Gen.  Washington  very 
gravely  and  emphatically  replied,  "  I  do  not  call 
this  a  fortunate  occurrence;  but  a  remarkable 
Providence! " 

After  the  war  Maj.  Allen  was  a  conspicuous 
officer  in  quelling  the  insurrection  of  Shays.  At 
the  age  of  forty  his  soul  was  conquered  by  the 
power  of  the  Gospel,  which  till  then  he  had 
resisted ;  in  a  few  years  afterwards  he  was  chosen 
a  deacon  of  the  church  of  Northampton.  As  his 
personal  piety  increased,  he  became  solicitous  to 
preach  the  Gospel  to  his  perishing  brethren. 
But,  at  the  age  of  fifty,  with  no  advantages  of 
education,  there  were  formidable  obstacles  in  his 
way.  The  ministers  around  him  suggested  dis 
couragements,  as  he  could  hardly  acquire  the 
necessary  qualifications.  But  his  pious  zeal  was 
irrepressible.  There  were  various  branches  of 
learning,  which  he  could  not  hope  to  gain ;  but 


"  one  thing  he  could  do ;  —  he  could  bend  all  the 
force  of  a  naturally  robust  intellect  to  the  work 
of  searching  the  Scriptures.  This  he  did,  and 
while  in  this  way  he  enriched  his  understanding 
from  their  abundant  treasures,  his  faith  was 
strengthened,  his  hope  brightened,  and  all  the 
Christian  graces  were  refreshed  from  that  fountain 
of  living  waters."  He  read  also  HOAVC'S  and 
Baxter's  works.  The  former  was  in  his  view  the 
greatest  of  uninspired  writers.  From  these 
sources  he  drew  his  theology.  He  wrote  out  a 
few  sermons,  and  thus  commenced  the  labor  of 
preaching,  at  first  in  a  few  small  towns  in 
Hampshire  county,  but  for  the  last  years  of  his 
life  in  the  western  part  of  the  State  of  New  York, 
in  Middletown  at  the  head  of  Canandaigua  Lake, 
in  Puga,  Pittsford,  Brighton,  and  other  towns  near 
the  Genesee  lliver.  Without  property  himself, 
he  preached  the  Gospel  to  the  poor,  and  was  per 
fectly  content  with  food  and  clothing,  demanding 
and  receiving  no  other  compensation  for  his  ser 
vices.  He  rejoiced  in  fatigues  and  privations  in 
the  service  of  his  blessed  Master.  Sometimes  in 
his  journeys  he  reposed  himself  with  nothing  but 
a  blanket  to  protect  him  from  the  inclemency  of 
the  weather.  But,  though  poor,  he  was  the  means 
of  enriching  many  with  the  inestimable  riches  of 
religion.  Four  churches  were  established  by 
him,  and  he  numbered  about  two  hundred  souls, 
as  by  his  preaching  reclaimed  from  perdition. 
Though  poor  himself,  there  were  those  connected 
with  him,  who  were  rich,  and  by  Avhose  liberality 
he  was  enabled  to  accomplish  his  benevolent  pur 
poses.  When  one  of  his  sons  presented  him 
with  a  hundred  dollars,  he  begged  him  to  receive 
again  the  money,  as  he  had  no  unsupplicd  wants 
and  knew  not  what  to  do  with  it ;  but,  as  he  was 
not  allowed  to  return  it,  he  purchased  with  it 
books  for  the  children  of  his  flock,  and  gave  every 
child  a  book.  From  such  sources  he  expended 
about  a  thousand  dollars  in  books  and  clothing 
for  the  people  in  the  wilderness,  while  at  the 
same  time  he  toiled  incessantly  in  teaching  them 
the  wray  to  heaven.  Such  an  example  of  dis 
interestedness  drew  forth  from  an  enemy  of  the 
Gospel  the  following  remark :  "  This  is  a  thing  I 
cannot  get  along  with  :  this  old  gentleman,  who 
can  be  as  rich  as  he  pleases,  comes  here  and  does 
all  these  things  for  nothing ;  there  must  be  some 
thing  in  his  religion." 

In  the  autumn  of  1820,  after  having  been  nearly 
twenty  years  a  preacher  in  the  new  settlements 
of  the  west,  his-  declining  health  induced  him  to 
bid  adieu  to  his  people,  in  order  to  visit  once 
more,  before  his  death,  his  children  and  friends 
in  Massachusetts  and  in  the  cities  of  New  York 
and  Philadelphia.  His  parting  with  his  church  at 
Brighton  was  like  the  parting  of  Paul  with  the 
elders  of  the  church  of  Ephesus.  Many  of  the 
members  of  the  church  accompanied  him  to  the 




boat,  and  tears  were  shed  and  prayers  offered  on 
the  shore  of  Lake  Ontario,  as  on  the  seacoast  of 
Asia  Minor.  Even  the  passengers  in  the  boat 
could  not  refrain  from  weeping  at  the  solemnity 
and  tenderness  of  the  scene.  It  was,  as  it  was 
apprehended  to  be,  the  last  interview  between  the 
beloved  pastor  and  his  people,  until  they  meet 
again  in  the  morning  of  the  resurrection  of  the 
just.  The  attachment  of  children  to  Mr.  Allen 
was  indeed  remarkable.  Wherever  he  went, 
children,  while  they  venerated  his  white  locks, 
would  cling  around  his  knees  to  listen  to  the 
interesting  anecdotes,  which  he  would  relate,  and 
to  his  warnings  and  instructions. 

Mr.  Allen  revisited  his  friends,  with  a  presenti 
ment,  that  it  was  his  last  visit.  lie  had  come,  he 
said,  "  to  set  his  house  in  order,"  alluding  to  his 
numerous  children  and  grandchildren,  living  in 
different  places.  It  was  his  custom  to  address 
them  first  individually,  then  collectively,  and  while 
a  heavenly  serenity  beamed  upon  his  countenance, 
he  pressed  upon  them  the  concerns  of  another 
world  with  plainness  and  simplicity,  with  pathos 
and  energy.  He  had  the  happiness  to  be  per 
suaded,  that  all  his  children,  excepting  one,  were 
truly  pious ;  and  concerning  that  one  he  had  the 
strongest  faith,  that  God  would  have  mercy  upon 
him.  After  ten  years  that  son  espoused  a  cause, 
which  he  never  before  loved,  and  manifested 
much  pious  zeal. 

At  Pittsfield,  where  some  of  his  relatives  lived 
and  where  his  brother  had  been  the  minister,  Mr. 
Allen  went  through  the  streets,  and,  entering  each 
house,  read  a  chapter  in  the  Bible,  exhorting  all 
the  members  of  the  family  to  serve  God,  and 
praying  fervently  for  their  salvation.  In  like 
manner  he  visited  other  towns.  He  felt,  that  the 
time  was  short,  and  he  was  constrained  to  do  all 
the  good  in  his  power.  With  his  white  locks  and 
the  strong  impressive  tones  of  his  voice,  and 
having  a  known  character  of  sanctity,  all  were 
awed  at  the  presence  of  the  man  of  God.  He 
went  about  with  the  holy  zeal  and  authority  of  an 
apostle.  In  prayer  Mr.  Allen  displayed  a  sub 
limity  and  pathos,  which  good  judges  have 
considered  as  unequalled  by  any  ministers,  whom 
they  have  known.  It  was  the  energy  of  true 
faith  and  strong  feeling.  In  November  he  arrived 
at  New  York,  and  there,  after  a  few  weeks,  he 
expired  in  the  arms  of  his  children  Jan.  20,  1821, 
aged  70  years.  At  his  funeral  his  pall  was  borne 
by  eight  clergymen  of  the  city. 

As  he  went  down  to  the  grave  he  enjoyed  an 
unbroken  serenity  of  soul,  and  rejoiced  and 
exulted  in  the  assured  hope  of  eternal  life  in  the 
presence  of  his  Redeemer  in  heaven.  Some  of 
his  last  memorable  sayings  have  been  preserved 
by  Rev.  Mr.  Danforth  in  his  sketch  of  his  last 
hours.  If  there  are  any  worldly-minded  ministers, 
who  neglect  the  sheep  and  lambs  of  the  flock,  — 

any,  who  repose  themselves  in  learned  indolence, 

—  any,  who  are  not  bold  to  reprove  and  diligent 
to  instruct,  —  any,  who  are  not  burning  with  holy 
zeal,  nor  strong  in  faith,  nor  fervent  and  mighty 
in  prayer ;   to  them  the  history  of  the  ministry 
and  faithfulness  of  Mr.  Allen  might  show  to  what 
a  height  of  excellence   and   honor  they  might 
reach,  did  they  but  possess  his  spirit. 

Mr.  Allen  published  no  writings  to  keep  alive 
his  name  on  earth.  He  did  not,  like  some  learned 
men,  spend  his  life  in  laboriously  doing  nothing. 
But  he  has  a  record  on  high ;  and  his  benevolent, 
pious,  zealous  toils  have  doubtless  gained  for  him 
that  honor,  which  cometh  from  God,  and  which 
will  be  green  and  flourishing,  when  the  honors  of 
science  and  of  heroic  exploits  and  all  the  honors 
of  earth  shall  wither  away.  In  his  life  there  is 
presented  to  the  world  a  memorable  example  of 
the  power  in  doing  good,  which  may  be  wielded 
by  one  mind,  even  under  the  most  unfavorable 
circumstances,  \vhen  its  energies  are  wholly 
controlled  by  a  spirit  of  piety.  Though  found  in 
deep  poverty,  such  a  pious  zeal  may  mould  the 
characters  of  those,  who  by  their  industry  and 
enterprise  acquire  great  wealth ;  and  thus  may  be 
the  remote  cause  of  all  their  extensive  charities. 
One  lesson  especially  should  come  home  to  the 
hearts  of  parents ;  teaching  them  to  hope  that  by 
their  faithfulness  and  the  constancy  and  impor 
tunity  of  prayer  all  their  offspring  and  a  multitude 
of  their  descendants  will  be  rendered  through  the 
faithfulness  and  mercy  of  God  rich  in  faith,  and  be 
made  wise  unto  salvation.  —  Sketch  of  his  last 
hours,  by  J.  N.  Danfortli ;  Sparks'  Letters  of 
Washington,  VII. 

ALLEN,  JONATHAN,  minister  of  Bradford,  died 
in  1827,  aged  77.  He  published  a  sermon  at  the 
ordination  of  B.  Thurston,  1786. 

ALLEN,  J:«IES,  a  poet,  was  born  at  Boston 
July  24,  1739.  It  was  his  misfortune  to  be  the 
son  of  a  merchant  of  considerable  wealth. 
From  youth  he  was  averse  to  study.  He  early 
adopted  free  notions  on  religion.  After  remaining 
three  years  at  college,  he  afterwards  lived  at  his 
ease  in  Boston,  without  business  and  without  a 
family,  displaying  much  eccentricity,  till  his  death 
,  Oct.,  1808,  aged  G9  years.  Had  he  been  without 
property,  he  might  have  been  impelled  to  some 
useful  exertion  of  his  powers.  He  wrote  a  few 
pieces  of  poetry — lines  on  the  Boston  massacre, 
at  the  request  of  Dr.  Warren,  the  Retrospect,  &c. 

—  Spec,  of  Amer.  Poetry,  I.  160. 

ALLEN,  WILLIAM  HENRY,  a  naval  officer,  was 
born  at  Providence,  R.  I.,  Oct.  21,  1784.  His 
father,  William  Allen,  was  a  major  in  the  Revolu 
tionary  army,  and  in  1799  appointed  brigadier- 
general  of  the  militia  of  the  State.  His  mother 
was  the  sister  of  Gov.  Jones.  Notwithstanding 
the  remonstrances  of  his  father,  who  wished  him 
!  to  cultivate  the  arts  of  peace,  he  entered  the  navy 



as  a  midshipman  in  1800  and  sailed  under  Bain- 
bridge   to   Algiers.     After   his  return   he  again 
sailed  for  the  Mediterranean  under  Barren  in  the 
Philadelphia;    the    third    time,  in    1802,   under 
Rodgers  in  the  frigate  John   Adams;    and  the 
fourth  time,  in  1804,  as  sailing  master  of  the  Con 
gress.     In  his  voyage,  while  the  ship  was  lying  to 
in  a  gale,  he  fell  from  the  fore  yard  into  the  sea, 
and  must  have  been  lost,  had  he  not  risen  close 
by  the  mizzen  chains,  on  which  he  caught  hold. 
Thus  was  he  by  a  kind  Providence  preserved. 
As  lieutenant  he  repaired  on  board  the  Constitu 
tion,   commanded    by   Ilodgers,   in  Oct.,    1805. 
During  the  cruise  he  visited  the  mountains  ^Etna 
and  Vesuvius   and  the  cities  Herculaneum  and 
Pompeii.     Returning  in  1806,  he  was  the  next 
year   on  board  the   Chesapeake,  when,  without 
fighting,   she   struck   her   colors  to   the   British 
frigate  Leopard,  —  an  event,  which  filled  him  with 
indignation.     He,  in  consequence,  drew  up  the 
letter  of  the  officers  to  the  secretary  of  the  navy, 
urging  the  arrest  and  trial  of  Com.  Barron  for 
neglect  of  duty.     During  the  embargo  of  1808 
he  cruised  off  Block  Island  for  the  enforcement 
of  the  law,  but  in  his  delicacy  got  excused  from 
boarding  in  person  any  vessel  from  his  native 
State.     In  1809  he  joined  the  frigate  United  States 
as  first  lieutenant  under  Decatur.     Soon  after  the 
declaration  of  Avar  in  1812  he  was  distinguished 
in  the  action,  Oct.  25th,  which  issued  in  the  capture 
of  the   Macedonian.     The  superior  skill  of  the 
United  States  in  gunnery  was  ascribed  to  the 
diligent  training  and  discipline  of  Lieut.  Allen. 
lie  carried  the  prize  safely  into  the  harbor  of 
New  York  amidst  the  gratulations  of  thousands. 
Promoted  to  be  master  commandant,  in  1813  he 
conveyed  Mr.  Crawford,  the  minister,  to  France 
in  the  brig  Argus,  and  afterwards  proceeded  to 
the  Irish  Channel,  agreeably  to  orders,  for  the 
purpose  of   destroying   the  English    commerce. 
His  success  was  so  great,  that  the  injury  inflicted 
by  him  upon  the  enemy  in  the  capture  of  twenty 
vessels  was  estimated  at  2,000,000   dollars.     In 
his  generosity  he  never  allowed  the  baggage  of 
passengers  to  be  molested.     On  the  14th  of  Aug. 
he  fell  in  with  the  British  brig  Pelican,  cruising 
in  the  channel  for  the  purpose  of  capturing  the 
Argus.     Soon  after  the  action  commenced,  Capt. 
Allen  was  mortally  wounded,  and  carried  below ; 
Lieut.  Watson  being  also  wounded,  the  command 
for  a  time  devolved  on  Lieut.  W.  H.  Allen,  Jr. 
After  a  vigorous  resistance  of  nearly  an  hour,  the 
Argus  was  captured,  with  the  loss  of  six  killed 
and  seventeen  wounded.     Capt.  Allen  was  carried 
into  Plymouth  the  next  day,  his  leg  having  been 
amputated  at  sea.     He  died  Aug.  15,  1813,  aged 
28  years,  and  was  buried  with  military  honors. 
Capt.  Allen  was  highly  respected  and  esteemed  in 
private  life,  exhibiting  a  uniform  courtesy  and 
amenity    of   manners.       With     great    care    he 


abstained  from  all  irritating  and  insulting  language. 
ile  united  the  milder  graces  with  the  stern  and 
masculine  character  of  tLe  sailor.  The  eager 
desire  of  fame,  called  "  the  last  infirmity  of  noble 
minds,"  seemed  to  reign  in  his  heart.  Against 
the  wishes  of  all  his  friends  he  entered  the  naval 
service,  thirsting  for  honor  and  distinction,  of 
which  he  had  his  share ;  but  in  early  manhood  he 
died  a  prisoner  in  a  foreign  land.  If  there  must 
be  victims  to  war,  we  could  wish  the  defenders  of 
their  country's  rights  a  higher  reward  than  fame. 
Bailey's  Naval  Biography,  205-226. 

ALLEN,  SOLOMON  METCALF,  professor  of  lan 
guages  in  Micldlebury  college,  Vermont,  was  the 
son  of  Rev.  T.  Allen  of  Pittsfield,  and  was  born 
Feb.  18,  1789.  lie  received  his  second  name  on 
account  of  his  being  a  descendant  on  his  mother's 
side  of  Rev.  Joseph  Metcalf,  first  minister  of 
Falmouth.  His  father  destined  him  to  be  a 
farmer,  as  he  was  athletic  and  fond  of  active  life ; 
but,  after  he  became  pious,  his  friends  being 
desirous  that  he  should  receive  a  collegial  edu 
cation,  he  commenced  the  study  of  Latin  at  the 
age  of  twenty.  In  1813  he  graduated  at  Middle- 
bury  with  high  reputation  as  a  scholar.  During 
a  year  spent  at  Andover,  besides  attending  to  the 
customary  studies,  he  read  a  part  of  the  New 
Testament  in  the  Syriac  language.  After  officiat 
ing  for  two  years  as  a  tutor,  he  was  chosen  in 
1816  professor  of  the  ancient  languages,  having 
risen  to  this  honor  in  seven  years  after  commencing 
the  study  of  Latin.  He  lived  to  accomplish  but 
little,  but  long  enough  to  show  what  the  energy 
of  pious  zeal  is  capable  of  accomplishing. 
Respected  and  beloved  by  all  his  associates  and 
acquaintance,  his  sudden  and  awful  death  over 
whelmed  them  with  sorrow.  Being  induced,  on 
account  of  a  defect  in  the  chimney,  to  go 
imprudently  upon  the  roof  of  the  college  building, 
he  fell  from  it  Sept.  23,  1817,  and  in  consequence 
died  the  same  evening,  aged  28  years.  In  his 
last  hours  his  numerous  friends  crowded  around 
him,  "  watching  with  trembling  anxiety  the  flight 
of  his  immortal  soul  to  the  kindred  spirits  of  a 
better  world."  Under  the  extreme  anguish  of  his 
dying  moments,  resigning  the  loveliness,  which  he 
had  hoped  would  be  shortly  his  own,  and  all  the 
fair  prospects  of  this  world,  he  exclaimed :  "  The 
Lord  reigneth,  let  the  earth  rejoice !  O  Father, 
thy  will  be  done!  So  seemcth  it  good  in  thy 
sight,  O  Lord."  Professor  Frederic  Hall  has 
described  his  frank  and  noble  character  and  his 
many  virtues,  the  tenderness  of  his  heart  and  his 
energy  of  mind.  Another  writer  speaks  of  his 
unwearied  perseverance  and  unconquerable  reso 
lution,  and  says :  "  His  march  to  eminence  was 
steady,  rapid,  and  sure.  Whether  he  turned  his 
attention  to  the  abstruse  and  profound  branches 
of  mathematical  science  or  to  the  stores  of  ancient 
classical  learning,  he  solved  every  problem  and 


overcame  every  obstacle  with  equal  facility  and 
triumph."  Mr.  Allen  was  at  Andover  one  of 
"  the  group  of  stars,"  the  friends  of  Carlos  Wilcox, 
alluded  to  by  him  in  the  following  lines.  The 
others  were  Sylvester  Lamed,  Alexander  M. 
Fisher,  Levi  Parsons,  Pliny  Fisk,  and  Joseph  R. 
Andrus ;  all  recorded  in  this  volume.  These, 
with  Mr.  Allen  and  Mr.  Wilcox,  all  young  men, 
no  longer  shine  on  the  earth ;  but,  it  is  believed, 
they  make  a  constellation  of  seven  stars,  like  the 
Pleiades,  resplendent  in  heaven.  May  there  be 
in  future  many  such  groups  in  our  theological 

"  Ye  were  a  group  of  stars  collected  here, 
Some  mildly  glowing,  others  sparkling  bright ; 
Here,  rising  in  a  region  calm  and  clear, 
Ye  shone  awhile  with  intermingled  light ; 
Then,  parting,  each  pursuing  his  own  flight 
O'er  the  wide  hemisphere,  ye  singly  shone; 
But,  ere  ye  climbed  to  half  your  promised  height, 
Ye  sunk  again  with  brightening  glory  round  you  thrown, 
Each  left  a  brilliant  track,  as  each  expired  alone." 

—  HalVs  Eulogy;  Wilcox 's  Remains,  90;  Na 
tional  Standard,  Oct.  1,  1817. 

ALLEN,  PAUL,  a  poet,  was  born  at  Providence, 
R.  I.,  Feb.  15, 1775  ;  his  father,  Paul  Allen,  being 
a  representative  in  the  legislature,  and  his  mother 
the  daughter  of  Gov.  Cook.  He  was  graduated 
at  Brown  university  in  1796  and  afterwards 
studied,  but  never  practised,  law.  Devoted  to 
literature,  he  removed  to  Philadelphia  and  was 
engaged  as  a  writer  in  the  Port-Folio  and  in  the 
United  States  Gazette,  and  was  also  employed  to 
prepare  for  the  press  the  travels  of  Lewis  and 
Clark.  After  this  he  was  for  some  time  one  of  the 
editors  of  the  Federal  Republican  at  Baltimore  ; 
but  on  quitting  this  employment  he  found  him 
self  in  impaired  health  and  extreme  indigence, 
with  a  widowed  mother  dependent  on  him  for 
support.  In  his  mental  disorder,  he  believed 
that  he  was  to  be  waylaid  and  murdered.  To 
the  disgrace  of  our  laws  he  was  thrown  into  jail 
for  a  debt  of  30  dollars.  About  this  time  he 
wrote  for  the  Portico,  a  magazine,  associated  with 
Pierpont  and  Neal.  His  friends  procured  for 
him  the  establishment  of  the  Journal  of  the 
Times,  and  afterwards  of  the  Morning  Chronicle, 
which  was  widely  circulated.  Having  long  and 
frequently  advertised  a  history  of  the  American 
Revolution,  of  which  he  had  written  nothing,  it 
was  now  determined  to  publish  it,  an  unequalled 
subscription  having  been  obtained.  The  work 
appeared  in  two  vols.  in  his  name,  but  was  written 
by  Mr.  John  Neal  and  Mr.  Watkins  ;  Neal  writing 
the  first  vol.,  beginning  with  the  Declaration  of 
Independence.  His  principal  poem,  called  Noah 
which  has  simplicity  and  feeling,  was  also  sub 
mitted  to  Mr.  Neal,  and  reduced  to  one-fifth  of 
its  original  size,  lie  died  at  Baltimore  in  Aug. 
1826,  aged  51  years.  He  published  origina 
poems,  serious  and  enter taining,  1801.  A  long 



extract  from  Noah  is  in  Specimens  of  American 
Poetry.  —  Spec.  American  Poetry,  II.  185. 

ALLEN,  RICHARD,  first  bishop  of  the  Afri- 
an  Methodist  Episcopal  church,  died  at  Philadel 
phia  March  26,  1831,  aged  71. 

ALLEN,  BEXJAMIX,  Rector  of  St.  Paul's  church, 
Philadelphia,  died  at  sea  in  the  brig  Edward  on 
his  return  from  Europe  Jan.  27,  1829.  He  had 
been  the  editor  of  the  Christian  Magazine,  and 
was  a  disinterested,  zealous  servant  of  God. 

ALLEN,  JEXXIXGS,  died  in  Fail-field  district, 
S.  C.,  Jan.,  1835,  aged  114;  a  soldier  of  the  rev 
olutionary  army. 

ALLEN,  EPHRAEVI,  died  in  Salem,  N.  Y.,  in 
1816;  a  graduate  of  Harvard  in  1789,  and  re 
spected  as  a  physician.  His  wife  was  a  daughter 
of  Gen.  Newhall. 

ALLEN,  HARRISOX,  missionary  among  the 
Choctaws,  died  at  Eliot  Aug.  19,  1831,  aged  39. 
Born  in  Chilmark,  he  graduated  at  Bowdoin  in 
1824,  at  Andover  seminary  in  1828.  He  arrived 
at  Eliot  Jan.,  1830. 

ALLEN,  BEXJAMIX,  LL.  D.,  died  at  Hyde 
Park,  N.  Y.,  July  22,  1836,  aged  65 ;  once  pro 
fessor  of  mathematics  at  Union  College,  and  long 
the  eminent  head  of  a  classical  school  at  Hyde 

ALLEN,  MYRA,  wife  of  D.  O.  Allen,  mission 
ary  at  Bombay,  died  suddenly,  Feb.  5,  1831,  aged 
30.  She  was  the  daughter  of  Col.  Abel  Wood 
of  Westminster,  Mass. ;  a  devoted  and  useful  mis 
sionary  for  the  short  period  of  three  years.  Her 
character  is  described  in  the  Miss.  Herald  for 
1831  and  1832. 

ALLEN,  ORPAH,  missionary,  wife  of  1).  O. 
Allen,  died  at  Bombay  June  5,  1842.  Her  name 
was  Graves,  of  Rupert,  Vt.  She  went  to  Bombay 
in  1834  and  was  married  in  1838. 

ALLEN,  AZUBA,  wife  of  D.  O.  Allen,  mission 
ary  at  Bombay,  died  June  11,  1843.  Her  name 
was  Condit.  She  left  New  York  with  her  sister, 
Mrs.  Nevins,  in  1836,  and  lived  some  time  in 
Batavia  and  Borneo  before  her  marriage  in  Dec., 
1842.  She  died  in  peace  and  triumph. 

ALLEN,  SARAH  Jonxsox,  wife  of  William 
Allen,  died  at  Northampton  Feb.  25,  1848,  aged 
57 ;  a  daughter  of  John  M.  Breed,  a  merchant 
of  Norwich,  Conn.  —  While  unmarried,  she  and 
Sarah  L.  Iluntington,  afterwards  married  to  Dr. 
Eli  Smith,  established  and  conducted  a  Sabbath 
school  among  the  Mohegan  Indians  near  Nor 
wich.  In  the  result  a  church  was  built  at  their 
residence  in  Montville,  at  which  Gen.  William 
Williams  was  accustomed,  last  year,  to  visit  them 
every  Sabbath  as  their  teacher. 

ALLEN,  JOSEPH,  died  at  Worcester  Sept.  2, 
1827,  aged  78.  Born  in  Boston,  his  mother  was 
a  sister  of  Samuel  Adams.  He  was  a  merchant 
in  Leicester,  a  benefactor  and  treasurer  of  the 
academy.  In  1776  he  removed  to  Worcester,  and 




sustained  various  public  offices,  —  was  clerk  of  the 
courts,  a  councillor,  a  member  of  congress,  twice 
one  of  the  electors  of  president.  His  sons  were 
Charles  and  George  Allen. 

ALLEN,  HEMAN,  died  in  Burlington,  Vt,  Dec. 
11,  1844,  a  brother  of  Ethan  A.,  and  a  member 
of  congress.  He  was  also  minister  to  Chili. 

ALLEN,  JONATHAN,  died  at  Pittsfield,  May  26, 
1845,  aged  72.  He  was  the  son  of  Ilev.  T.  Allen, 
and  had  been  a  senator  of  Massachusetts.  He 
greatly  promoted  the  interests  of  agriculture  by 
introducing  into  Berkshire  an  excellent  flock  of 
Spanish  merino  sheep,  for  which  sole  object  he 
crossed  the  ocean. 

ALLEN,  SAMUEL  C.,  died  at  Northfield  Feb. 
8,  1845.  A  graduate  of  Dartmouth  in  1794,  he 
was  the  minister  of  N.  in  1795;  but  withdrew 
from  the  pulpit  and  studied  law.  For  twelve 
years  he  was  a  member  of  congress.  He  pub 
lished  an  oration  July  4,  180G ;  eulogy  on 
President  John  Whcelock,  delivered  at  Hanover 
Aug.  17,  1817. 

ALLERTON,  ISAAC,  one  of  the  first  settlers 
of  Plymouth,  came  over  in  the  first  ship,  the  May 
flower.  His  name  appears  the  fifth  in  the  agree 
ment  of  the  company,  signed  at  Cape  Cod,  Nov. 
11,  1620.  There  were  six  persons  in  his  family. 
Mary,  his  wife,  died  Feb.  25,  1621.  His  daugh 
ter,  Mary,  married  Elder  T.  Cushman,  son  of 
Robert  C.,  and  died  in  1699,  aged  about  90, 
the  last  survivor  of  those,  who  came  over  in  the 
Mayflower.  —  Sarah  married  Moses  Maverick  of 
Marblehead.  In  the  summer  or  autumn  of  1626 
he  went  to  England  as  agent  for  the  colony ;  and 
he  returned  in  the  spring  of  1627,  having  condi 
tionally  purchased  for  his  associates  the  rights  of 
the  adventurers  for  1800  pounds,  the  agreement 
being  signed  Nov.  15,  1626,  and  also  hired  for 
them  200  pounds,  at  30  per  cent,  interest,  and  ex 
pended  it  in  goods.  He  took  a  second  voyage  as 
agent  in  1627  and  concluded  the  bargain  with  the 
company  at  London  Nov.  6,  accomplishing  also 
other  objects,  particularly  obtaining  a  patent  for 
a  trading  place  in  the  Kennebec.  Judge  Davis 
erroneously  represents,  that  Mr.  Prince  dates  the 
departure  of  Mr.  Allerton  in  the  autumn  ;  but  Mr. 
Prince  speaks  only  of  his  going  "  with  the  return 
of  the  ships,"  probably  June  or  July.  The  voyage 
of  the  preceding  year  he  regards  as  made  "  in  the 
fall ;  "  also  the  third  voyage  in  1628,  for  the  pur 
pose  of  enlarging  the  Kennebec  patent.  After 
his  return  in  August,  1629,  he  proceeded  again 
to  England  and  with  great  difficulty  obtained  the 
patent  Jan.  29,  1630.  A  fifth  voyage  was  made 
in  1630,  and  he  returned  the  following  year  in 
the  ship  White  Angel.  He  was  an  enterprising 
trader  at  Penobscot  and  elsewhere.  In  1633  he 
•was  engaged  in  "  a  trading  wigwam,"  which  was 
lost  at  Machias.  A  bark  of  his  was  lost  on  Cape 
Ann  in  1635,  and  twenty-one  persons  perished, 

among  whom  were  John  Avery,  a  minister,  his 
wife,  and  six  children.  The  rock  is  called  "  Avery's 
fall."  From  1643  to  1659  he  lived  at  New  Haven, 
and  probably  traded  with  the  Dutch  at  New  York. 
In  1653  he  received  mackerel  from  Boston  to  sell 
for  half  profits,  and  is  called  J.  Allerton,  senior.  — 
Point  Alderton  in  Boston  harbor  is  supposed  to 
be  named  from  him.  —  His  second  wife,  whom  he 
married  before  1627,  and  who  died  of  "  the  pest 
ilent  fever  "  in  1634,  was  Fear  Brcwster,  daughter 
of  Elder  Brewster,  who  had  another  daughter, 
Love,  and  a  son,  Wrestling.  It  seems,  that  he 
was  married  again ;  for  coming  from  New  Haven 
in  1644,  he  was  cast  away  with  his  wife  Johanna 
at  Scituate,  but  was  saved.  He  died  in  1659 ;  his 
widow  in  1684.  His  son  Isaac  was  graduated  in 
1650 :  —  Elizabeth,  his  daughter,  married  B.  Starr 
and  S.  Eyre.  Davis1  Morton,  38,  221, 389,  391 ; 
Mass.  His.  Coll.  III.  46 ;  Prince,  242 ;  Savage's 
Winthr.  I.  25;  II.  210;  /.  Mathers'  Rem.  Prov. 

ALLISON,  FRANCIS,  D.  D.,  assistant  minister 
of  the  first  Presbyterian  church  in  Philadelphia, 
was  born  in  Ireland  in  1705.  After  an  early 
classical  education  at  an  academy  he  completed 
his  studies  at  the  university  of  Glasgow.  He 
came  to  this  country  in  1735,  and  was  soon  ap 
pointed  pastor  of  a  Presbyterian  church  at  New 
London  in  Chester  county,  Penn.  Here,  about 
the  year  1741,  his  solicitude  for  the  interests  of 
the  Redeemer's  kingdom  and  his  desire  of  en 
gaging  young  men  in  the  work  of  the  ministry 
and  of  promoting  public  happiness  by  the  diffu 
sion  of  religious  liberty  and  learning  induced  him 
to  open  a  public  school.  There  was  at  this  time 
scarcely  a  particle  of  learning  in  the  middle 
States,  and  he  generally  instructed  all,  that  came 
to  him,  without  fee  or  reward.  —  About  the  year 
1747  he  was  invited  to  take  the  charge  of  an 
academy  in  Philadelphia;  in  1755  he  was  elected 
vice  provost  of  the  college,  which  had  just  been 
established,  and  professor  of  moral  philosophy. 
He  was  also  minister  in  the  first  Presbyterian 
church.  In  the  discharge  of  the  laborious  duties, 
which  devolved  upon  him,  he  continued  till  his 
death  Nov.  28,  1777,  aged  72. 

Besides  an  unusually  accurate  and  profound 
acquaintance  with  the  Latin  and  Greek  classics, 
he  was  well  informed  in  moral  philosophy,  history, 
and  general  literature.  To  his  zeal  for  the  diffu 
sion  of  knowledge  Pennsylvania  owes  much  of 
that  taste  for  solid  learning  and  classical  literature, 
for  which  many  of  her  principal  characters  have 
been  so  distinguished.  The  private  virtues  of  Dr. 
Allison  conciliated  the  esteem  of  all  that  knew 
him,  and  his  public  usefulness  has  erected  a  last 
ing  monument  to  his  praise.  For  more  than 
forty  years  he  supported  the  ministerial  character 
with  dignity  and  reputation.  In  his  public  ser 
vices  he  was  plain,  practical,  and  argumentative ; 
warm,  animated,  and  pathetic.  He  was  greatly 


honored  by  the  gracious  Redeemer  in  being 
made  instrumental,  as  it  is  believed,  in  the  salva 
tion  of  many,  who  heard  him.  lie  was  frank  and 
ingenuous  in  his  natural  temper ;  warm  and  zeal 
ous  in  his  friendships ;  catholic  in  his  sentiments ; 
a  friend  to  civil  and  religious  liberty.  His  benev 
olence  led  him  to  spare  no  pains  nor  trouble  in 
assisting  the  poor  and  distressed  by  his  advice 
and  influence,  or  by  his  own  private  liberality.  It 
was  he,  who  planned  and  was  the  means  of  estab 
lishing  the  widows'  fund,  which  was  remarkably 
useful.  He  often  expressed  his  hopes  in  the 
mercy  of  God  unto  eternal  life,  and  but  a  few 
days  before  his  death  said  to  Dr.  Ewing,  that  he 
had  no  doubt,  but  that  according  to  the  gospel 
covenant  he  should  obtain  the  pardon  of  his  sins 
through  the  great  Redeemer  of  mankind,  and 
enjoy  an  eternity  of  rest  and  glory  in  the  presence 
of  God.  —  He  published  a  sermon  delivered  be 
fore  the  synods  of  New  York  and  Pennsylvania 
May  24,  1758,  entitled,  peace  and  unity  recom 
mended. —  Assembly's  Miss.  Mag.  1.  457 — 361; 
Miller's  Retrospect,  II.  342;  Holmes'  Life  of 
Stiles,  98,  99. 

ALLISON,  PATRICK,  D.  D.,  first  minister  of  the 
Presbyterian  church  in  Baltimore,  was  born  in 
Lancaster  county  in  1740,  educated  at  the  college 
of  Philadelphia,  and  installed  in  17G2  at  Balti 
more,  where  he  remained  in  eminent  usefulness 
till  his  death  Aug.  21,  1802,  aged  61.  His  few 
publications  were  in  favor  of  civil  and  religious 

ALLSTON,  JOSEPH,  general,  was  elected  gov 
ernor  of  South  Carolina  in  1812.  He  died  at 
Charleston  Sept.  10,  1816,  aged  38.  His  wife, 
the  daughter  of  Col.  Aaron  Burr,  was  lost  at  sea 
on  her  passage  from  Charleston  to  New  York  in 

ALLSTON,  WILLIAM,  colonel,  senator  in  the 
first  congress,  died  at  Charleston  June  26,  1839, 
aged  82.  One  of  the  largest  owners  of  his  fellow 
men  in  the  State,  his  slaves  cultivated  his  paternal 
estate  near  Georgetown.  He  was  an  officer 
under  Marion ;  and  the  father  of  Gov.  A. 

ALLSTON,  WASHINGTON,  a  very  distinguished 
painter,  died  at  Cambridge  July  9, 1843,  aged  63. 
He  was  born  of  a  respected  family  in  Charleston, 
S.  C.,  Nov.  5,  1779.  After  being  in  the  school 
of  R.  Rogers,  Newport,  he  graduated  at  Harvard 
in  1800.  He  was  early  fond  of  music,  painting, 
and  poetry.  In  order  to  cultivate  his  taste  for 
painting  he  sold  his  patrimonial  estate,  and 
entered  in  1801  the  Royal  Academy  in  London, 
of  which  Benjamin  West,  an  American,  was  the 
president.  In  1804  he  passed  over  to  Paris  and 
thence  to  Italy.  Thus  he  was  eight  years  in 
Europe,  studying  the  works  of  the  great  masters, 
and  enjoying  the  friendship  of  poets  and  painters 
in  England  and  Italy.  Among  his  friends  were 
the  poets  Wordsworth,  Southey,  and  Coleridge ; 



and  among  the  painters  Reynolds,  West,  and 

In  1809  he  returned  to  America,  and  the  next 
year  delivered  a  poem  at  Cambridge  at  the  annual 
meeting  of  the  Phi  Beta  Kappa  society,  when  the 
writer  of  this  had  the  honor  of  being  his  literary 
associate,  and  of  delivering  the  prose  address  on 
that  occasion;  and  after  the  lapse  of  forty-six 
years  I  remember  well  his  ample  locks,  and  fine, 
interesting,  animated,  spiritual  countenance.  At 
this  period  he  married  the  sister  of  Dr.  Channing. 
The  years  from  1811  to  1818  he  also  spent  in 
England,  where  he  published  in  1813  the  sylphs 
of  the  seasons  and  other  poems.  God  afflicted 
him  by  bereaving  him  of  his  wife ;  but  led  him  to 
seek  earnestly  the  permanent  consolations  of  re 
ligion.  His  faith  was  strong  in  the  incarnation 
of  the  Son  of  God ;  and  he  had  recourse  to  the 
sacraments  of  the  church. 

On  his  return  in  1818  he  made  Boston  his 
home ;  but  soon  built  him  a  house  and  studio  in 
Cambridge,  where  he  married  a  daughter  of  Judge 
Dana  in  1830.  His  principal  works  as  a  painter 
were,  "  the  dead  man  restored  to  life  by  Elijah," 
"  the  angel  liberating  Peter  from  prison,"  "  Jacob's 
dream,"  "  Elijah  in  the  desert,"  "  the  angel  Uriel 
in  the  sun,"  "  Saul  and  the  witch  of  Endor," 
"  Spalatro's  vision  of  the  bloody  hand,"  "  Gabriel 
setting  the  guard  of  the  heavenly  host,"  "  Anna 
Page  and  Slender,"  "  Beatrice,"  and  "  Belshazzar's 
Feast," — his  last  work.  He  died  suddenly.  He 
possessed  a  powerful  and  brilliant  imagination ; 
and  as  a  colorist  he  was  called  the  American 
Titian.  His  brother,  William  Moore  A.,  died  at 
Newrport  in  1844,  aged  62.  Receiving  by  the  will 
of  his  father  a  young  slave,  named  Diana,  he 
emancipated  her,  and  she  became  the  mother  of 
freemen  in  Charleston.  His  faith  in  the  atone 
ment  and  his  Christian  character  were  commended 
in  a  sermon  by  Mr.  Albro  of  Cambridge.  Besides 
his  poems,  he  also  published  Monaldi,  a  prose 
tale ;  lectures  on  art  and  poems,  with  a  preface 
by  Mr.  Dana,  N.  Y.,  1850. 

ALLYN,  MATTHEW,  judge,  died  at  Windsor, 
Conn.,  in  1758,  aged  97.  He  was  a  colonel,  a 
councillor,  a  judge  of  the  supreme  court. 

ALLYN,  JOHN,  D.  D.,  the  minister  of  Duxbury, 
died  July  19,  1833,  aged  66.  He  was  born  in 
Barnstable,  and  was  a  graduate  of  1785  ;  ordained 
in  1788.  Benj.  Kent  was  his  colleague  in  1826. 
A  memoir  by  C.  Francis,  his  son-in-law,  is  in 
Hist.  Coll.  III.,  vol.  5. 

He  published  a  sermon  at  the  ordination  of 
A.  Bradford,  1793;  at  thanksgiving,  1798;  at 
Hanover,  1799;  at  Plymouth,  1801;  at  election, 
1805  ;  at  New  Year's,  1806 ;  Christian  Monitor, 
1806,  being  prayers,  &c. ;  at  Sandwich,  1808 ;  also 
two  charges,  and  obituary  notices  of  Drs.  West 
and  Barnes. 

ALSOP,  GEORGE,  published  "a  character  of 



the  province  of  Maryland,"  describing  the  laws, 
customs,  commodities,  usage  of  slaves,  &c. ;  also 
"  a  small  treatise  of  the  wild  and  native  Indians, 
&c."  London,  1GG6,  pp.  118. 

ALSOP,  RICHARD,  a  poet,  the  son  of  Richard 
A.  and  Mary  Wright,  was  born  in  Middletown, 
Conn.,  in  1759,  and  was  a  merchant,  as  was  his 
father.  He  died  at  Flatbush,  L.  I.,  Aug.  20, 
1815,  aged  56  years,  with  a  character  of  correct 
morality.  Several  of  his  poetical  compositions 
are  preserved  in  the  volume  entitled  "  American 
Poetry."  In  1800  he  published  a  monody,  in 
heroic  verse,  on  the  death  of  Washington,  and 
in  1808  a  translation  from  the  Italian  of  a  part 
of  Berni's  Orlando  Inamorato,  under  the  title  of 
the  Fairy  of  the  Enchanted  Lake.  He  published 
also  several  prose  translations  from  the  French 
and  Italian,  among  which  is  Molini's  history  of 
Chili,  with  notes,  4  vols.  8  vo.,  1808.  This  was 
republished  in  London  without  acknowledgment 
of  its  being  an  American  translation.  In  1815  he 
published  the  narrative  of  the  captivity  of  J.  R. 
Jewitt  at  Nootka  Sound.  The  Universal  Receipt 
Book  was  compiled  also  by  him.  Among  numer 
ous  unpublished  works,  left  by  him,  is  the  poem 
called  The  Charms  of  Fancy.  He  wrote  for 
amusement,  and  made  but  little  effort  for  literary 
distinction ;  yet  his  powers  were  above  the  com 
mon  level.  With  a  luxuriant  fancy  he  had  a 
facility  of  expression.  In  1791  the  Echo  was 
commenced  at  Hartford,  being  a  series  of  bur 
lesque,  poetic  pieces,  designed  at  first  to  ridicule 
the  inflated  style  of  Boston  editors.  The  plan 
was  soon  extended,  so  as  to  include  politics.  The 
writers  were  Alsop,  Theodore  Dwight,  Hopkins, 
Trumbull,  and  others,  called  the  "Hartford  wits." 
This  was  republished  with  other  poems  in  1807. 
Alsop  wrote  more  of  the  Echo  than  any  other 
contributor  ;  also  the  Political  Greenhouse  in  the 
same  volume.  His  mother,  who  had  been  a 
widow  about  fifty  years,  died  in  Oct.,  1829,  aged 
90.  Mr.  A.'s  widow  married  Samuel  W.  Dana, 
a  member  of  Congress ;  one  sister  married 
Theodore  Dwight,  and  another  married  Mr. 
Ililey  of  New  York.  —  Spec.  Amcr.Poet.  n. 

AMERICUS  VESPUCIUS,  or  more  properly 
Amerigo  Vespucci,  a  Florentine  gentleman,  from 
whom  America  derives  its  name,  was  born  March 
9,  1451,  of  an  ancient  family.  His  father,  who 
was  an  Italian  merchant,  brought  him  up  in  this 
business,  and  his  profession  led  him  to  visit  Spain 
and  other  countries.  Being  eminently  skilful  in 
all  the  sciences  subservient  to  navigation,  and 
possessing  an  enterprising  spirit,  he  became 
desirous  of  seeing  the  new  world,  which  Columbus 
had  discovered  in  1492.  He  accordingly  entered 
as  a  merchant  on  board  the  small  fleet  of  four 
ships,  equipped  by  the  merchants  of  Seville  and 
sent  out  under  the  command  of  Ojeda.  The 
enterprise  was  sanctioned  by  a  royal  license. 


According  to  Amerigo's  own  account  he  sailed 
from  Cadiz  May  20,  1497,  and  returned  to  the 
same  port  October  15,  1498,  having  discovered 
the  coast  of  Paria  and  ,passed  as  far  as  the  Gulf 
of  Mexico.  If  this  statement  is  correct,  he  saw 
the  continent  before  Columbus ;  but  its  correct 
ness  has  been  disproved ;  and  the  voyage  of 
Ojeda  was  not  made  until  1499,  which  Amerigo 
calls  his  second  voyage,  falsely  representing  that 
he  himself  had  the  command  of  six  vessels.  He 
sailed  May  20,  1499,  under  the  command  of 
Ojeda,  and  proceeded  to  the  Antilla  Islands,  and 
thence  to  the  coast  of  Guiana  and  Venezuela,  and 
returned  to  Cadiz  in  Nov.,  1500.  After  his 
return  Emanuel,  king  of  Portugal,  who  was 
jealous  of  the  success  and  glory  of  Spain,  invited 
him  to  his  kingdom,  and  gave  him  the  command 
of  three  ships  to  make  a  third  voyage  of  discovery. 
He  sailed  from  Lisbon  May  10,  1501,  and  ran 
down  the  coasts  of  Africa  as  far  as  Sierra  Leone 
and  the  coast  of  Angola,  and  then  passed  over  to 
Brazil  in  South  America,  and  continued  his  dis 
coveries  to  the  south  as  far  as  Patagonia.  He 
then  returned  to  Sierra  Leone  and  the  coast  of 
Guinea,  and  entered  again  the  port  of  Lisbon 
Sept,  7,  1502. 

King  Emanuel,  highly  gratified  by  his  success, 
equipped  for  him  six  ships,  with  which  he  sailed 
on  his  fourth  and  last  voyage  May  10,  1503.  It 
was  his  object  to  discover  a  western  passage  to 
the  Molucca  Islands.  He  passed  the  coasts  of 
Africa,  and  entered  the  Bay  of  All  Saints  in 
Brazil.  Having  provision  for  only  twenty  months, 
and  being  detained  on  the  coast  of  Brazil  by  bad 
weather  and  contrary  winds  five  months,  he 
formed  the  resolution  of  returning  to  Portugal, 
where  he  arrived  June  14,  1504.  As  he  carried 
home  with  him  considerable  quantities  of  the 
Brazil  wood,  and  other  articles  of  value,  he  was 
received  with  joy.  It  was  soon  after  this  period, 
that  he  wrote  an  account  of  his  four  voyages. 
The  work  was  dedicated  to  Rene  II.,  duke  of  Lor 
raine,  who  took  the  title  of  king  of  Sicily,  and 
Avho  died  Dec.  10,  1508.  It  was  probably  pub 
lished  about  the  year  1507,  for  in  that  year  he 
went  from  Lisbon  to  Seville,  and  King  Ferdinand 
appointed  him  to  draw  sea  charts,  with  the  title 
of  chief  pilot.  He  died  at  the  island  of  Tercera 
in  1514,  aged  about  63  years,  or,  agreeably  to 
another  account,  at  Seville,  in  1512. 

As  he  published  the  first  book  and  chart 
describing  the  new  world,  and  as  he  claimed  the 
honor  of  first  discovering  the  continent,  the  new 
world  has  received  from  him  the  name  of 
America.  His  pretensions,  however,  to  this  first 
discovery  do  not  seem  to  be  well  supported  against 
the  claims  of  Columbus,  to  whom  the  honor  is 
uniformly  ascribed  by  the  Spanish  historians,  and 
who  first  saw  the  continent  in  1498.  Ilerrera, 
who  compiled  his  general  history  of  America 




from  the  most  authentic  records,  says,  that 
Amerigo  never  made  but  two  voyages,  and  those 
were  with  Ojeda  in  1499  and  1501,  and  that  his 
relation  of  his  other  voyages  was  proved  to  be  a 
mere  imposition.  This  charge  needs  to  be  con 
firmed  by  strong  proof,  for  Amerigo's  book  was 
published  within  ten  years  of  the  period  assigned 
for  his  first  voyage,  when  the  facts  must  have  been 
fresh  in  the  memories  of  thousands.  Besides  the 
improbability  of  his  being  guilty  of  falsifying 
dates,  as  he  was  accused,  which  arises  from  this 
circumstance,  it  is  very  possible,  that  the  Spanish 
writers  might  have  felt  a  national  resentment 
against  him  for  having  deserted  the  service  of 
Spain.  But  the  evidence  against  the  honesty  of 
Amerigo  is  very  convincing.  Neither  Martyr  nor 
Bcnzoni,  who  were  Italians,  natives  of  the  same 
country,  and  the  former  of  whom  was  a  contem 
porary,  attribute  to  him  the  first  discovery  of  the 
continent.  Martyr  published  the  first  general 
history  of  the  new  world,  and  his  epistles  contain 
an  account  of  all  the  remarkable  events  of  his 
time.  All  the  Spanish  historians  are  against 
Amerigo.  Herrera  brings  against  him  the  testi 
mony  of  Ojeda  as  given  in  a  judicial  inquiry. 
Fonseca,  who  gave  Ojeda  the  license  for  his 
voyage,  was  not  reinstated  in  the  direction  of 
Indian  affairs  until  after  the  time,  which  Amerigo 
assigns  for  the  commencement  of  his  first  voyage. 
Other  circumstances  might  be  mentioned;  and 
the  whole  mass  of  evidence  it  is  difficult  to  resist. 
The  book  of  Amerigo  was  probably  published 
about  a  year  after  the  death  of  Columbus,  when 
his  pretensions  could  be  advanced  without  the 
fear  of  refutation  from  that  illustrious  navigator. 
But  however  this  controversy  may  be  decided,  it 
is  well  known,  that  the  honor  of  first  discovering 
the  continent  belongs  neither  to  Columbus  nor 
to  Vespucci,  even  admitting  the  relation  of  the 
latter;  but  to  the  Cabots,  who  sailed  from 
England.  A  life  of  Vespucci  was  published  at 
Florence  by  Bandini,  174,3,  in  which  an  attempt 
is  made  to  support  his  pretensions. 

The  relation  of  his  four  voyages,  which  was 
first  published  about  the  year  1507,  was  re- 
published  in  the  Novus  Orbis,  fol.  1555.  His 
letters  were  published  after  his  death  at  Florence. 
—  Moreri,  Did.  Historique;  New  and  Gen. 
Biog.  Diet. ;  Robertson's  8.  America  I.  Note  22  ; 
Holmes'  Annals,  I.  16;  Herrera,  I.  221;  Prince, 
Introd.  80-82  ;  Irving's  Columbus,  III.  App.  9. 

AMES,  NATHANIEL,  a  physician,  died  at  Ded- 
ham,  Mass.,  in  1765,  aged  57.  He  had  published 
for  about  forty  years  an  almanac,  which  was  in 
high  repute.  His  taste  for  astronomy  he  acquired 
from  his  father,  Nathaniel  Ames,  of  Bridgewater, 
who  died  in  1736,  and  who  was  not,  as  Dr.  Eliot 
supposed,  a  descendant  of  the  famous  William 
Ames,  lie  married  two  wives,  each  of  the  name 
of  Fisher.  His  most  distinguished  sou  bore  that 

1  name.  His  son,  Dr.  Nathaniel  Ames,  a  graduate 
of  1761,  died  at  Dedham  in  1822,  aged  82 ;  an 
other  son,  Dr.  Seth  Ames,  a  graduate  of  1764, 
settled  at  Amherst,  N.  II.,  but  removed  to  Ded 
ham,  where  he  died  in  1776.  His  widow,  who 
married  Mr.  Woodward,  died  in  1818,  aged  95. 
Mass.  Hist.  Coll.  N.  S.  vn.  154;  Hist.  Coll.  N. 
H.  n.  79. 

AMES,  FISHER,  LL.  D.,  a  distinguished  states 
man  and  eloquent  orator,  was  the  son  of  the  pre 
ceding,  and  Avas  born  at  Dedham  April  9,  1758. 
He  was  graduated  at  Harvard  college  in  1774, 
I  and  after  a  few  years  commenced  the  study  of  the 
I  law  in  Boston.  lie  began  the  practice  of  his  pro 
fession  in  his  native  village  ;  but  his  expansive  mind 
could  not  be  confined  to  the  investigation  of  the 
law.  Rising  into  life  about  the  period  of  the 
American  Revolution,  and  taking  a  most  affection 
ate  interest  in  the  concerns  of  his  country,  he  felt 
himself  strongly  attracted  to  politics.  His  re 
searches  into  the  sciences  of  government  were 
extensive  and  profound,  and  he  began  to  be  known 
by  political  discussions,  published  in  the  newspa 
pers.  A  theatre  soon  presented  for  the  display 
of  his  extraordinary  talents.  He  was  elected  a 
member  of  the  convention  of  his  native  state, 
which  considered  and  ratified  the  federal  consti 
tution  ;  and  his  speeches  in  this  convention  were 
indications  of  his  future  eminence.  The  splendor 
of  his  talents  burst  forth  at  once  upon  his  coun 

When  the  general  government  of  the  United 
States  commenced  its  operations  in  1789,  he  ap 
peared  in  the  national  legislature  as  the  first  rep 
resentative  of  his  district,  and  for  eight  successive 
years  he  took  a  distinguished  part  in  the  national 
councils.  He  was  a  principal  speaker  in  the  de 
bates  on  every  important  question.  Towards  the 
close  of  this  period  his  health  began  to  fail,  but 
his  indisposition  could  not  prevent  him  from  en 
gaging  in  the  discussion  relating  to  the  appropri 
ations  necessary  for  carrying  into  effect  the  British 
treaty.  Such  was  the  effect  of  his  speech  of 
April  28,  1796,  that  one  of  the  members  of  the 
legislature,  who  was  opposed  to  Mr.  Ames,  rose 
and  objected  to  taking  a  vote  at  that  time,  as  they 
had  been  carried  away  by  the  impulse  of  oratory. 
After  his  return  to  his  family,  frail  in  health  and 
fond  of  retirement,  he  remained  a  private  citizen. 
For  a  few  years  however  he  was  persuaded  to  be 
come  a  member  of  the  council.  But,  though  he 
continued  chiefly  in  retirement,  he  operated  far 
around  him  by  his  writings  in  the  public  papers. 
A  few  years  before  his  death  he  was  chosen  pres 
ident  of  Harvard  college,  but  the  infirm  state  of 
his  health  induced  him  to  decline  the  appoint 
ment.  He  died  on  the  morning  of  July  4,  1808. 
His  wife,  Frances  Worthington,  was  the  daughter 
of  John  Worthington,  of  Springfield.  He  left 
seven  children ;  his  only  daughter  died  in  1829. 



Mr.  Ames  possessed  a  mind  of  a  great  and  ex 
traordinary  character.  He  reasoned,  but  he  did 
not  reason  in  the  form  of  logic.  By  striking  allu 
sions,  more  than  by  regular  deductions,  he  com 
pelled  assent.  The  richness  of  his  fancy,  the 
fertility  of  his  invention,  and  the  abundance  of 
his  thoughts  were  as  remarkable  as  the  justness 
and  strength  of  his  understanding.  His  political 
character  may  be  known  from  his  writings,  and 
speeches,  and  measures.  He  was  not  only  a  man 
of  distinguished  talents,  whose  public  career  was 
splendid,  but  he  was  amiable  in  private  life  and 
endeared  to  his  acquaintance.  To  a  few  friends 
he  unveiled  himself  without  reserve.  They  found 
him  modest  and  unassuming,  untainted  with  am 
bition,  simple  in  manners,  correct  in  morals,  and 
a  model  of  every  social  and  personal  virtue.  The 
charms  of  his  conversation  were  unequalled. 

He  entertained  a  firm  belief  in  Christianity,  and 
his  belief  was  founded  upon  a  thorough  investi 
gation  of  the  subject.  He  read  most  of  the  best 
writings  in  defence  of  the  Christian  religion,  but 
he  was  satisfied  by  a  view  rather  of  its  internal 
than  its  external  evidences.  He  thought  it  im 
possible,  that  any  man  of  a  fair  mind  could  read 
the  Old  Testament  and  meditate  on  its  contents 
without  a  conviction  of  its  truth  and  inspiration. 
The  sublime  and  correct  ideas,  which  the  Jewish 
scriptures  convey  of  God,  connected  with  the  fact 
that  all  other  nations,  many  of  whom  were  supe 
rior  to  the  Jews  in  civilization  and  general  im 
provement,  remained  in  darkness  and  error  on 
this  great  subject,  formed  in  his  new  a  conclusive 
argument.  After  reading  the  book  of  Deuter 
onomy  he  expressed  his  astonishment,  that  any 
man  versed  in  antiquities  could  have  the  hardi 
hood  to  say,  that  it  was  the  production  of  human 
ingenuity.  Marks  of  Divinity,  he  said,  were 
stamped  upon  it.  His  views  of  the  doctrines  of 
religion  were  generally  Calvinistic.  An  enemy 
to  the  metaphysical  and  controversial  theology, 
he  disliked  the  use  of  technical  and  sectarian 
phrases.  The  term  trinity  however  he  frequently 
used  with  reverence,  and  in  a  manner,  which  im 
plied  his  belief  of  the  doctrine.  His  persuasion 
of  the  divinity  of  Christ  he  often  declared,  and 
his  belief  of  this  truth  seems  to  have  resulted 
from  a  particular  investigation  of  the  subject,  for 
he  remarked  to  a  friend,  that  he  once  read  the 
evangelists  with  the  sole  purpose  of  learning  what 
Christ  had  said  of  himself. 

He  was  an  admirer  of  the  common  translation 
of  the  Bible.  He  said  it  was  a  specimen  of  pure 
English;  and  though  he  acknowledged,  that  a 
few  phrases  had  grown  obsolete,  and  that  a  few 
passages  might  be  obscurely  translated,  yet  he 
should  consider  the  adoption  of  any  new  translation 
as  an  incalculable  evil.  He  lamented  the  prevail 
ing  disuse  of  the  Bible  in  our  schools.  lie  thought, 
that  children  should  early  be  made  acquainted 


with  the  important  truths,  which  it  contains,  and 
he  considered  it  as  a  principal  instrument  of  mak 
ing  them  acquainted  with  their  own  language  in 
its  purity.  He  said,  "  I  will  hazard  the  assertion, 
that  no  man  ever  did  or  ever  will  become  truly 
eloquent,  without  being  a  constant  reader  of  the 
Bible,  and  an  admirer  of  the  purity  and  sublim 
ity  of  its  language."  He  recommended  the  teach 
ing  of  the  Assembly's  Catechism ;  not  perhaps 
because  he  was  perfectly  satisfied  with  every  ex 
pression,  but  because,  as  he  remarked,  it  was  a 
good  thing  on  the  whole,  because  it  had  become 
venerable  by  age,  because  our  pious  ancestors 
taught  it  to  their  children  with  happy  effect,  and 
because  he  was  opposed  to  innovation,  unwilling 
to  leave  an  old,  experienced  path  for  one  new 
and  uncertain.  On  the  same  ground  he  approved 
the  use  of  Watts'  version  of  the  Psalms  and 
Hymns.  No  uninspired  man,  in  his  judgment, 
had  succeeded  so  well  as  Watts  in  uniting  with  the 
sentiments  of  piety  the  embellishments  of  poetry. 

Mr.  Ames  made  a  public  profession  of  religion 
in  the  first  congregational  church  in  Dedham. 
With  this  church  he  regularly  communed,  till  pre 
cluded  by  indisposition  from  attending  public 
worship.  His  practice  corresponded  with  his 
profession.  His  life  was  regular  and  irreproacha 
ble.  Pew,  who  have  been  placed  in  similar  cir 
cumstances,  have  been  less  contaminated  by  inter 
course  with  the  world.  It  is  doubted,  whether 
any  one  ever  heard  him  utter  an  expression  cal 
culated  to  excite  an  impious  or  impure  idea.  The 
most  scrutinizing  eye  discovered  in  him  no  dis 
guise  or  hypocrisy.  His  views  of  himself  however 
were  humble  and  abased.  He  was  often  observed 
to  shed  tears,  while  speaking  of  his  closet  devo 
tions  and  experiences.  He  lamented  the  cold 
ness  of  his  heart  and  the  wanderings  of  his 
thoughts  while  addressing  his  Maker,  or  medi 
tating  on  the  precious  truths,  which  he  had  re 
vealed.  In  his  last  sickness,  when  near  his  end, 
and  when  he  had  just  expressed  his  belief  of  his 
approaching  dissolution,  he  exhibited  submission 
to  the  Divine  will  and  the  hope  of  the  Divine  fa 
vor.  "  I  have  peace  of  mind,"  said  he.  "  It  may 
arise  from  stupidity ;  but  I  think  it  is  founded  on 
a  belief  of  the  Gospel."  At  the  same  time  he 
disclaimed  every  idea  of  meriting  salvation.  "  My 
hope,"  said  he,  "  is  in  the  mercy  of  God,  through 
Jesus  Christ." 

Mr.  Ames'  speech  in  relation  to  the  British 
treaty,  which  was  delivered  April  28,  179G,  is  a 
fine  specimen  of  eloquence.  He  published  an 
oration  on  the  death  of  Washington  in  1800,  and 
he  wrote  much  for  the  newspapers.  His  political 
writings  Avere  published  in  1809,  in  one  volume, 
8vo.,  with  a  notice  of  his  life  and  character  by- 
President  Kirkland.  —  Panoplist,  July,  1800; 
Dexter's  Funeral  Eulogy;  Marshall's  Washing 
ton,  v.  203 ;  Ames1  Works. 




AMES,  NATHANIEL,  son  of  Fisher  Ames,  died 
Jan.  18,  1835;  author  of  mariner's  sketches; 
nautical  reminiscences ;  and  old  sailors'  yarns. 

AMES,  N.  P.,  died  at  Cabotville  April  23, 
1847,  aged  44 ;  a  large  manufacturer  of  firearms, 
and  a  man  of  sound  judgment  and  practical  skill. 

AMHERST,  JEFFREY,  lord,  commander-in- 
chief  of  the  British  army  at  the  conquest  of  Canada 
in  1760,  was  born  in  Kent,  England,  Jan.  29, 
1717.  Having  early  discovered  a  predilection  for 
the  military  life,  he  received  his  first  commission 
in  the  army  in  1731,  and  was  aid-de-camp  to 
Gen.  Ligonier  in  1741,  in  which  character  he  was 
present  at  the  battles  of  Dettingen,  Fontenoy, 
and  Rocoux.  He  was  afterward  aid-de-camp  to 
his  royal  highness,  the  duke  of  Cumberland,  at 
the  battle  of  Laffeldt.  In  1758  he  received  orders 
to  return  to  England,  being  appointed  for  the 
American  service.  He  sailed  from  Portsmouth 
March  16th  as  major-general,  having  the  command 
of  the  troops  destined  for  the  siege  of  Louisbourg, 
On  the  26th  of  July  following  he  captured  that 
place,  and  without  farther  difficulty  took  entire 
possession  of  the  island  of  Cape  Breton.  After 
this  event  he  succeeded  Abercrombie  in  the  com 
mand  of  the  army  in  North  America.  In  1759 
the  vast  design  of  the  entire  conquest  of  Canada 
was  formed.  Three  armies  were  to  attack  at 
nearly  the  same  time  all  the  strongholds  of  the 
French  in  that  country.  They  were  commanded 
by  Wolfe,  Amherst,  and  Prideaux.  Gen.  Am- 
herst  in  the  spring  transferred  his  head-quarters 
from  New  York  to  Albany ;  but  it  was  not  till 
the  22d  of  July,  that  h<5  reached  Ticonderoga, 
against  which  place  he  was  to  act.  On  the  27th 
this  place  fell  into  his  hands,  the  enemy  having 
deserted  it.  He  next  took  Crown  Point,  and  put 
his  troops  in  winter  quarters  about  the  last  of  Oc 
tober.  In  the  year  1760  he  advanced  against 
Canada,  embarking  on  lake  Ontario  and  proceed 
ing  down  the  St.  Lawrence.  On  the  8th  of  Sep 
tember  M.  de  Vaudreuil  capitulated,  surrendering 
Montreal  and  all  other  places  within  the  govern 
ment  of  Canada. 

He  continued  in  the  command  in  America  till 
the  latter  end  of  1763,  when  he  returned  to  Eng 
land.  The  author  of  the  letters  of  Junius  was 
his  friend,  and  in  Sept.,  1768,  wrote  in  his  favor. 
In  1771  he  was  made  governor  of  Guernsey,  and 
in  1776  he  was  created  Baron  Amherst  of  Holms- 
dale  in  the  county  of  Kent.  In  1778  he  com 
manded  the  army  in  England.  At  this  period 
Lord  Sackville,  to  whom  the  letters  of  Junius 
have  been  ascribed,  was  one  of  the  king's  minis 
ters  ;  and  he  had  been  intimate  with  Amherst 
from  early  life.  In  1782  he  received  the  gold 
stick  from  the  king ;  but  on  the  change  of  the 
administration  the  command  of  the  army  and  the 
lieutenant-generalship  of  the  ordnance  were  put 
into  other  hands.  In  1787  he  received  another 

patent  of  peerage,  as  Baron  Amherst  of  Mont 
real.  In  January,  1793,  he  was  again  appointed 
to  the  command  of  the  army  in  Great  Britain  ; 
but  in  1795  this  veteran  and  very  deserving  offi 
cer  was  superseded  by  his  royal  highness,  the 
Duke  of  York,  the  second  son  of  the  king,  who 
was  only  in  the  thirty-first  year  of  his  age,  and 
had  never  seen  any  actual  service.  The  govern 
ment  upon  this  occasion,  with  a  view  to  soothe  the 
feelings  of  the  old  general,  offered  him  an  earldom 
and  the  rank  of  field  marshal,  both  of  which  he 
at  that  time  rejected.  The  office  of  field  marshal 
however  he  accepted  in  July,  1796.  He  died 
without  children  at  his  seat  in  Kent  August  3, 
1797,  aged  eighty  years. —  Watkins;  Holmes' 
Annals,  II.  226-246,  498;  Marshall,  I.  442-470; 
Minot,  II.  36. 

AMY,  a  slave,  died  at  Charleston  in  1826,  said 
to  be  aged  140,  and  that  she  came  to  C.  when 
there  were  but  six  small  buildings  there. 

ANDERSON,  RUFUS,  minister  of  Wenhnm, 
Mass.,  was  born  in  Londonderry  Mai'ch  5,  1765, 
and  graduated  at  Dartmouth  college  in  1791.  In 
consequence  of  a  religious  education  his  mind  was 
early  imbued  with  the  truths  of  the  gospel.  He 
was  ordained  pastor  of  the  second  church  in 
North  Yarmouth  Oct.  22,  1794.  After  a  ministry 
of  ten  years  he  was  dismissed,  and  installed  July 
10,  1805,  at  Wenham,  where  he  died  Feb.,  1814. 
Dr.  Worcester  has  described  his  excellent  charac 
ter,  and  spoken  of  his  useful  labors  and  peaceful 
death.  He  published  two  discourses  on  the  fast, 
1802;  and  seven  letters  against  the  close  com 
munion  of  the  Baptists,  1805.  —  Worcester's  Fu 
neral  Sermon ;  Panoplist,  x.  307. 

ANDERSON,  JAMES,  the  first  Presbyterian 
minister  in  the  city  of  New  York,  began  his 
labors  in  Oct.,  1717.  He  was  born  in  Scotland  in 
1678;  came  to  Philadelphia  in  1710,  and  became 
the  pastor  of  Newcastle.  His  high  notions  of 
church  authority  occasioned  a  division  of  his 
church  in  N.  Y.  To  the  seceders  Jonathan 
Edwards  was  the  preacher  for  some  months.  Mr. 
A.  accepted  in  1727  a  call  to  Donegal,  in  Penn., 
and  was  succeeded  in  N.  Y.  by  Mr.  Pemberton. 

ANDERSON,  JAMKS,  M.  D.",  an  eminent  phy 
sician  of  Maryland,  died  at  his  seat  near  Chestcr- 
town  Dec.  8,  1820,  in  the  69th  year  of  his  age. 
He  studied  at  Philadelphia  and  at  Edinburgh. 
His  father  was  a  physician  from  Scotland.  Dr. 
Anderson  was  learned  and  skilful,  and  highly 
respected  in  all  the  relations  of  life.  As  a  Chris 
tian  he  was  distinguished,  —  in  his  peculiar  views 
being  a  disciple  of  AVcsley.  With  exemplary 
patience  and  meekness  he  submitted  to  painful 
illness,  and  died  in  peace.  —  T/tacher's  Msd. 

ANDERSON,  RICHARD,  minister  of  the  United 
States  to  Colombia,  was  a  native  of  Kentucky,  and 
for  some  years  a  member  of  Congress.  Being 



appointed  envoy  extraordinary  to  the  assembly 
of  American  nations  at  Panama,  while  on  his  way 
to  that  place  he  died  at  Carthagena  July  24,  1826. 
On  his  former  visit  to  Colombia  he  lost  his  excel 
lent  -wife.  His  father,  Richard  C.  Anderson,  died 
Nov.  6.  —  Mr.  Anderson  was  a  very  amiable  man, 
of  a  discriminating  mind,  and  very  discreet  and 
conciliatory  as  a  politician. 

ANDERSON,  JOHN  WALLACE,  M.  D.,  physi 
cian  to  the  colony  in  Liberia,  was  the  son  of  Col. 
Richard  Anderson,  and  born  in  Ilagerstown,  Mary 
land,  in  1802.  His  medical  education  was  at 
Philadelphia,  where  he  took  his  degree  in  1828, 
and  afterwards  settled  as  a  physician  at  Hagers- 
town.  Here,  at  his  home,  amidst  all  the  happi 
ness  of  the  family  circle  and  of  religious  institu 
tions,  he  formed  the  purpose  of  devoting  his  life 
to  the  colonists  of  Liberia.  He  hoped  to  benefit 
them  by  his  medical  skill,  and  was  particularly 
anxious  to  promote  the  cause  of  temperance  in 
Africa.  He  sailed  Jan.  17,  1830,  and  arrived  at 
the  colony  Feb.  17.  Dr.  Mechlin,  the  agent,  now 
returning,  the  affairs  of  the  colony  were  commit 
ted  to  Dr.  Anderson ;  but  he  died  of  the  African 
fever  April  12,  aged  27  years.  In  his  illness  he 
was  resigned  and  joyful  in  the  hope  of  salvation. 
He  requested,  that  the  following  sentence  might 
be  inscribed  on  his  tombstone  :  —  "  Jesus,  for  thee 
I  live,  for  thee  I  die !  "  —  Afric.  Repos.  vi.  189— 

ANDRE,  JOHN,  aid-dc-camp  to  Sir  Henry 
Clinton,  and  adjutant-general  of  the  British  army 
in  the  Revolutionary  war,  was  born  in  England  in 
1749.  His  father  was  a  native  of  Geneva,  and  a 
considerable  merchantman  the  Levant  trade ;  he 
died  in  1769.  Young  Andre  was  destined  to 
mercantile  business,  and  attended  his  father's 
counting-house,  after  having  spent  some  years 
for  his  education  at  Geneva.  He  first  entered 
the  army  in  Jan.,  1771.  At  this  time  he  had  a 
strong  attachment  to  Honoria  Sneyd,  who  after 
wards  married  Mr.  Edgcworth.  In  1772  he  vis 
ited  the  courts  of  Germany,  and  returned  to 
England  in  1773.  He  landed  at  Philadelphia  in 
Sept.,  1774,  as  lieutenant  of  the  Royal  English 
Fusileers ;  and  soon  proceeded,  by  way  of  Boston, 
to  Canada,  to  join  his  regiment.  In  1775  he  was 
taken  prisoner  by  Montgomery  at  St.  John's ; 
but  was  afterwards  exchanged,  and  appointed 
captain.  In  the  summer  of  1777  he  was  ap 
pointed  aid  to  Gen.  Grey  and  was  present  at  the 
engagements  in  New  Jersey  and  Pennsylvania  in 
1777  and  1778.  On  the  return  of  Gen.  Grey,  he 
was  appointed  aid  to  Gen.  Clinton.  In  1780  he 
was  promoted  to  the  rank  of  major,  and  made 
adjutant-general  of  the  British  army. 

After  Arnold  had  intimated  to  the  British  in 
1780  his  intention  of  delivering  up  West  Point  to 
them,  Maj.  Andre  was  selected  as  the  person,  to 
whom  the  maturing  of  Arnold's  treason  and  the 


arrangements  for  its  execution  should  be  commit 
ted.  A  correspondence  was  for  some  time  car 
ried  on  betAvecn  them  under  a  mercantile  disguise 
and  the  feigned  names  of  Gustavus  and  Ander 
son  ;  and  at  length  to  facilitate  their  communica 
tions  the  Vulture  sloop-of-war  moved  up  the  North 
river  and  took  a  station  convenient  for  the  pur 
pose,  but  not  so  near  as  to  excite  suspicion.  An 
interview  was  agreed  on,  and  in  the  night  of  Sep 
tember  21,  1780,  he  was  taken  in  a  boat,  which 
was  dispatched  for  the  purpose,  and  carried  to 
the  beach,  without  the  posts  of  both  armies,  under 
a  pass  for  John  Anderson.  He  met  Gen.  Arnold 
at  the  house  of  a  Mr.  Smith.  While  the  confer 
ence  was  yet  unfinished,  daylight  approached ; 
and  to  avoid  the  danger  of  discovery  it  was  pro 
posed,  that  he  should  remain  concealed  till  the 
succeeding  night.  He  is  understood  to  have  re 
fused  to  be  carried  within  the  American  posts,  but 
the  promise  made  him  by  Arnold  to  respect  this 
objection  was  not  observed.  He  was  carried 
I  within  them  contrary  to  his  wishes  and  against 
|  his  knowledge.  He  continued  with  Arnold  the 
1  succeeding  day,  and  when  on  the  following  night 
he  proposed  to  return  to  the  Vulture,  the  boat 
man  refused  to  carry  him,  because  she  had  dur 
ing  the  day  shifted  her  station,  in  consequence  of 
a  gun  having  been  moved  to  the  shore  and 
brought  to  bear  upon  her.  This  embarrassing 
circumstance  reduced  him  to  the  necessity  of  en 
deavoring  to  reach  New  York  by  land.  Yielding 
with  reluctance  to  the  urgent  representations  of 
Arnold,  he  laid  aside  his  regimentals,  Avhich  he 
had  hitherto  worn  under  a  surtout,  and  put  on  a 
plain  suit  of  clothes ;  and  receiving  a  pass  from 
the  American  general,  authorizing  him,  under  the 
feigned  name  of  John  Anderson,  to  proceed  on 
the  public  service  to  the  White  Plains,  or  lower  if 
he  thought  proper,  he  set  out  on  his  return  in  the 
evening  of  the  22d,  accompanied  by  Joshua 
Smith,  and  passed  the  night  at  Crompond.  The 
next  morning  he  crossed  the  Hudson  to  King's 
ferry  on  the  east  side.  A  little  beyond  the  Cro- 
ton,  Smith,  deeming  him  safe,  bid  him  adieu.  He 
had  passed  all  the  guards  and  posts  on  the  road 
without  suspicion,  and  was  proceeding  to  New 
York  in  perfect  security,  when,  September  23d, 
one  of  the  three  militia-men,  who  were  employed 
with  others  in  scouting  parties  between  the  lines 
of  the  two  armies,  springing  suddenly  from  his 
covert  into  the  road,  seized  the  reins  of  his  bridle 
and  stopped  his  horse.  Instead  of  producing  his 
pass,  Andre,  with  a  want  of  self-possession,  which 
can  be  attributed  only  to  a  kind  Providence, 
asked  the  man  hastily  where  he  belonged,  and 
being  answered,  "  to  below,"  replied  immediately, 
"  and  so  do  I."  He  then  declared  himself  to  be 
a  British  officer,  on  urgent  business,  and  begged 
that  he  might  not  be  detained.  The  other  two 
militia  men  coming  up  at  this  moment,  he  discov- 




ered  his  mistake ;  but  it  was  too  late  to  repair  it. 
He  offered  them  his  purse  and  a  valuable  watch, 
to  winch  he  added  the  most  tempting  promises 
of  ample  reward  and  permanent  provision  from 
the  government,  if  they  would  permit  him  to 
escape  ;  but  his  offers  were  rejected  without  hesi 

The  militia-men,  whose  names  were  John  Paul- 
ding,  ]  )avid  Williams,  and  Isaac  Van  Wart,  pro 
ceeded  to  search  him.  They  found  concealed  in 
his  boots  exact  returns,  in  Arnold's  handwriting, 
of  the  state  of  the  forces,  ordnance,  and  defences 
at  West  Point  and  its  dependencies,  critical  re 
marks  on  the  works,  and  an  estimate  of  the  men 
ordinarily  employed  in  them,  with  other  interest 
ing  papers.  Andre  was  carried  before  Lieut.-Col. 
Jameson,  the  officer  commanding  the  scouting 
parties  on  the  lines,  and  regardless  of  himself  and 
only  anxious  for  the  safety  of  Arnold,  he  still 
maintained  the  character,  which  he  had  assumed, 
and  requested  Jameson  to  inform  his  commanding 
officer,  that  Anderson  was  taken.  A  letter  was 
accordingly  sent  to  Arnold,  and  the  traitor,  thus 
becoming  acquainted  with  his  danger,  escaped. 
The  narrative  of  the  bearer  of  this  letter,  Salomon 
Allen,  is  given  in  the  sketch  of  his  life :  it  differs 
in  several  respects  from  the  account  of  the  affair 
in  the  Encyclopaedia  Americana,  and  throws  light 
upon  circumstances,  which  have  been  heretofore 

A  board  of  general  officers,  of  which  Maj. 
Gen.  Greene  was  president,  and  the  two  foreign 
generals,  Lafayette  and  Steuben,  were  members, 
was  called  to  report  a  precise  state  of  the  case  of 
Andre,  who  had  acknowledged  himself  Adjutant- 
General  of  the  British  army,  and  to  determine  in 
what  character  he  was  to  be  considered,  and  to 
what  punishment  he  was  liable.  He  received 
from  the  board  every  mark  of  indulgent  atten 
tion  ;  and  from  a  sense  of  justice,  as  well  as  of 
delicacy,  he  was  informed  on  the  first  opening  of 
the  examination,  that  he  was  at  perfect  liberty 
not  to  answer  any  interrogatory,  which  might  em 
barrass  his  own  feelings.  But  he  disdained  every 
evasion,  and  frankly  acknowledged  every  thing, 
which  was  material  to  his  condemnation.  The 
board,  which  met  Sept.  29th,  did  not  examine  a 
single  witness,  but,  founding  their  report  entirely 
upon  his  own  confession,  reported  that  he  came 
within  the  description  of  a  spy  and  ought  to  suf 
fer  death.  The  execution  of  this  sentence  was 
ordered  on  the  day  succeeding  that  on  which  it 
was  rendered. 

The  greatest  exertions  were  made  by  Sir  Henry 
Clinton,  to  whom  Andre  was  particularly  dear,  to 
rescue  him  from  his  fate.  It  was  first  represented, 
that  he  came  on  shore  under  the  sanction  of  a 
flag;  but  Washington  returned  an  answer  to 
Clinton,  in  which  he  stated,  that  Andre  had  him 
self  disclaimed  the  pretext.  An  interview  was 

next  proposed  between  Lieut.-Gen.  Robertson 
and  Gen.  Greene ;  but  no  facts,  which  had  not 
before  been  considered,  Avere  made  known.  When 
every  other  exertion  failed,  a  letter  from  Arnold, 
filled  with  threats,  was  presented. 

Andre  was  deeply  affected  by  the  mode  of 
dying,  which  the  laws  of  war  had  decreed  to  per 
sons  in  his  situation.  He  wished  to  die  as  a  sol 
dier,  and  not  as  a  criminal.  To  obtain  a  mitigation 
of  his  sentence  in  this  respect  he  addressed  a  let 
ter  to  Gen.  Washington,  replete  with  all  the  feel 
ings  of  a  man  of  sentiment  and  honor.  The 
commander-in-chief  consulted  his  officers  on  the 
subject ;  but  as  Andre  unquestionably  came  under 
the  description  of  a  spy,  it  was  thought,  that  the 
public  good  required  his  punishment  to  be  in  the 
usual  way.  The  decision,  however,  from  tender 
ness  to  Andre,  was  not  divulged.  He  encoun 
tered  his  fate,  Oct.  2d,  at  Tappan,  with  a  compo 
sure  and  fortitude,  which  excited  the  admiration 
and  interested  the  feelings  of  all  who  were  pres 
ent.  He  exhibited  some  emotion,  when  he  first 
beheld  the  preparations  at  the  fatal  spot,  and  in 
quired,  "  must  I  die  in  this  manner  ?  "  He  soon 
afterwards  added,  "  it  will  be  but  a  momentary 
pang  ; "  and  being  asked,  if  he  had  any  request 
to  make  before  he  left  the  world,  he  answered, 
"  none  but  that  you  will  witness  to  the  world,  that 
I  die  like  a  brave  man."  While  one  weeps  at  the 
ignominious  death  of  a  man  so  much  esteemed 
and  beloved,  it  would  have  given  some  relief  to 
the  pained  mind,  if  he  had  died  more  like  a 
Christian  and  less  like  a  soldier.  The  sympathy, 
excited  among  the  American  officers  by  his  fate, 
was  as  universal,  as  it  is  unusual  on  such  occa 
sions  ;  and  proclaims  the  merit  of  him,  who  suf 
fered,  and  the  humanity  of  those,  who  inflicted 
the  punishment.  In  1821  the  bones  of  Andre 
were  dug  up  and  carried  to  his  native  land  by 
royal  mandate.  Major  Andre  wrote  the  Cow 
Chase,  in  three  cantos,  1781.  This  poem  was 
originally  published  in  Rivington's  Royal  Gazette, 
New  York,  in  the  morning  of  the  day,  on  which 
Andre  was  taken  prisoner.  The  last  stanza,  in 
tended  to  ridicule  Gen.  Wayne  for  his  failure  in 
an  attempt  to  collect  cattle  for  the  army,  is  this  : 

"  And  now  I've  closed  my  epic  strain, 
I  tremble,  as  I  show  it, 
Lest  this  same  Warrior-Drover,  Wayne, 
Should  ever  catch  the  Poet  '.  " 

He  wrote  also  letters  to  Miss  Seward,  New 
York,  1772.  Miss  Seward  wrote  a  monody  on 
Andre,  in  which  she  predicted,  that  Washington 
would  die  miserably  for  executing  the  spy.  — 
Annual  Register  for  1781,  39-46  ;  Marshall,  iv. 
277-286;  Gordon,  m.  481-490;  Stedman,  n. 
249-2,33  ;  Ramsay,  II.  196-201 ;  Political  May. 
II.  171 ;  Amer.  fiememb.  1781, 1.,  p.  101 ;  Smit/Vs 
Narrative ;  Thacher's  Military  Journal. 




ANDREW,  SAMUEL,  the  second  rector  of 
Yale  college,  was  the  son  of  Samuel  Andrew,  of 
Cambridge,  Mass.,  born  1656,  graduated  1675, 
and  ordained  the  minister  of  Milford,  Conn., 
Nov.  18,  1685.  Being  appointed,  after  the  death 
of  Mr.  Pierson,  temporary  rector  of  the  college  in 
1707,  he  officiated  till  1719,  occasionally  repair 
ing  to  the  college  at  Saybrook  and  New  Haven, 
but  residing  at  Milford.  He  died  Jan.  24,  1738, 
aged  82,  leaving  an  excellent  reputation.  His 
predecessors  in  the  ministry  were  Prudden  and 
Newton  ;  Whittlesey  succeeded  him. 

ANDREWS,  ROBERT,  professor  of  mathematics 
in  William  and  Mary  college,  Virginia,  died  in 
Jan.,  1804,  at  Williamsburg.  In  1779  he  was  a 
commissioner  with  Dr.  Madison  to  settle  the 
boundary  line  with  Pennsylvania,  —  Bryan,  Ewing, 
and  Rittenhouse  being  the  commissioners  of  Penn. 
The  talents  of  Mr.  Andrews  were  actively  em 
ployed  and  regulated  by  reason  and  religion. 
His  wife  and  children  were  taught  by  him  those 
divine  principles,  which  bear  the  afflicted  above 
the  evils  of  life. 

ANDREWS,  JOHN,  D.  ]).,  provost  of  the 
university  of  Penn.,  was  born  in  Cecil  county, 
Md.,  April  4,  1746,  and  educated  at  Philadelphia. 
After  receiving  Episcopal  ordination  in  London 
Feb.,  1767,  he  was  three  years  a  missionary  at 
Lewiston,  Md.,  and  then  a  missionary  at  York- 
town,  and  a  rector  in  Queen  Ann's  county,  Md. 
Not  partaking  of  the  patriotic  spirit  of  the  times, 
he  was  induced  to  quit  Maryland  for  many  years. 
In  1785  he  was  placed  at  the  head  of  the  Episco 
pal  academy  in  Philadelphia,  and  in  1789  ap 
pointed  professor  of  moral  philosophy  in  the 
college.  In  1810  he  succeeded  Dr.  M'Dowell  as 
provost.  He  died  March  29,  1813,  aged  67.  As 
a  scholar  he  was  very  distinguished.  He  published 
a  sermon  on  the  parable  of  the  unjust  steward, 
1789;  and  elements  of  logic. 

ANDREWS,  LORING,  a  distinguished  editor, 
died  at  Charleston  Oct.  19,  1805.  He  was  the 
brother  of  Rev.  John  Andrews,  of  Newburyport. 
He  first  published,  in  Boston,  the  Herald  of 
Freedom ;  then,  at  Stockbridge,  the  Western  Star ; 
and  in  1803  he  established  the  Charleston  Courier, 
a  political  paper  of  high  reputation. 

ANDREWS,  JOIIN,  D.  D.,  died  in  Newbury 
port  in  Aug.,  1845,  aged  81.  A  graduate  of  1786, 
he  was  settled  as  a  colleague  with  Mr.  Cary  in 
1788.  He  published  a  thanksgiving  sermon, 
1795;  at  a  dedication,  1801 ;  on  the  death  of  T. 
Cary,  1808;  before  a  humane  society,  1812. 

ANDREWS,  PARNELLY,  wife  of  Dr.  S.  L. 
Andrews,  missionary  at  the  Sandwich  Islands, 
died  at  Kailua  Sept.  29,  1846,  aged  39.  Her 
name  was  Pierce,  of  Woodbury,  Conn.  She  em 
barked  in  1836. 

ANDREWS,  JOANNA,  Mrs.,  died  at  Gloucester 
Jan.  20,  1847,  aged  102. 

ANDREWS,  EBENEZER  T.,  an  extensive  printer, 
died  in  Boston  Oct.  9,  1851,  aged  84.  He  was 
of  the  firm  of  Thomas  &  Andrews. 

ANDREWS,  ASA,  the  survivor  of  all  the  pre 
ceding  graduates  of  Harvard,  died  at  Ipswich 
Jan.  13, 1856,  aged  93.  He  was  born  in  Boylston ; 
his  mother,  whose  name  was  Bradstreet,  was  a 
descendant  of  Gov.  B.  He  graduated  in  1783, 
and  studied  law  with  C.  Strong,  Northampton. 
From  1796  to  1829  he  was  collector  of  the  port 
of  Ipswich.  He  was  a  man  of  ability,  highly 

ANDROS,  EDMUND,  governor  of  New  England, 
had  some  command  in  New  York  in  1672,  and  in 
1674  was  appointed  governor  of  that  province. 
He  continued  in  this  office  till  1682,  exhibiting  in 
this  government  but  little  of  that  tyrannical  dis 
position,  which  he  afterwards  displayed.  He 
arrived  at  Boston  Dec.  20,  1686,  with  a  commis 
sion  from  King  James  for  the  government  of 
New  England.  He  made  high  professions  of 
regard  to  the  public  good,  directed  the  judges  to 
administer  justice  according  to  the  custom  of  the 
place,  ordered  the  established  rules  with  respect 
to  rates  and  taxes  to  be  observed,  and  declared, 
that  all  the  colony  laws,  not  inconsistent  with  his 
commission,  should  remain  in  full  force.  By 
these  professions  he  calmed  the  apprehensions, 
which  had  agitated  the  minds  of  many;  but  it 
was  not  long  before  the  monster  stood  forth  in 
his  proper  shape. 

His  administration  was  most  oppressive  and 
tyrannical.  The  press  was  restrained,  exorbitant 
taxes  were  levied,  and  the  Congregational  minis 
ters  were  threatened  to  be  deprived  of  their  sup 
port  for  nonconformity.  Sir  Edmund,  knowing 
that  his  royal  master  was  making  great  progress 
towards  despotism  in  England,  was  very 
willing  to  keep  equal  pace  in  his  less  important 
government.  It  was  pretended,  that  all  titles  to 
land  were  destroyed;  and  the  farmers  were 
obliged  to  take  new  patents,  for  which  they  paid 
large  fees.  He  prohibited  marriage,  unless  the 
parties  entered  into  bonds  with  sureties  to  be 
forfeited  in  case  there  should  afterwards  appear 
to  have  been  any  lawful  impediment.  There  was 
at  this  time  but  one  Episcopal  clergyman  in  the 
country ;  but  Andros  wrote  to  the  bishop  of  Lon 
don,  intimating,  for  the  encouragement  of  those 
who  might  be  persuaded  to  come  to  this  country, 
that  in  future  no  marriage  should  be  deemed 
lawful,  unless  celebrated  by  ministers  of  the 
church  of  England.  With  four  or  five  of  his 
council  he  laid  what  taxes  he  thought  proper. 
The  fees  of  office  were  raised  to  a  most  exorbitant 
height.  In  Oct.,  1687,  he  went  with  troops  to 
Hartford,  and  demanded  the  surrender  of  the 
charter  of  Connecticut,  which  was  placed  in  the 
evening  upon  the  table  of  the  Assembly,  but 
instantly  the  lights  were  extinguished,  and  the 




charter  disappeared,  having  been  carried  off  by 
Capt.  Wadsworth  and  secreted  in  a  hollow  oak, 
near  the  house  of  Samuel  "\Vyllys. 

In  the  spring  of  1688  Andros  proceeded  in  the 
Rose  frigate  to  Penobscot  and  plundered  the 
house  and  fort  of  Castine,  and  thus  by  his  base 
rapacity  excited  an  Indian  war.  In  November  he 
marched  against  the  eastern  Indians  at  the  head 
of  seven  or  eight  hundred  men ;  but  not  an 
Indian  was  seen.  They  had  retired  to  the  woods 
for  hunting.  He  built  two  forts,  one  at  Sheepscot, 
the  other  at  Pegypscot  Falls  or  Brunswick,  and 
left  garrisons  in  them.  If  the  old  name  of 
Amarascoggin,  on  which  river  he  built  Pegypscot 
Fort,  received  at  this  time,  in  honor  of  him,  the 
name  of  Androscoggin,  he  was  not  worthy  of 
such  remembrance.  The  ancient  name  is  to  be 

At  length  the  capricious  and  arbitrary  proceed 
ings  of  Andros  roused  the  determined  spirit  of 
the  people. 

Having  sought  in  the  wilds  of  America  the 
secure  enjoyment  of  that  civil  and  religious 
liberty,  of  which  they  had  been  unjustly  deprived 
in  England,  they  were  not  disposed  to  see  their 
dearest  rights  wrested  from  them  without  a 
struggle  to  retain  them.  Animated  with  the  love 
of  liberty,  they  v/ere  also  resolute  and  courageous 
in  its  defence.  They  had  for  several  years 
suffered  the  impositions  of  a  tyrannical  adminis 
tration,  and  the  dissatisfaction  and  indignation, 
which  had  been  gathering  during  this  period, 
were  blown  into  a  flame  by  the  report  of  an 
intended  massacre  by  the  governor's  guards.  On 
the  morning  of  April  18,  1689,  the  inhabitants  of 
Boston  took  up  arms,  the  people  poured  in  from 
the  country,  and  the  governor,  with  such  of  the 
council  as  had  been  most  active,  and  other 
obnoxious  persons,  about  fifty  in  number,  were 
seized  and  confined.  The  old  magistrates  were 
restored,  and  the  next  month  the  joyful  news  of 
the  Revolution  in  England  reached  this  country, 
and  quieted  all  apprehension  of  the  consequences 
of  what  had  been  done.  After  having  been  kept 
at  the  castle  till  February  following,  Andros  was 
sent  to  England  for  trial.  The  General  Court 
about  the  same  time  despatched  a  committee  of 
several  gentlemen  to  substantiate  the  charges 
against  him. 

The  government  was  reduced  to  a  most  per 
plexing  dilemma.  If  they  condemned  Andros' 
administration,  the  sentence  might  be  drawn  into 
a  precedent,  and  they  might  seem  to  encourage 
insurrection  and  rebellion  in  future  periods,  when 
circumstances  did  not  render  so  desperate  an  ex 
pedient  necessary.  On  the  other  hand,  if  they 
should  approve  of  the  administration  of  Andros 
and  censure  the  proceedings  of  the  colonists,  it 
would  imply  a  reprobation  of  the  very  measure, 
which  had  been  pursued  in  bringing  about  the 

Revolution  in  England.  It  was  therefore  deemed 
prudent  to  dismiss  the  business  without  coming  to 
a  final  decision.  The  people  were  accordingly 
left  to  the  full  enjoyment  of  their  freedom  ;  and 
Andros,  in  public  estimation  guilty,  escaped  with 
out  censure. 

In  1692  he  was  appointed  the  governor  of 
Virginia,  in  which  office  his  conduct  was  for  the 
most  part  prudent  and  unimpeached.  He  was 
succeeded  by  Nicholson  in  1698.  He  died  in 
London  Feb.  24,  1714,  at  a  very  advanced  age. 
His  narrative  of  his  proceedings  in  New  England 
was  published  in  1691,  and  republished  in  1773. 
—  HutcUnson,  Douglass,  II.  247,  272,  369; 
Holmes,  I.  421,  425;  Bdknap,  I.  244;  Eliot; 

ANDROS,  THOMAS,  minister  of  Berkley,  was 
born  in  Norwich,  Conn.,  May  1,  1759,  the  son  of 
a  merchant.  His  widowed  mother  removed  to 
Plainfield,  where  her  friends  resided.  At  the  age 
of  sixteen  he  joined  the  army  as  a  soldier  at 
Cambridge  in  1775.  Afterwards  he  was  in  the 
battles  of  Long  Island  and  White  Plains,  and 
served  elsewhere.  In  1781  he  enlisted  in  a  private 
armed  vessel  at  New  London ;  but,  captured  in  a 
prize  vessel,  he  was  thrown  into  prison  in  the  old 
Jersey  prison-ship  at  New  York,  in  which,  it  is 
said,  eleven  thousand  died.  In  a  few  months  he, 
by  a  remarkable  Providence,  escaped ;  and  his 
lost  health  was  restored.  Having  studied  theology 
with  Dr.  Benedict  of  Plainfield,  he  was  ordained 
at  Berkley  March  19,  1788,  on  a  salary  of  80 
pounds.  He  was  dismissed  at  his  request  June 
15,  1834,  having  labored  with  his  people  forty- 
six  years.  His  last  sermon  he  preached  October 
5,  1845,  walking  two  miles  to  church,  and  speaking 
with  animation  and  force.  He  died  of  apo 
plexy  Dec.  30,  1845,  aged  86.  His  first  wife 
Avas  Abigail  Cutter,  of  Killingly ;  his  second, 
Sophia  Sanford,  of  Berkley,  in  1799.  His  son, 
R.  S.  S.  Andros,  wrote  an  account  of  him  for 
Emery's  Ministry  of  Taunton. 

He  published  a  sermon  on  the  death  of  J. 
Crane,  1795;  of  Mrs.  Andros,  1798;  at  thanks 
giving,  1808  and  1812;  on  restraining  prayer; 
Bible  news,  &c.,  against  N.  "Worcester's  book, 
1813;  on  human  creeds,  1814;  at  the  ordination 
of  B.  Whittcmore,  1815;  against  philosophical 
mixtures,  1819;  an  essay  against  a  positive 
efficiency  in  the  production  of  sin,  1820 ;  six  dis 
courses  ;  on  the  death  of  S.  Tobey,  1823;  a  ser 
mon  vindicating  the  temperance  society,  1830;  a 
narrative  of  his  imprisonment  and  escape  from 
the  Jersey  prison-ship. 

ANDRUS,  JOSEHI  R.,  agent  of  the  colonization 
society,  was  graduated  at  Middlebury  college  in 
1812,  and  after  studying  theology  at  New  Haven 
and  Andover,  and  also  under  Bishop  Gri.swold  at 
Bristol,  R.  L,  received  Episcopal  ordination.  It 
had  been  for  years  his  purpose  to  devote  himself 



to  promote  the  welfare  of  the  degraded  and 
oppressed  race  of  Africans.  Being  appointed  the 
agent  of  the  colonization  society,  he  sailed  early 
in  1821,  and  proceeded,  with  his  associate, 
Ephraim  Bacon,  in  April  from  Sierra  Leone  to 
the  Bassa  country  to  negotiate  with  King  Ben  for 
a  place  of  settlement.  It  was  well  for  the  pro 
posed  colony,  that  the  attempt  was  unsuccessful, 
for  a  more  healthful  and  eligible  territory  was 
afterwards  purchased  by  Dr.  Apes  at  Montserado. 
Mr.  Andrus  died  at  Sierra  Leone,  and  \vas 
buried  July  29,  1821.  He  was  the  friend  of 
Carlos  Wilcox,  and  by  him  honored  in  his  lines, 
"The  Group  of  Stars"."— Panoplist,  XVIII. ;  25, 
400 ;  Remains  of  Wilcox,  90. 

ANGE,  FRANCIS,  a  planter  of  Pennsylvania, 
died  in  1767,  aged  134  years.  He  remembered 
the  death  of  Charles  I. ;  at  the  age  of  130  was  in 
good  health ;  and  at  the  time  of  his  death  his 
memory  was  strong,  his  faculties  perfect.  He 
had  lived  on  simple  food.  His  residence  was 
between  Broad  creek  and  the  head  of  Wicomoco 
river.  —  Mem.  of  Historical  Society,  Philad.,  I. 

ANGIER,  SAMUEL,  minister  of  Rehoboth,  died 
in  1719,  aged  about  66.  He  was  a  graduate  of 
1673,  in  a  class  of  four,  of  whom  one  was  John 
"Wise.  He  was  ordained  in  May,  1679,  and  dis 
missed  in  1693 ;  after  which  he  was  the  pastor  of 
Watertown,  yet  living  at  Cambridge,  where  his 
house  was  burnt,  with  the  records  of  Rehoboth. 
His  mother  was  the  daughter  of  the  famous  Win. 
Ames :  his  wife  was  the  only  child  of  President 
Oakes,  and  he  had  by  her  fifteen  children. 

AXGLIX,  HENRY,  a  soldier  of  the  Revolution 
ary  army  in  North  Carolina,  died  at  Athens  in 
Georgia  in  1853,  aged  105. 

ANTES,  JOHN,  a  Moravian  missionary,  was 
born  March  4,  1740,  and  sent  from  America  to 
Herrnhut  in  Germany  in  1764.  In  1769  he  pro 
ceeded  to  Cairo  on  a  proposed  mission  to  Abys 
sinia  ;  but  meeting  Mr.  Bruce,  he  was  induced  to 
abandon  the  undertaking.  He  returned  to  Ger 
many  in  1781 ;  and  in  1808  risked  England,  and 
died  at  Bristol  Dec.  17,  1811.  He  published  a 
reply  to  Lord  Valencia,  vindicating  Bruce's  ve 
racity  ;  observations  on  the  manners  of  the  Egyp 
tians  ;  and  wrote  a  memoir  of  his  own  life. 

ANTHONY,  SUSANNA,  an  eminently  pious 
woman  of  Rhode  Island,  was  born  in  1726,  and 
died  at  Newport  June  23,  1791,  aged  64  years. 
Her  parents  were  Quakers.  Dr.  Hopkins  pub 
lished  the  memoirs  of  her  life,  consisting  chiefly 
of  extracts  from  her  writings,  of  which  there  was 
a  second  edition  in  1810.  She  devoted  herself 
chiefly  to  prayer. 

AP'PLETON,  NATHANIEL,  D.  D.,  minister  of 
Cambridge,  was  born  at  Ipswich  Dec.  9,  1693. 
His  father  was  John  Appleton,  one  of  the  king's 
council  and  for  twenty  years  judge  of  probate 


!  in  the  county  of  Essex,  and  his  mother  was 
the  eldest  daughter  of  President  Rogers.  He 
•  was  graduated  at  Harvard  college  in  1712. 
After  completing  his  education,  an  opportunity 
!  presented  of  entering  into  commercial  business 
|  on  very  advantageous  terms  with  an  uncle  in 
Boston,  who  was  an  opulent  merchant ;  but 
I  he  resolved  to  forego  every  worldly  advantage, 
|  that  he  might  promote  the  interest  of  the 
i  Redeemer's  kingdom.  Soon  after  he  began  to 
!  preach,  he  was  invited  to  succeed  Mr.  Brattle  in 
the  ministry  at  Cambridge,  and  was  ordained 
Oct.  9,  1717.  On  this  occasion  Dr.  Increase 
Mather  preached  the  sermon  and  gave  the  charge, 
and  Dr.  Cotton  Mather  gave  the  right  hand  of 
fellowship.  He  was  the  same  year  elected  a 
fellow  of  Harvard  college,  which  office  he  sus 
tained  above  sixty  years,  faithfully  consulting  and 
essentially  promoting  the  interests  of  the  insti 
tution.  In  1771  the  university  conferred  on  him 
the  degree  of  doctor  of  divinity,  an  honor,  which 
had  been  conferred  upon  but  one  person,  In 
crease  Mather,  about  eighty  years  before.  De 
grees  have  since  become  more  frequent  and  less 
honorable.  The  usefulness  of  Dr.  Appleton  was 
diminished  for  a  few  of  his  last  years  through  the 
infirmities  of  age,  but  did  not  entirely  cease  ex 
cept  with  his  life.  He  received  Mr.  Hilliard  as 
his  colleague  in  1783.  After  a  ministry  of  more 
than  sixty-six  years,  he  died  Feb.  9,  1784,  in  the 
91st  year  of  his  age.  This  country  can  furnish 
few  instances  of  more  useful  talents,  and  more 
exemplary  piety,  exhibited  for  so  long  a  time  and 
with  such  great  success.  During  his  ministry  two 
thousand  one  hundred  and  thirty-eight  persons 
were  baptized,  and  seven  hundred  and  eighty-four 
admitted  members  of  the  church. 

Dr.  Appleton  was  as  venerable  for  his  piety  as 
for  his   years.     His  whole  character  was   patri 
archal.     In  his  dress,  in  his  manners,  in  his  con- 
|  versation,  in  his  ministry  he  resembled  the  Pu 
ritan  ministers,  who  first  settled  New  England. 
!  He  lived  from  the  close  of  one  century  to  near 
j  the  close  of  another,  and  he  brought  down  with 
j  him   the   habits   of  former   times.     His   natural 
temper  was  cheerful,  but  his  habitual  deportment 
was  grave.     Early  consecrated  to  God,  and  hav 
ing  a  fixed  predilection  for  the  ministry,  by  the 
union  of  good  sense  with  deep  seriousness,  of 
enlightened  zeal  with  consummate  prudence,  he 
was  happily  fitted  for  the  pastoral  office. 

He  preached  with  great  plainness  and  with 
primitive  simplicity.  In  order  to  accommodate 
his  discourses  to  the  meanest  capacity,  he  fre 
quently  borrowed  similitudes  from  familiar,  some 
times  from  vulgar  objects  ;  but  his  application  of 
them  was  so  pertinent  and  his  utterance  so  sol 
emn,  as  to  suppress  levity  and  silence  criticism. 
Deeply  sensible  of  the  fallen  state  of  man,  he  ad 
mired  the  wisdom,  holiness,  and  mercy,  which  are 




displayed  in  the  plan  of  redemption  through  a 
glorious  Saviour.  From  the  abundance  of  his 
heart,  filled  with  the  love  of  God,  he  spake  with 
such  fervor,  as  was  fitted  to  inspire  his  hearers 
with  pious  sentiments  and  affections. 

He  possessed  the  learning  of  his  time.     The 
scriptures  he  read  in  the  originals.     His  exposi 
tion,  preached  in  course  on  the   Sabbath,  com- 1 
prchended   the  whole  Xew  Testament,  the  pro 
phecy  of  Isaiah,  and  some  of  the  other  prophets,  j 
It  was    chiefly   designed    to   promote    practical 
piety ;  but  on  the  prophetical  parts  he  discovered 
a  continued   attention,  extent  of  reading,  and  a 
depth  of  research,  which  come  to  the  share  of  j 
but   very  few.     In   his   preaching    he    carefully 
availed   himself  of  special  occurrences,  and   his  i 
discourses  on  such  occasions  were  peculiarly  sol-  j 
emn    and    impressive.     With    the    fidelity   and  j 
plainness  of  a  Christian  minister  he  administered 
reproofs   and  admonitions,  and  maintained  with 
parental   tenderness   and  pastoral    authority   the 
discipline  of  the  church.     By  his  desire  a  com 
mittee  was  appointed,  and  "continued   for  many 
years,  for  inspecting  the  manners  of  professing 
Christians.     So  great  was  the  ascendency,  which 
he  gained  over  his  people  by  his  discretion  and  j 
moderation,  by   his   condescension   and    benevo-  j 
lence,  by  his  fidelity  and  piety,  that  they  regarded 
his  counsels  as  oracular. 

In  controversial  and  difficult  cases  he  was  often 
applied  to  for  advice  at  ecclesiastical  councils. 
Impartial  yet  pacific,  firm  yet  conciliatory,  he  was 
peculiarly  qualified  for  a  counsellor,  and  in  that 
character  he  materially  contributed  to  the  unity, 
flic  peace,  an-1  order  of  the  churches.  With  the 
wisdom  of  the  serpent  he  happily  united  the 
innocence  of  the  dove.  In  his  religious  princi 
ples  he  was  a  Calvinist,  as  were  all  his  predeces 
sors  in  the  ministry,  Hooker,  Stone,  Shqjard, 
Mitchel,  Oakes,  Gookin,  and  Brattle.  But  towards 
those  of  different  principles  he  was  candid  and 

His  own  example  enforced  the  duties,  which  he 
enjoined  upon  others.  He  was  humble,  meek, 
and  benevolent.  He  was  ready  at  all  times  to 
relieve  the  distressed,  and  through  life  he  de 
voted  a  tenth  part  of  lu's  whole  income  to  pious 
and  charitable  uses.  He  was  ever  a  firm  friend 
to  the  civil  and  religious  liberties  of  mankind, 
and  was  happy  in  living  to  see  the  establishment 
of  peace  and  independence  in  his  native  land, 
lie  deserves  honorable  remembrance  for  his  ex 
ertions  to  send  the  gospel  to  the  Indians.  Under 
his  many  heavy  trials  he  was  submissive  and  pa 
tient.  When  his  infirmities  had  in  a  great 
measure  terminated  his  usefulness,  he  expressed 
his  desire  to  depart  and  be  with  Christ.  He  at 
length  calmly  resigned  his  spirit  into  the  hands 
of  its  Redeemer.  His  son,  Xathaniel,  a  mer 
chant  in  Boston,  who  died  in  1798,  wrote,  with 

James  Swan  and  others,  against  the  slave  trade 
and  slavery  from  1766  to  1770. 

His  publications  are  the  following :  the  wisdom 
of  God  in  the  redemption  of  man,  1728 ;  a  ser 
mon  at  the  artillery  election,  1733 ;  on  evan 
gelical  repentance,  1741 ;  discourses  on  llomans 
VIII.  14,  1743;  funeral  sermons  on  the  death  of 
President  Leverett,  1724;  of  Francis  Foxcroft, 
1728;  of  President  Wadsworth,  1737;  of  Han 
cock,  1752;  of  Spencer  Phips,  1757;  of  Henry 
Flynt,  1760;  of  Dr.  Wigglesworth,  1765;  of 
President  Holyoke,  1769;  sermons  at  the  or 
dination  of  Josiah  Cotton,  1728 ;  of  John  Ser 
geant,  1735 ;  of  John  Sparhawk,  1736 ;  of 
Matthew  Bridge,  1746;  of  O.  Peabody,  Jr., 
1750 ;  of  Stephen  Badger,  1753 ;  a  sermon  at  the 
general  election,  1742;  at  the  convention,  1743; 
two  discourses  on  a  fast,  1 748  ;  on  the  difference 
between  a  legal  and  evangelical  righteousness, 
1749;  Dudleian  lecture,  1758;  at  the  Boston  lec 
ture,  1763;  against  profane  swearing,  1765;  a 
thanksgiving  sermon  for  the  conquest  of  Can 
ada,  1760;  for  the  repeal  of  the  stamp  act,  1766; 
two  discourses  on  a  fast,  1770.  —  Holmes'  History 
of  Cambridge ;  Collections  of  Historical  Society, 
vii.  37,9-63;  x.  158;  American  Herald,  Feb. 
23,  1784. 

APPLETOX,  JESSE,  D.  D.,  the  second  president 
of  Bowdoin  college,  was  born  at  Xew  Ipswich 
Xov.  17,  1772.  He  descended  from  John  Apple- 
ton  of  Great  Waldingfield,  Suffolk,  England,  who 
died  in  1436.  Samuel,  a  descendant  of  John, 
came  to  this  country  in  1635,  and  settled  at 
Ipswich,  Mass.  Francis,  his  father,  a  man  of 
piety  and  vigorous  intellect,  died  in  1816,  aged  83. 

President  Appleton  was  graduated  at  Dart 
mouth  college  in  1792.  It  was  during  his  resi 
dence  at  that  seminary,  that  he  experienced  deep 
religious  impressions ;  yet  of  any  precise  period, 
when  his  heart  was  regenerated  by  the  Spirit  of 
God,  he  was  not  accustomed  to  speak.  The  only 
safe  evidence  of  piety,  he  believed,  was  "  the 
perception  in  himself  of  those  qualities,  which  the 
Gospel  requires."  Having  spent  two  years  in  the 
instruction  of  youth  at  Dover  and  Aniherst,  he 
studied  theology  under  Dr.  Lathrop  of  West 
Springfield.  In  Feb.,  1797,  he  was  ordained  as 
the  pastor  of  a  church  at  Hampton.  His 
religious  sentiments  at  this  period  were  Arminian. 
Much  of  his  time  during  his  ten  years'  residence 
in  that  town  was  devoted  to  systematic,  earnest 
study,  in  consequence  of  which  liis  sentiments 
assumed  a  new  form.  By  his  faithful,  affectionate 
services  he  was  very  much  endeared  to  his  people. 
At  his  suggestion  the  Piscataqua  Evangelical 
Magazine  was  published,  to  which  he  contributed 
valuable  essays,  with  the  signature  of  Lc'^hton. 
Such  was  his  public  estimation,  that  in  1803  he 
was  one  of  the  two  principal  candidates  for  the 
professorsliip  of  theology  at  Harvard  college ;  but 



Dr.  Ware  was  elected.  In  1807  he  was  chosen 
president  of  Bowdoin  college,  into  which  office 
he  was  inducted  Dec.  23.  After  the  toils  of  ten 
years  in  this  station,  his  health  hecame  much  im 
paired  in  consequence  of  a  severe  cold,  in  October, 
1817.  In  May,  1819,  his  illness  became  more 
alarming,  his  complaints  being  a  cough,  hoarse 
ness,  and  debility.  A  journey  proved  of  no 
essential  benefit.  A  profuse  hemorrhage  in 
October  extinguished  all  hope  of  recovery.  As 
the  day  of  his  dissolution  approached,  he  re 
marked,  "  Of  this  I  am  sure,  that  salvation  is  all 
of  grace.  I  would  make  no  mention  of  any 
thing,  which  I  have  ever  thought,  or  said,  or  done ; 
but  only  of  this,  that  God  so  loved  the  world,  as 
to  give  his  only  begotten  Son,  that  whosoever  be- 
licvefh  on  Him  should  not  perish,  but  have  ever 
lasting  life.  The  atonement  is  the  only  ground 
of  hope."  In  health  he  was  sometimes  anxious, 
in  a  high  degree,  in  regard  to  the  college ;  but  in 
his  sickness  he  said  in  cheerful  confidence,  "  God 
has  taken  care  of  the  college,  and  God  will  take 
care  of  it."  Among  his  last  expressions  were 
heard  the  words,  "  Glory  to  God  in  the  highest : 
the  whole  earth  shall  be  filled  with  his  glory." 
lie  died  Xov.  12,  1,819,  at  the  age  of  47,  having 
been  president  nearly  twelve  years.  A  discourse 
was  published,  which  was  delivered  at  his  funeral 
by  Benjamin  Tappan  of  Augusta,  describing  the 
excellences  of  his  character  and  his  peculiar 
qualifications  for  the  station,  which  he  occupied. 
His  widow,  Elizabeth,  died  in  Boston  in  1844. 

He  published  a  dedication  sermon  at  Hampton, 
1797 ;  sermons  at  the  ordination  of  Asa  Rand 
of  Gorham,  1809,  and  Jonathan  Cogswell  of  Saco, 
and  Reuben  Xason  of  Freeport,  1810;  of  Ben 
jamin  Tappan  of  Augusta,  1811;  discourse  on 
the  death  of  Frederic  Southgate,  1813 ;  Massa 
chusetts  election  sermon,  1814  ;  a  sermon  on  the 
perpetuity  of  the  Sabbath,  1814 ;  thanksgiving 
sermon,  1815  ;  sermon  at  the  ordination  of  Enos 
Merrill,  of  Freeport;  sermon  before  the  Bath 
society  for  the  suppression  of  public  vices  ;  address 
before  the  Mass,  society  for  the  suppression  of  in 
temperance,  1816 ;  sermon  before  the  American 
commissioners  for  foreign  missions,  1817;  sermon 
at  the  formation  of  the  Maine  education  society, 
1818 ;  also  a  sermon  on  the  death  of  Mrs.  Buck- 
minster  ;  a  sermon  before  the  Portsmouth  female 
asylum ;  and  a  sermon  relating  to  Dr.  Emmons  on 

In  1820  a  volume  of  his  addresses  was  pub 
lished,  containing  his  inaugural  address  and 
eleven  annual  addresses,  with  a  sketch  of  his 
character  by  Dr.  Xichols  of  Portland.  In  1822 
his  lectures  and  occasional  sermons  were  published 
in  one  volume,  witli  a  memoir  of  his  life  by 
Benjamin  Tappan  of  Augusta.  The  subjects  of 
those  lectures,  twenty-seven  in  number,  are  the  ne 
cessity  of  revelation,  human  depravity,  the  atone- 


ment,  regeneration,  the  eternity  of  future  punish 
ment,  the  resurrection  of  the  body,  and  the 
demoniacs  of  the  Xew  Testament. 

The  sermons  are  on  the  immortality  of  the  soul, 
the  influence  of  religion  on  the  condition  of 
man,  the  evils  of  war  and  the  probability  of 
universal  peace,  the  truth  of  Christianity  from  its 
moral  effects,  conscience,  and  consequences  of 
neglecting  the  great  salvation.  His  works,  with 
a  memoir,  were  published  in  two  vols.,  1837. 

APPLETOX,  SAMUEL,  a  distinguished  mer 
chant,  died  July  12,  1853,  aged  87.  He  was  born 
in  Xew  Ipswich,  X.  H.,  June  22,  1766,  one  of  a 
family  of  twelve  brothers  and  sisters.  He  early 
became  a  country  merchant;  in  1794  he1  es 
tablished  himself  in  business  in  Boston,  in  which 
his  career  was  one  of  great  honor,  success,  and 
usefulness.  His  brother,  Xathan,  became  his 
partner.  He  married  in  1819  Mrs.  Mary  Gore. 
As  early  as  1823  he  determined  to  spend 
annually  the  amount  of  his  income.  Having  no 
children,  much  of  his  beneficence  had  respect  to 
the  children  of  his  brothers  and  sisters ;  and 
much  of  his  charity  went  to  the  poor.  He  was 
accustomed  to  give  away  25,000  dollars  a  year. 
To  all  great  objects  of  charity  he  Avas  a  large  con 
tributor.  He  deemed  the  day  lost,  in  which  he 
had  not  done  some  good.  To  Dartmouth  college 
he  gave  10,000  dollars.  A  print  of  him  is  in  the 
Historical  Register.  His  life  by  E.  Peabody  may 
be  found  in  the  lives  of  American  merchants. 

APPLETOX,  LYDIA,  sister  of  X.  Dane,  died 
in  Beverly  Aug.  23,  1845,  aged  103  years  and  8 
months.  She  was  married  at  thirty  and  was  a 
widow  at  ninety. 

APTHORP,  EAST,  an  Episcopal  minister,  was 
the  son  of  Charles  Apthorp,  a  merchant  of 
Boston,  Avho  died  in  1758,  aged  61.  He  was  born 
in  1733,  and  studied  at  Jesus'  college,  Cambridge, 
England.  Having  taken  orders,  he  was  appointed 
in  1761  by  the  society  for  propagating  the  Gospel 
in  foreign  parts  a  missionary  at  Cambridge,  in 
which  place  he  continued  four  or  five  years.  He 
engaged  in  a  warm  controversy  with  Dr.  Mayhcw 
concerning  the  design  and  conduct  of  the  society, 
of  which  he  was  a  missionary.  The  political 
feelings  of  the  people  were  mingled  with  their 
religious  attachments ;  the  cause,  which  Mr.  Ap 
thorp  espoused,  was  unpopular,  and  he  returned 
to  England.  He  was  made  vicar  of  Croydon  in 
1765,  and  in  1778  rector  of  Bow  church,  London, 
to  which  he  was  presented  by  his  friend  and 
fellow  collegian,  bishop  Porteus.  In  1790,  having 
lost  his  sight,  he  exchanged  these  livings  for  the 
prebend  of  Finsbury,  and  having  an  adequate 
income,  he  retired  to  spend  the  evening  of  his 
days  among  the  scenes  and  friends  of  his  youth, 
at  the  university,  in  a  house  provided  for  him  by 
his  patron,  Bishop  Watson.  He  died  at  Cam 
bridge,  England,  April  16,  1816,  aged  83  years. 


His  wife  was  the  daughter  of  Foster  Hutchinson, 
a  brother  of  the  governor.  His  only  son  was  a 
clergyman ;  of  three  daughters,  one  was  married 
to  Dr.  Cary  and  one  to  Dr.  Butler,  both  heads  of 
colleges ;  the  third  married  a  son  of  Dr.  Palcy. 
Dr.  Thomas  Bulfinch  of  Boston  married  one  of 
his  sisters,  and  Robert  Bayard  of  New  York 
another.  He  was  eminent  as  a  writer.  He 
published  a  sermon  at  the  opening  of  the  church 
at  Cambridge,  17G1;  on  the  peace,  1763;  con 
siderations  respecting  the  society  for  the  propaga 
tion,  etc.,  1763 ;  on  the  death  of  Ann  Wheelwright, 
1764 ;  review  of  Mayhew's  remarks  on  the  answer 
to  his  observations,  etc.,  1765;  discourses  on 
prophecy,  at  the  Warburton  lecture,  Lincoln's 
Inn  chapel,  2  vols;  and  an  answer  to  Gibbon's 
statement  of  the  causes  of  the  spread  of  Christ 
ianity. —  Jcnnison,  MS. ;  Holmes,  n.  120,481. 

APTHORP,  GEORGE  H.,  missionary  to  Ceylon, 
died  June  8,  1844,  aged  46.  Born  in  Quincy,  he 
graduated  at  Yale  in  1829,  and  studied  theology 
at  Princeton.  He  sailed  from  Boston  in  1833. 
He  lived  chiefly  at  Varany.  He  said  in  his  sick 
ness,  "  My  faith  rests  firmly  on  the  rock." 
Among  his  last  words  were,  "  Precious  Saviour, 
come,  —  come  quickly."  His  last  prayers,  both  in 
English  and  Tamul,  for  all  descriptions  of  men, 
were  most  earnest.  His  wife,  Mary  Robertson, 
of  Albemarle  county,  Va.,  died  in  peace  Sept.  3, 
1849,  aged  41,  and  was  buried  by  the  side  of  her 

ARBUCKLE,  MATTHEW,  brigadier-general, 
died  at  Fort  Smith,  Ark.,  June  11,  1851,  aged  75. 
He  commanded  at  New  Orleans,  Fort  Gibson,  and 
Fort  Smith.  Thoroughly  acquainted  with  the 
Indians,  he  always  preserved  their  confidence. 

ARCH,  JOHN,  a  Cherokee  Indian  and  an 
interpreter,  died  at  Brainerd  June  8,  1825,  aged 
27.  When  taken  sick,  he  was  engaged  in  trans 
lating  John's  Gospel  into  Cherokee,  using  the 
ingenious  alphabet  invented  by  Mr.  Guess.  He 
had  been  a  Christian  convert  several  years ;  and 
he  died  in  peace,  saying,  "  God  is  good,  and  will 
do  right!"  He  was  buried  by  the  side  of  Dr. 

ARCHDALE,  JOHN,  governor  of  Carolina,  was 
appointed  to  this  office  by  the  proprietors,  after 
Lord  Ashley  had  declined  accepting  it.  He  was 
a  Quaker  and  a  proprietor,  and  arrived  in  the 
summer  of  1695.  The  settlers  received  him  with 
universal  joy.  The  colony  had  been  in  much  con 
fusion,  but  order  was  now  restored.  The  As 
sembly  was  called,  and  the  governor  by  the 
discreet  use  of  his  extensive  powers  settled  almost 
every  public  concern  to  the  satisfaction  of  the 
people.  The  price  of  lands  and  the  form  of  con 
veyances  were  settled  by  law.  Magistrates  were 
appointed  for  hearing  all  causes,  and  determining 
all  differences  between  the  settlers  and  the 
Indians.  Public  roads  were  ordered  to  be  made 



and  water  passages  cut.  The  planting  of  rice, 
which  has  since  become  the  great  source  of  the 
opulence  of  Carolina,  was  introduced.  A  captain 
of  a  vessel  from  Madagascar  on  his  way  to  Great 
Britain  anchored  off'  Sullivan's  Island  and  made  a 
present  to  the  governor  of  a  bag  of  seed  rice, 
which  he  had  brought  from  the  east.  This  rice 
the  governor  divided  among  some  of  his  friends, 
who  agreed  to  make  an  experiment.  The  success 
equalled  their  expectation,  and  from  this  small 
beginning  arose  the  staple  commodity  of  Carolina. 

He  continued  one  year  in  his  government. 
After  his  return  to  London,  he  published  a  work 
entitled,  a  new  description  of  that  fertile  and 
pleasant  province  of  Carolina,  with  a  brief  ac 
count  of  its  discovery,  settling,  and  the  govern 
ment  thereof  to  this  time,  with  several  remark 
able  passages  during  my  time,  1707.  —  Holmes; 
Ilewatt,  I.  119,  129-131 ;  Ramsay,  I.  47-50. 

ARCHER,  STEVENSON,  chief  judge  of  the  court 
of  appeals  in  Maryland,  died  Jan.  25,  1848. 

ARGALL,  SAMUEL,  deputy  governor  of  Vir 
ginia,  came  to  that  colony  in  1609  to  trade  and 
to  fish  for  sturgeon.  The  trade  v\-as  in  violation 
of  the  laws;  but  as  the  wine  and  provisions, 
which  he  brought,  were  much  wanted,  his  con 
duct  was  connived  at,  and  he  continued  to  make 
voyages  for  Ins  OAvn  advantage  and  in  the  service 
of  the  colony.  In  1612  he  carried  off  Pocahon- 
tas  to  James  Town.  In  1613  he  arrived  at  the 
Island,  now  called  Mount  Desert,  in  Maine,  for 
the  purpose  of  fishing,  and  having  discovered  a 
settlement  of  the  French,  which  was  made  two 
years  before,  he  immediately  attacked  it,  and 
took  most  of  the  settlers  prisoners.  Gilbert  de 
Thet,  a  Jesuit  father,  was  killed  in  the  engage 
ment.  This  was  the  commencement  of  hostili 
ties  between  the  French  and  English  colonists  in 
America.  Capt.  Argall  soon  afterwards  sailed 
from  Virginia  to  Acadie  and  destroyed  the  French 
settlements  of  St.  Croix  and  Port  Royal.  The 
pretext  for  this  hostile  expedition  in  time  of 
peace  was  the  encroachment  of -the  French  on 
the  rights  of  the  English,  which  were  founded  on 
the  prior  discovery  of  the  Cabots.  Argall  on  his 
return  subdued  the  Dutch  settlement  at  Hudson's 
river.  In  1614  he  went  to  England,  and  returned 
in  1617  as  deputy  governor.  On  his  arrival  he 
found  the  public  buildings  at  James  Town  fallen 
to  decay,  the  market  place  and  streets  planted 
with  tobacco,  and  the  people  of  the  colony  dis 
persed  in  places,  which  they  thought  best  adapted 
for  cultivating  that  pernicious  weed.  To  restore 
prosperity  to  the  colony  Capt.  Argall  introduced 
some  severe  regulations.  He  prohibited  all  trade 
or  familiarity  with  the  Indians.  Teaching  them 
the  use  of  arms  Was  a  crime  to  be  punished  by 
death.  He  ordered,  that  all  goods  should  be 
sold  at  an  advance  of  twenty-five  per  cent.,  and 
fixed  the  price  of  tobacco  at  three  shillings  per 



pound.  None  could  sell  or  buy  at  a  different 
price  under  the  penalty  of  three  years'  imprison 
ment.  No  man  was  permitted  to  fire  a  gun,  be 
fore  a  new  supply  of  ammunition,  except  in  self- 
defence,  on  pain  of  a  year's  slavery.  Absence 
from  church  on  Sundays  or  holidays  was  punished 
by  confinement  for  the  night,  and  one  week's 
slavery  to  the  colony,  and  on  a  repetition  of  the 
offence  the  punishment  was  increased. 

The  rigorous  execution  of  these  laws  rendered 
him  odious  in  the  colony,  and  the  report  of  his 
tyranny  and  his  depredations  upon  the  revenues 
of  the  company  reaching  England,  it  was  deter 
mined  to  recall  him.  Lord  Delaware  was  di 
rected  to  send  him  home  to  answer  the  charges 
brought  against  him ;  but  as  his  lordship  did  not 
reach  Virginia,  being  summoned  away  from  life 
•while  on  his  passage,  the  letter  to  him  fell  into 
the  hands  of  Argall.  Perceiving  from  it  that 
the  fine  harvest,  which  now  occupied  him,  would 
be  soon  ended,  he  redoubled  his  industry.  He 
multiplied  his  acts  of  injustice,  and  before  the 
arrival  of  a  new  governor  in  1619  set  sail  in  a 
vessel,  loaded  with  his  effects.  He  was  the 
partner  in  trade  of  the  Earl  of  Warwick,  and  by 
this  connection  was  enabled  to  defraud  the  com 
pany  of  the  restitution,  which  they  had  a  right  to 
expect.  In  1620  he  commanded  a  ship  of  war 
in  an  expedition  against  the  Algerines ;  in  1623 
he  was  knighted  by  King  James ;  in  1625  he 
was  engaged  in  the  expedition  against  the  Span 
ish  under  Cecil. 

His  character,  like  that  of  most,  who  were  con 
cerned  in  the  government  of  Virginia,  is  differ 
ently  drawn ;  by  some  he  is  represented  as  a 
good  mariner,  a  man  of  public  spirit,  active,  in 
dustrious,  careful  to  provide  for  the  people,  and 
to  keep  them  constantly  employed ;  and  by  others 
he  is  described  as  negligent  of  the  public  busi 
ness,  selfish,  rapacious,  passionate,  arbitrary,  and 
cruel,  pushing  his  unrighteous  gains  in  every  way 
of  extortion  and  oppression.  He  was,  without 
question,  a  man  of  talents  and  art,  for  he  so 
foiled  and  perplexed  the  company,  that  they  were 
never  able  to  bring  him  to  any  account  or  pun 
ishment.  An  account  of  his  voyage  from  James 
Town,  beginning  June  19,  1610,  in  which,  missing 
Bermuda,  he  "  put  over  towards  Sagadahoc  and 
Cape  Cod,"  and  his  letter  respecting  his  voyage 
to  Virginia  in  1613,  are  preserved  in  Purchas. — 
Belknap's  Biography,  II.  51-63;  Holmes,  144, 
155  ;  I.  Smith :  Stith ;  Marshall,  I.  56,  107  ; 

AllMISTEAD,  Gen.  W.  K.,  died  at  Upper- 
ville,  Va.,  Oct.  13,  1845,  aged  about  60.  He 
was  in  the  army  forty  years,  of  correct  moral 
deportment :  for  many  years  he  was  chief  of  the 
corps  of  engineers.  He  commanded  in  1840  in 
the  war  against  the  Florida  Indians. 

ARMSTRONG,  WILLIAM  J.,  D.  D.,  secretary 


of  the  American  Board  of  Missions,  died  in  the 
wreck  of  the  steamer  Atlantic  Nov.  27,  1846, 
aged  50.  He  was  born  in  1796  at  Mendham, 
N.  J.,  where  his  father,  Dr.  A.  Armstrong,  was 
the  minister.  He  graduated  at  Princeton  in 
1816.  When  he  first  began  to  preach,  he  sought 
an  untried  field  of  labor  at  Charlottesville,  in 
central  Virginia,  where  there  was  no  church,  but 
where  he  gathered  one.  In  1821  he  returned  to 
New  Jersey,  and  became  for  three  years  the 
pastor  of  the  church  in  Trenton.  He  then  was 
for  ten  years  pastor  of  a  church  in  Richmond, 
Va.,  as  the  successor  of  Dr.  Rice;  and  here  he 
faithfully  toiled  with  remarkable  success.  In 
1834  he  was  chosen  a  secretary  of  the  American 
Board  of  Missions  as  successor  of  Dr.  Wisncr, 
and  removed  to  Boston ;  but  in  1838  it  was 
thought  best,  that  he  should  reside  in  New  York, 
retaining  his  connection  with  the  Board.  Almost 
every  Sabbath  he  preached,  far  and  wide,  on  the 
claims  of  the  heathen. 

He  made  his  monthly  visit  to  Boston  on 
Monday  Nov.  23,  1846,  to  attend  the  meeting  of 
the  Prudential  Committee  of  the  Board.  A 
storm  set  in  on  Wednesday,  when  he  proposed 
to  return  to  New  York :  in  vain  did  his  associates 
advise  him  not  to  venture  upon  the  water  in  such 
a  tempest ;  but  he  was  desirous  to  reach  home, 
as  the  next  day  was  thanksgiving.  At  five  o'clock 
he  left  Boston  by  railroad  for  Norwich,  and  pro 
ceeded  from  Allyn's  Point  in  the  steamer  Atlantic 
to  New  London ;  but  when  about  nine  miles  out 
of  the  harbor  the  steam-pipe  burst,  leaving  the 
vessel  to  the  north-west  wind.  The  anchors 
dragged,  and  during  the  whole  day  and  night 
of  Thursday  the  vessel  was  at  the  mercy  of  the 
storm.  As  a  minister  of  Christ  Dr.  A.  was  busily 
employed  in  teaching,  in  exhortation,  and  prayer, 
that  he  might  aid  others  in  preparing  to  die. 
About  fifty  met  in  the  cabin  in  the  afternoon  to 
read  the  Bible  and  to  pray.  He  was  calm  and 
resigned.  After  four  o'clock  in  the  morning  of 
Friday  the  27th  the  vessel  went  to  pieces,  as  it 
struck  the  reef,  and  he  and  many  others  died. 
His  body  was  recovered,  and  his  funeral  was  at 
tended  at  New  York.  —  N.  Y.  Observer,  Dec.  5. 

ARMSTRONG,  ROBERT,  general,  died  at  Wash 
ington  in  Feb.,  1854,  aged  about  65.  Born  in 
East  Tennessee,  he  was  a  general  in  the  Florida 
war  of  1836;  afterwards  consul  at  Liverpool. 
Gen.  Jackson  bequeathed  to  him  his  sword. 

ARMSTRONG,  JOHN,  general,  died  at  Red 
Hook,  N.  Y.,  April  1,  1855,  aged  84.  He  served 
as  an  officer  with  much  credit  during  the  Revolu 
tionary  war,  at  the  close  of  which  he  published 
the  celebrated  Newburgh  Letters,  written  with 
great  vigor  and  eloquence.  The  prudence  of 
AVashington  gave  triumph  to  milder  counsels. 
After  the  war  he  was  adjutant-general  of  Penn 
sylvania  :  he  conducted  the  vigorous  movement 




against  the  settlers  at  Wyoming.  From  New 
York  he  was  sent  to  the  Senate  of  the  United 
States :  he  was  also  minister  in  France,  after 
Chancellor  Livingston.  Mr.  Madison  placed  him 
at  the  head  of  the  war  department.  After  the 
capture  of  Washington  by  the  British  in  1814  he 
was  dismissed  from  office  and  afterwards  lived  in 
retirement.  He  published  a  brief  history  of  the 
war  with  England. 

ARMSTRONG,  SAMUEL  T.,  died  in  Boston 
March  26,  1850,  aged  66.  He  was  a  bookseller, 
in  which  profession  he  made  a  fortune ;  mayor 
of  the  city ;  and  lieutenant-governor.  Among 
the  books  he  published  was  a  stereotype  edition 
of  Scott's  family  Bible,  which  was  widely  circu 
lated.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Prudential 
Committee  of  the  American  Board.  It  is  said, 
that  it  was  his  purpose,  —  as  he  had  a  fortune  of 
100  or  150,000  dollars  and  no  children,  —  to 
leave  a  liberal  charitable  bequest;  but  he  died 
suddenly  in  his  chair.  His  wife,  a  descendant 
of  Edward  Johnson,  survived  him. 

ARMSTRONG,  JOHN,  general,  resided  in 
Pennsylvania  and  was  distinguished  in  the  Indian 
wars.  In  1 7  76,  being  appointed  brigadier-general, 
he  assisted  in  the  defence  of  Fort  Moultrie  and 
in  the  battle  of  Germantown.  He  left  the  army 
in  1777  through  dissatisfaction  as  to  rank,  and 
was  afterwards  .a  member  of  Congress.  He  died 
at  Carlisle  March  9,  1795.  He  was  a  professor 
of  religion.  —  Lempriere. 

ARNOLD,  BENEDICT,  governor  of  Rhode 
Island,  succeeded  Roger  Williams  in  that  office 
in  1657  and  continued  till  1660 ;  he  was  also 
governor  from  1662  to  1666,  from  1669  to  1672, 
and  from  1677  to  1678,  —  in  which  last  year 
he  died.  lie  had  lived  in  Providence  as  early 
as  1639.  Winthrop  speaks  of  him,  "  as  a  great 
friend  of  Massachusetts,  especially  in  negotiations 
with  the  Indians."  —  In  1657  he  and  Coddington 
purchased  of  the  Indian  sachems  the  island  of 
Quononoquot,  afterwards  called  James  Town.  — 
Massachusetts  Historical  Collections,  \.  217; 
Savage's  V/inthrop ;  Farmer. 

ARNOLD,  BENEDICT,  a  major-general  in  the 
American  army,  and  infamous  for  deserting  the 
cause  of  his  country,  died  in  England  June  14, 
1801.  He  was  bred  an  apothecary  with  a  Dr. 
Lathrop,  who  was  so  pleased  with  him,  as  to  give 
him  500  pounds  sterling.  From  1763  to  1767 
he  combined  the  business  of  a  druggist  with  that 
of  a  bookseller,  at  New  Haven,  Conn.  Being 
captain  of  a  volunteer  company,  after  hearing  of 
the  battle  of  Lexington  he  immediately  marched 
with  his  company  1'or  the  American  head-quar 
ters,  and  reached  Cambridge  April  29,  1775.  He 
waited  on  the  Massachusetts  committee  of  safety 
and  informed  them  of  the  defenceless  state  of 
Ticondcroga.  The  committee  appointed  him  a 
colonel,  and  commissioned  him  to  raise  four  hun 

dred  men,  and  to  take  that  fortress.  He  pro 
ceeded  directly  to  Vermont,  and  when  he  arrived 
at  Castleton  was  attended  by  one  servant  only. 
Here  he  joined  Col.  Allen,  and  on  May  10th  the 
fortress  was  taken. 

In  the  fall  of  1775  he  was  sent  by  the  com- 
mander-in-chief  to  penetrate  through  the  wilder 
ness  of  the  District  of  Maine  into  Canada.  He 
commenced  his  march  Sept.  16,  with  about  one 
thousand  men,  consisting  of  New  England  in 
fantry,  some  volunteers,  a  company  of  artillerv, 
and  three  companies  of  riflemen.  One  division, 
that  of  Col.  Enos,  was  obliged  to  return  from 
Dead  river  from  the  want  of  provisions ;  had  it 
proceeded,  the  whole  army  might  have  perished. 
The  greatest  hardships  were  endured  and  the 
most  appalling  difficulties  surmounted  in  this  ex 
pedition,  of  which  Ma j.  Mcigs  kept  a  journal,  and 
Mr.  Henry  also  published  an  account.  The  army 
was  in  the  wilderness,  between  Fort  W estern  at 
Augusta  and  the  first  settlements  on  the  Chaudiere 
in  Canada,  about  five  weeks.  In  the  want  of 
provisions  Capt.  Dearborn's  dog  was  killed,  and 
eaten,  even  the  feet  and  skin,  with  good  appe 
tite.  As  the  army  arrived  at  the  first  settle 
ments  Nov.  4th,  the  intelligence  necessarily 
reached  Quebec  in  one  or  two  days ;  but  a  week 
or  fortnight  before  this  Gov.  Cramahe  had  been 
apprized  of  the  approach  of  this  army.  Arnold 
had  imprudently  sent  a  letter  to  Schuyler,  en 
closed  to  a  friend  in  Quebec,  by  an  Indian,  dated 
Oct.  13,  and  he  was  himself  convinced,  from  the 
preparations  made  for  his  reception,  that  the  In 
dian  had  betrayed  him.  Nov.  5th  the  troops 
arrived  at  St.  Mary's,  ten  or  twelve  miles  from 
Quebec,  and  remained  there  three  or  four  davs. 
Nov.  9th  or  10th  they  advanced  to  Point  Levi, 
opposite  Quebec.  Forty  birch  canoes  having 
been  collected,  it  was  still  found  necessary  to 
delay  crossing  the  river  for  three  nights  on  ac 
count  of  a  high  wind.  On  the  14th  the  wind 
moderated ;  but  this  delay  was  very  favorable  to 
the  city,  for  on  the  13th  Col.  M'Lean,  an  active 
officer,  arrived  with  eighty  men  to  strengthen  the 
garrison,  which  already  consisted  of  more  than  a 
thousand  men,  so  as  to  render  an  assault  hope 
less.  Indeed  Arnold  himself  placed  his  chief 
dependence  on  the  co-operation  of  Montgomery. 

On  the  14th  of  Nov.  he  crossed  the  St.  Law 
rence  in  the  night ;  and,  ascending  the  precipice, 
which  Wolfe  had  climbed  before  him,  formed  his 
small  corps  on  the  height  near  the  plains  of 
Abraham.  With  only  about  seven  hundred  men, 
one  third  of  whose  muskets  had  been  rendered 
useless  in  the  march  through  the  wilderness, 
success  could  not  be  expected.  It  is  surprising, 
that  the  garrison,  consisting  Nov.  14th  of  one 
thousand  one  hundred  and  twenty-six  men,  did 
not  march  out  and  destroy  the  small  force  of 
Arnold.  After  parading  some  days  on  the 



heights  near  the  town,  and  sending  two  flags  to 
summon  the  inhabitants,  he  retired  to  Point  aux 
Trembles,  twenty  miles  above  Quebec,  and  there 
awaited  the  arrival  of  Montgomery,  who  joined 
him  on  the  first  of  December.  The  city  was  im 
mediately  besieged,  but  the  best  measures  had 
been  taken  for  its  defence.  The  able  Gen.  Carle- 
ton  had  entered  the  city  with  sixty  men  Nov. 
20th.  On  the  morning  of  the  last  day  of  the 
year  an  assault  was  made  on  the  one  side  of  the 
lower  town  by  Montgomery,  who  was  killed.  At 
the  same  time  Col.  Arnold,  at  the  head  of  about 
three  hundred  and  fifty  men,  made  a  desperate 
attack  on  the  opposite  side.  Advancing  with  the 
utmost  intrepidity  along  the  St.  Charles  through 
a  narrow  path,  exposed  to  an  incessant  fire  of 
grape-shot  and  musketry,  as  he  approached  the 
first  barrier  he  received  a  musket  ball  in  the  left 
leg,  which  shattered  the  bone.  He  was  com 
pelled  to  retire,  on  foot,  dragging  "  one  leg  after 
him"  near  a  mile  to  the  hospital,  having  lost 
sixty  men  killed  and  wounded,  and  three  hun 
dred  prisoners.  Although  the  attack  was  unsuc 
cessful,  the  blockade  of  Quebec  was  continued 
till  Mav,  1776,  when  the  army,  which  was  in  no 
condition  to  risk  an  assault,  was  removed  to  a 
more  defensible  position.  Arnold  was  compelled 
to  relinquish  one  post  after  another,  till  the  18th 
of  June,  when  he  quitted  Canada.  After  this 
period  he  exhibited  great  bravery  in  the  com 
mand  of  the  American  fleet  on  Lake  Champlain. 
In  August,  1777,  he  relieved  Fort  Schuyler 
under  the  command  of  Col.  Gansevoort,  which 
was  invested  by  Col.  St.  Leger  with  an  army  of 
from  fifteen  to  eighteen  hundred  men.  In  the 
battle  near  Stillwater,  Sept.  19th,  he  was  engaged 
incessantly  for  four  hours.  In  the  action  of  Oct. 
7th,  after  the  British  had  been  driven  into  the 
lines,  Arnold  pressed  forward  and  under  a  tre 
mendous  fire  assaulted  the  works  throughout 
their  whole  extent  from  right  to  left.  The  in- 
trenchments  were  at  length  forced,  and  with  a 
few  men  he  actually  entered  the  works ;  but  his 
horse  being  killed,  and  he  himself  badly  wounded 
in  the  leg,  he  found  it  necessary  to  withdraw, 
and,  as  it  was  now  almost  dark,  to  desist  from  the 
attack.  Being  rendered  unfit  for  active  service 
in  consequence  of  his  wound,  after  the  recovery 
of  Philadelphia  he  was  appointed  to  the  com 
mand  of  the  American  garrison.  When  he  en 
tered  the  city,  he  made  the  house  of  Gov.  Penn, 
the  best  house  in  the  city,  his  head-quarters. 
This  he  furnished  in  a  very  costly  manner,  and 
lived  far  beyond  his  income.  He  had  wasted  the 
plunder,  which  he  had  seized  at  Montreal  in  his 
retreat  from  Canada ;  and  at  Philadelphia  he  was 
determined  to  make  new  acquisitions.  He  laid 
his  hands  on  every  thing  in  the  city,  which  could 
be  considered  as  the  property  of  those,  who  were 
unfriendly  to  the  cause  of  his  country.  He  was 

charged  with  oppression,  extortion,  and  enormous 
charges  upon  the  public  in  his  accounts,  and  with 
I  applying  the  public  money  and  property  to  his 
I  own  private  use.  Such  was  his  conduct,  that  he 
drew  upon  himself  the  odium  of  the  inhabitants, 
not  only  of  the  city,  but  of  the  province  in  gen 
eral.  He  was  engaged  in  trading  speculations, 
and  had  shares  in  several  privateers,  but  was  un 
successful.  From  the  judgment  of  the  commis 
sioners  appointed  to  inspect  his  accounts,  who 
had  rejected  above  half  the  amount  of  his  de 
mands,  he  appealed  to  Congress  ;  and  they  ap 
pointed  a  committee  of  their  own  body  to  settle 
the  business.  The  committee  confirmed  the  re 
port  of  the  commissioners,  and  thought  they  had 
allowed  him  more  than  he  had  any  right  to  ex 
pect.  By  these  disappointments  he  became  irri 
tated,  and  he  gave  full  scope  to  his  resentment. 
His  invectives  against  Congress  were  not  less 
violent,  than  those,  which  he  had  before  thrown 
out  against  the  commissioners.  He  was,  however, 
soon  obliged  to  abide  the  judgment  of  a  court 
martial  upon  the  charges  exhibited  against  him 
by  the  executive  of  Pennsylvania;  and  he  was 
subjected  to  the  mortification  of  receiving  a  repri 
mand  from  Washington.  His  trial  commenced 
in  June,  1778,  but  such  were  the  delays  occa 
sioned  by  the  movements  of  the  army,  that  it  was 
not  concluded  until  Jan.  26,  1779.  The  sentence 
of  a  reprimand  was  approved  by  Congress,  and 
was  soon  afterwards  carried  into  execution. 

Such  was  the  humiliation,  to  which  Gen.  Ar 
nold  was  reduced  in  consequence  of  yielding  to 
the  temptations  of  pride  and  vanity,  and  indulging 
himself  in  the  pleasures  of  a  sumptuous  table 
and  expensive  equipage.  From  this  time  his 
proud  spirit  revolted  from  the  cause  of  America. 
He  turned  his  eyes  to  West  Point  as  an  acquisi 
tion,  which  would  give  value  to  treason,  while  its 
loss  would  inflict  a  mortal  wound  on  his  former 
friends.  He  addressed  himself  to  the  delegation 
of  New  York,  in  which  state  his  reputation  was 
peculiarly  high,  and  a  member  of  Congress  from 
this  state  recommended  him  to  Washington  for 
the  service,  which  he  desired.  The  same  appli 
cation  to  the  commander-in-chief  was  made  not 
long  afterwards  through  Gen.  Schuyler.  Wash 
ington  observed,  that  as  there  was  a  prospect  of 
an  active  campaign  he  should  be  gratified  with 
the  aid  of  Arnold  in  the  field  ;  but  intimated  at 
the  same  time,  that  he  should  receive  the  ap 
pointment  requested,  if  it  should  be  more  pleas 
ing  to  him.  Arnold,  without  discovering  much 
solicitude,  repaired  to  camp  in  the  beginning  of 
August,  and  renewed  in  person  the  solicitations, 
which  had  been  before  indirectly  made.  He  was 
now  offered  the  command  of  the  left  wing  of  the 
army,  which  was  advancing  against  New  York  ; 
but  he  declined  it  under  the  pretext,  that  in  con 
sequence  of  his  wounds,  he  was  unable  to  perform 




the  active  duties  of  the  field.  Without  a  sus 
picion  of  his  patriotism  he  was  invested  with  the 
command  of  \Ycst  Point.  Previously  to  his  so 
liciting  this  station,  he  had  in  a  letter  to  Col. 
Beverlcy  Robinson  signified  his  change  of  prin 
ciples  and  his  wish  to  restore  himself  to  the  favor 
of  his  prince  by  some  signal  proof  of  his  repent 
ance.  This  letter  opened  to  him  a  correspond 
ence  with  Sir  Henry  Clinton,  the  object  of  which 
was  to  concert  the  means  of  putting  the  im 
portant  post,  which  he  commanded,  into  the  pos 
session  of  the  British  general.  His  plan,  it  is 
believed,  was  to  have  drawn  the  greater  part  of 
his  army  without  the  works  under  the  pretext 
of  fighting  the  enemy  in  the  defiles,  and  to  have 
left  unguarded  a  designated  pass,  through  which 
the  assailants  might  securely  approach  and  sur 
prise  the  fortress.  His  troops  he  intended  to 
place,  so  that  they  Avould  be  compelled  to  sur 
render,  or  be  cut  in  pieces.  But  just  as  his 
scheme  was  ripe  for  execution  the  wise  Disposer 
of  events,  who  so  often  and  so  remarkably  inter 
posed  in  favor  of  the  American  cause,  blasted  his 

Maj.  Andre,  after  his  detection,  apprized  Arnold 
of  his  danger,  and  the  traitor  found  opportunity 
to  escape  on  board  the  Vulture,  Sept.  25,  1780,  a 
few  hours  before  the  return  of  Washington,  who 
had  been  absent  on  a  journey  to  Hartford,  On 
the  very  day  of  his  escape  Arnold  wrote  a  letter 
to  Washington,  declaring  that  the  love  of  his 
country  had  governed  him  in  his  late  conduct, 
and  requesting  him  to  protect  Mrs.  Arnold.  She 
was  conveyed  to  her  husband  at  New  York,  and 
his  clothes  and  baggage,  for  which  he  had 
written,  were  transmitted  to  him.  During  the 
exertions,  which  were  made  to  rescue  Andre  from 
the  destruction,  which  threatened  him,  Arnold 
had  the  hardihood  to  interpose.  He  appealed  to 
the  humanity  of  the  commander-in-clu'ef,  and 
then  sought  to  intimidate  him  by  stating  the  situ 
ation  of  many  of  the  principal  characters  of 
South  Carolina,  who  had  forfeited  their  lives,  but 
had  hitherto  been  spared  through  the  clemency 
of  the  British  general.  This  clemency,  he  said, 
could  no  longer  in  justice  be  extended  to  them, 
should  Maj.  Andre  suffer. 

Arnold  was  made  a  brigadier-general  in  the 
British  service ;  which  rank  he  preserved  through 
out  the  war.  Yet  he  must  have  been  held  in 
contempt  and  detestation  by  the  generous  and 
honorable.  It  was  impossible  for  men  of  this 
description,  even  when  acting  with  him,  to  forget 
that  he  was  a  traitor :  first  the  slave  of  his  rage, 
then  purchased  with  gold,  and  finally  secured  by 
the  blood  of  one  of  the  most  accomplished  officers 
in  the  British  army.  One  would  suppose,  that 
his  mind  could  not  have  been  much  at  ease ;  but 
he  had  proceeded  so  far  in  vice,  that  perhaps  his 
reflections  gave  him  but  little  trouble.  "I  am 

mistaken,"  says  Washington  in  a  private  letter, 
"if  at  this  time  Arnold  is  not  undergoing  the 
torments  of  a  mental  hell.  He  wants  feeling. 
From  some  traits  of  his  character,  which  have 
lately  come  to  my  knowledge,  he  seems  to  have 
been  so  hackneyed  in  crime,  so  lost  to  all  sense  of 
honor  and  shame,  that  while  his  faculties  still 
enable  him  to  continue  his  sordid  pursuits,  there 
will  be  no  time  for  remorse." 

Arnold  found  it  necessary  to  make  some  exer 
tions  to  secure  the  attachment  of  his  new  friends. 
With  the  hope  of  alluring  many  of  the  discon 
tented  to  his  standard,  he  published  an  address 
to  the  inhabitants  of  America,  in  which  he  en 
deavored  to  justify  his  conduct.  He  had  encoun 
tered  the  dangers  of  the  field,  he  said,  from  ap 
prehension  that  the  rights  of  his  country  were  in 
danger.  He  had  acquiesced  in  the  Declaration 
of  Independence,  though  he  thought  it  precipitate. 
But  the  rejection  of  the  overtures  made  by  Great 
Britain  in  1778,  and  the  French  alliance,  had 
opened  his  eyes  to  the  ambitious  views  of  those, 
who  would  sacrifice  the  happiness  of  their  country 
to  their  own  aggrandizement,  and  had  made  him 
a  confirmed  loyalist.  He  artfully  mingled  asser 
tions,  that  the  principal  members  of  Congress 
held  the  people  in  sovereign  contempt.  This 
was  followed  in  about  a  fortnight  by  a  proclama 
tion,  addressed  "  to  the  officers  and  soldiers  of  the 
continental  army,  who  have  the  real  interest  of 
their  country  at  heart,  and  who  are  determined 
to  be  no  longer  the  tools  and  dupes  of  Congress 
or  of  France."  To  induce  the  American  officers 
and  soldiers  to  desert  the  cause,  which  they  had 
embraced,  he  represented,  that  the  corps  of 
cavalry  and  infantry,  -which  he  Avas  authorized  to 
raise,  would  be  upon  the  same  footing  Avith  other 
troops  in  the  British  senice ;  that  he  should  Avith 
pleasure  adArance  those,  Avhose  valor  he  might 
Avitness ;  that  the  priA'ate  men,  who  joined  him, 
should  receive  a  bounty  of  three  guineas  each,  be 
sides  payment  at  the  full  value  for  horses,  arms, 
and  accoutrements.  His  object  was  the  peace, 
liberty,  and  safety  of  America.  "  You  are 
promised  liberty,"  he  exclaims,  "  but  is  there  an 
indiAidual  in  the  enjoyment  of  it,  saving  your  op 
pressors  ?  Who  among  you  dare  speak  or  Avrite 
Avhat  he  thinks  against  the  tyranny,  which  has 
robbed  you  of  your  property,  imprisons  your 
persons,  drags  you  to  the  field  of  battle,  and  is 
daily  deluging  your  country  with  your  blood  ? " 
"  What,"  he  exclaims  again,  "  is  America  now, 
but  a  land  of  AvidoAvs,  orphans,  and  beggars  ?  As 
to  you,  Avho  have  been  soldiers  in  the  continental 
army,  can  you  at  this  day  Avant  evidence,  that  the 
funds  of  your  country  arc  exhausted,  or  that  the 
managers  have  applied  them  to  their  private 
uses  ?  In  either  case  you  surely  can  no  longer 
continue  in  their  sen-ice  Avith  honor  or  advantage. 
Yet  you  have  hitherto  been  their  supporters  in 



that  cruelty,  which  with  equal  indifference  to 
yours  as  well  as  to  the  labor  and  blood  of  others, 
is  devouring  a  country,  that  from  the  moment  you 
quit  their  colors  will  be  redeemed  from  their 
tyranny."  These  proclamations  did  not  produce 
the  effect  designed ;  and  in  all  the  hardships, 
sufferings,  and  irritations  of  the  war  Arnold 
remains  the  solitary  instance  of  an  American 
officer,  who  abandoned  the  side  first  embraced  in 
the  contest,  and  turned  his  sword  upon  his  former 
companions  in  arms. 

He  was  soon  dispatched  by  Sir  Henry  Clinton 
to  make  a  diversion  in  Virginia.  With  about 
seventeen  hundred  men  he  arrived  in  the 
Chesapeake  in  Jan.,  1781,  and  being  supported  by 
such  a  naval  force  as  was  suited  to  the  nature  of 
the  service,  he  committed  extensive  ravages  on 
the  rivers  and  along  the  unprotected  coasts.  It 
is  said  that,  while  on  this  expedition  Arnold 
inquired  of  an  American  captain,  whom  he  had 
taken  prisoner,  what  the  Americans  would  do 
with  him,  if  he  should  fall  into  their  hands.  The 
officer  replied,  that  they  would  cut  off'  his  lame 
leg  and  bury  it  with  the  honors  of  war,  and  hang 
the  remainder  of  his  body  in  gibbets.  After  his 
recall  from  Virginia  he  conducted  an  expedition 
against  his  native  state,  Connecticut.  He  took 
Fort  Trumbull  Sept.  6th,  with  inconsiderable  loss. 
On  the  other  side  of  the  harbor  Lieut-Col.  Eyre, 
who  commanded  another  detachment,  made  an 
assault  on  Fort  Griswold,  and  with  the  greatest 
difficulty  entered  the  works.  An  officer  of  the 
conquering  troops  asked,  Avho  commanded?  "I 
did,"  answered  Col.  Ledyard,  "  but  you  do  now," 
and  presented  him  his  sword,  which  was  in 
stantly  plunged  into  his  own  bosom.  A  merci 
less  slaughter  commenced  upon  the  brave  garrison, 
who  had  ceased  to  resist,  until  the  greater  part 
were  either  killed  or  wounded.  After  burning 
the  town  and  the  stores,  which  Avere  in  it,  and 
thus  thickening  the  laurels,  with  which  his  brow 
was  adorned,  Arnold  returned  to  New  York  in 
eight  days. 

From  the  conclusion  of  the  war  till  his  death 
Gen.    Arnold   resided   chiefly   in    England.      In 
1786    he   was   at   St.    John's,   New   Brunswick, 
engaged  in  trade  and  navigation,  and  again  in 
1790.     For  some  cause  he  became  very  unpopular 
in   1792  or   1793,  was  hung  in  effigy,  and  the  j 
mayor  found  it  necessary  to  read  the  riot  act,  and  j 
a  company  of  troops  was  called  to  quell  the  mob. 
Repairing  to  the  West  Indies  in   1794,  a  French 
fleet  anchored  at  the  same  island ;    he  became 
alarmed  lest  he  should  be  detained  by  the  Ameri 
can  allies,  and  passed  the  fleet  concealed  on  a  : 
raft   of  lumber.      He   died   in  Gloucester  place,  ' 
London.     He  married  Margaret,  the  daughter  of 
Edward   Shippen  of  Philadelphia,  chief  justice, 
and  a  loyalist.     Gen.  Greene,  it  is  said,  was  his 
rival.      She  combined  fascinating  manners  with 


strength  of  mind.  She  died  at  London  Aug.  24, 
1804,  aged  43.  His  sons  were  men  of  property 
in  Canada  in  1829.  He  fought  bravely  for  his 
country  and  he  bled  in  her  cause ;  but  his  counti-y 
owed  him  no  returns  of  gratitude,  for  his  sub 
sequent  conduct  proved,  that  he  had  no  honest 
regard  to  her  interests,  but  was  governed  by 
selfish  considerations.  His  progress  from  self- 
indulgence  to  treason  was  easy  and  rapid.  He 
was  vain  and  luxurious,  and  to  gratify  his  giddy 
desires  he  must  resort  to  meanness,  dishonesty, 
and  extortion.  These  vices  brought  with  them 
disgrace ;  and  the  contempt,  into  which  he  fell, 
awakened  a  spirit  of  revenge,  and  left  him  to  the 
unrestrained  influence  of  his  cupidity  and  passion. 
Thus  from  the  high  fame,  to  which  his  bravery 
had  elevated  him,  he  descended  into  infamy. 
Thus  too  he  furnished  new  evidence  of  the  infatu 
ation  of  the  human  mind  in  attaching  such  value 
to  the  reputation  of  a  soldier,  which  may  be 
obtained,  while  the  heart  is  unsound  and  every 
moral  sentiment  is  entirely  depraved.  —  Marshall's 
Washington,  IV.  271-290;  Warren's  Hist.  War; 
Holmes ;  Stedman,  I.  138,  336 ;  n.  247 ;  Smith's 
Narrative  of  the  Death  of  Andre ;  Maine  Hist. 
Coll.  I.;  Amer.  Rememb.,  1776,  part  II. ;  1778, 
part  n. 

ARNOLD,  PELEG,  chief  justice  of  Rhode 
Island,  was  a  delegate  to  Congress  under  the 
confederation,  and  then  was  appointed  judge.  He 
died  at  Smithfield  Feb.  13,  1820,  aged  68. 

ARNOLD,  THOMAS,  appointed  chief  justice  in 
1809,  died  at  Warwick,  It.  I.,  Oct.  8,  1820. 

ARNOLD,  JOSIAH  LYNDON,  a  poet,  was  born 
at  Providence  and  was  graduated  at  Dartmouth 
college  in  1788.  After  superintending  for  some 
time  the  academy  at  Plainfield,  Conn.,  he  studied 
law  at  Providence  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar; 
but  he  did  not  pursue  the  profession,  being  ap 
pointed  a  tutor  in  the  college.  On  the  death, 
March,  1793,  of  his  father,  Dr.  Jonathan  Arnold, 
formerly  a  member  of  Congress,  he  settled  at  St. 
Johnsbury,  Vt.,  the  place  of  his  father's  residence, 
where  he  died  June  7,  1796,  aged  28  years.  His 
few  hasty  effusions  in  verse  were  published  after 
his  death.  —  Specimens  of  Amer.  Poetry,  II.  77. 

ARNOLD,  SETH,  died  at  Westminster,  Vt., 
Aug.  6,  1849,  aged  101  years,  10  months,  —  a 
Revolutionary,  pensioner. 

ARNOLD,  LKMUEL  H.,  governor,  died  in 
Kingston,  R.  I.,  June  27,  18u2,  aged  59.  Born 
in  St.  Johnsbury,  he  graduated  at  Dartmouth 
in  1811,  and  left  the  bar  for  mercantile  pursuits. 
He  was  governor  of  Rhode  Island  in  1831  and 
1832,  and  afterwards  a  member  of  Congress. 
His  father,  Jonathan,  was  of  the  Continental 
Congress  from  Rhode  Island. 

ASBURY,  FIIANCIS,  senior  bishop  of  the 
Methodist  Episcopal  church  in  the  Uniled  States, 
came  to  this  country  in  1771  as  a  preacher,  at  the 




age  of  twenty-six.  In  1773  the  first  annual  con 
ference  of  the  Methodists  was  held  at  Philadelphia, 
when  it  consisted  of  ten  preachers  and  about 
eleven  hundred  members.  He  was  consecrated 
bishop  by  Dr.  Coke  in  1784.  From  this  time  he 
travelled  yearly  through  the  United  States, 
probably  ordaining  three  thousand  preachers  and 
preaching  seventeen  thousand  sermons.  He  died 
suddenly  while  on  a  journey,  at  Spotsylvania,  Va., 
March  31,  1S1G,  aged  70  years.  A  letter  from  J. 
W.  Bond  to  Bishop  M'Kendree  gives  an  account 
of  his  death. 

ASH,  JOHN,  an  agent  of  Carolina,  was  sent  by 
that  colony  to  England  to  seek  redress  of 
grievances,  in  1703.  In  the  same  year  he  pub 
lished  an  account  of  the  affairs  in  Carolina. 

ASHE,  THOMAS,  published  in  1682  a  description 
of  Carolina. 

ASHE,  SAMUEL,  governor  of  North  Carolina, 
was  appointed  chief  justice  in  1777,  and  was 
governor  from  1796  to  1799.  He  died  Jan.,  1813, 
aged  88  years. 

ASHLEY,  JONATHAN,  minister  of  Deerfield, 
Mass.,  was  graduated  at  Yale  college  in  1730,  and 
was  ordained  in  1738.  He  died  in  1780,  aged 
67.  He  possessed  a  strong  and  discerning  mind 
and  lively  imagination,  and  was  a  pungent  and 
energetic  preacher.  He  proclaimed  the  doctrines 
of  grace  with  a  pathos,  which  was  the  effect,  not 
merely  of  his  assent  to  their  Divine  authority,  but 
of  a  deep  sense  of  their  importance  and  excellency. 
He  published  a  sermon  on  visible  saints,  vindicating 
Mr.  Stoddarcl's  sentiments  respecting  church 
membership ;  a  sermon  at  the  ordination  of  John 
Norton,  Deerfield,  1741 ;  the  great  duty  of 
charity,  1742;  a  letter  to  W.  Cooper,  174*5. 

ASHLEY,  JOHN,  major-general,  was  the  son 
of  Col.  John  Ashley,  one  of  the  settlers  in  1732 
of  Iloussatonnoc,  afterwards  Sheffield,  died  Nov. 
5,  1799,  aged  60.  He  descended  from  Robert 
A.  of  Springfield,  1630,  —  and  was  graduated  at 
Yale  college  in  17o8.  In  the  Shays'  insurrection 
he  commanded  the  force,  which  dispersed  the  in 
surgents  at  Sheffield  Feb.  26, 1787.  His  daughter 
Lydia,  married  to  II.  II.  Hinman,  died  in  18<53, 
aged  65.  —  Hint.  Berkshire,  213. 

ASHLEY,  EDWARD,  died  at  Groton,  Conn., 
Jan.,  1767,  aged  108. 

ASHLEY,  WILLIAM  II.,  general,  of  St.  Louis, 
died  March  26,  1838.  Born  in  Powhatan  county, 
Va.,  at  the  age  of  thirty  he  emigrated  to  Missouri, 
then  upper  Louisiana,  and  settled  near  the  lead 
mines.  He  was  lieutenant-governor  of  Missouri, 
and  a  member  of  Congress  1831-33.  He  was 
respected  for  his  talents,  enterprise,  and  integrity. 
In  1822  he  projected  the  "mountain  expedition," 
uniting  the  Indian  trade  in  the  Itocky  Mountains 
with  hunting  and  trapping,  and  enlisted  in  the 
scheme  three  hundred  men.  After  losses  by 

Indian  robbery  and  river  disasters  he  and  his  as 
sociates  acquired  a  handsome  fortune. 

ASIIMUN,-  ELI  P.,  died  at  Northampton  May 
10,  1819,  aged  48.  Born  in  Blandford,  he  studied 
law  with  Judge  Sedgwick,  and  practised  in  his 
native  town  until  1807.  In  1816  he  was  a  Senator 
of  the  U.  S.  A  man  once  asked  him  for  a  writ 
against  his  neighbor,  saying,  "  I  will  sue  him,  for 
he  has  sued  me.  I  can  prove  he  had  the  property." 
But  Mr.  A.  pushed  his  inquiries,  and  asked,  if 
the  purchaser  had  paid  for  the  property,  and 
extorted  the  answer,  "  There  was  nobody  present, 
when  he  paid  me,  and  he  can't  prove  it."  The 
man  was  sent  away  from  the  office  with  a  scorching 

ASIIMUN,  JOHN  HOOKER,  son  of  the  preceding, 
professor  of  law  in  Harvard  university,  died  April 
1,  1833,  aged  32.  He  was  born  July  3,  1800,  was 
graduated  at  Cambridge  in  1818,  and  appointed 
professor  in  1829.  Dying  early,  "  he  had  gathered 
about  him,"  said  Judge  Story,  "  all  the  honors, 
which  are  usually  the  harvest  of  the  ripest  life." 

ASIIMUN,  JEHUDI,  agent  of  the  American 
Colonization  Society,  died  Aug.  25,  1828,  aged 
34.  He  was  born  of  pious  parents  in  Champlain, 
on  the  western  shore  of  the  lake  of  the  same 
name,  New  York,  in  April,  1794.  In  early  life  he 
was  an  unbeliever ;  but  it  pleased  God  to  disclose 
to  him  the  iniquity  of  his  heart  and  his  need  of 
mercy  and  the  value  and  glory  of  the  Gospel. 
He  graduated  at  Burlington  college  in  1816,  and 
after  preparing  for  the  ministry  was  elected  a 
professor  in  the  theological  seminary  at  Bangor, 
Maine,  in  which  place,  however,  he  continued  but 
a  short  time.  Removing  to  the  District  of  Co 
lumbia,  he  became  a  member  of  the  Episcopal 
church,  edited  the  Theological  Repertory  and 
published  his  memoirs  of  Samuel  Bacon.  He 
also  projected  a  monthly  journal  for  the  American 
Colonization  Society,  and  published  one  number ; 
but  the  work  failed  for  want  of  patronage. 
Being  appointed  to  take  charge  of  a  reinforcement 
to  the  colony  at  Liberia,  he  embarked  for  Africa 
June  19,  1822,  and  arrived  at  Cape  Montserado 
Aug.  8.  He  had  authority,  in  case  he  should 
find  no  agent  there,  to  act  as  such  for  the  society, 
and  also  for  the  navy  department.  In  the  absence 
of  the  agents,  it  was  at  a  period  of  great  difficulty, 
that  he  assumed  the  agency.  The  settlers  were 
few  and  surrounded  with  numerous  enemies.  It 
was  necessary  for  him  to  act  as  a  legislator  and 
also  as  a  soldier  and  engineer,  to  lay  out  the 
fortifications,  superintending  the  construction,  and 
this  too  in  the  time  of  affliction  from  the  loss  of 
his  wife  and  while  suffering  himself  under  a  fever, 
and  to  animate  the  emigrants  to  the  resolute  pur 
pose  of  self-defence.  About  three  months  after 
his  arrival,  just  as  he  was  beginning  to  recover 
strength,  and  while  his  whole  force  was  thirty-five 



men  and  boys,  he  was  attacked  at  the  dawn  of 
day,  Nov.  11,  by  eight  hundred  armed  savages; 
but  by  the  energy  and  desperate"  valor  of  the 
agent  the  assailants  were  repulsed,  with  the  loss 
of  four  colonists  killed  and  four  wounded,  and 
again  in  a  few  days,  when  they  returned  with 
redoubled  numbers,  were  utterly  defeated.  Here 
was  a  memorable  display  of  heroism.  The  same 
energy,  diligence,  and  courage  were  displayed  in 
all  his'  labors  for  the  benefit  of  the  colony.  When 
ill  health  compelled  him  to  take  a  voyage  to 
America,  he  was  escorted  to  the  place  of  embarka 
tion,  March  26,  1828,  by  three  companies  of  the 
militia,  and  the  men,  women,  and  children  of 
Monrovia  parted  with  him  with  tears.  He  left  a 
community  of  twelve  hundred  freemen.  The 
vessel  touched  and  landed  him  at  St.  Bartholo 
mew's  in  very  ill  health.  He  arrived  at  New 
Haven  Aug.  10th,  a  fortnight  before  his  death. 
In  his  sickness  he  was  very  humble  and  patient. 
He  said :  "  I  have  come  here  to  die.  It  is  hard  to 
be  broken  down  by  the  slow  progress  of  disease. 
I  wish  to  be  submissive.  My  sins,  my  sins  ;  they 
seem  to  shut  me  out  from  that  comfort,  which  I 
wish  to  enjoy.  I  have  been  praying  for  light; 
and  a  little  light  has  come,  cheering  and  refresh 
ing  beyond  expression."  An  eloquent  discourse 
was  preached  by  Leonard  Bacon  at  his  funeral, 
describing  his  remarkable  character,  the  important 
influence  on  the  tribes  of  Africa  of  his  piety  and 
regard  to  justice,  and  his  great  services  for  the 
colonists.  He  was,  as  Mrs.  Sigourney  represents, 

"  Their  leader,  -when  the  blast 
Of  ruthless  war  swept  b}- ;  — 
Their  teacher,  when  the  storm  was  past, 
Their  guide  to  worlds  on  high." 

Mr.  Gurlcy,  the  editor  of  the  African  Repository, 
is  preparing  an  account  of  his  life.  In  the  Re 
pository  various  communications,  written  by  Mr. 
Ashmun,  were  published ;  his  memoirs  of  S. 
Bacon  have  been  already  mentioned. — African 
Repository,  IV.  214-224,  286;  Christian  Spec- 
tator,  II.  528 ;  N.  Y.  Mercury,  I.  13. 

ASPINWALL,  WILLIAM,  M.  D.,  an  eminent 
physician,  was  born  in  Brookline,  Mass.,  in  June, 
1743,  and  graduated  at  Cambridge  in  1764.  His 
ancestor,  Peter,  was  the  first  settler  in  Brookline 
in  1650.  Dr.  Aspinwall  studied  his  profession 
with  Dr.  B.  Gale  of  Connecticut,  and  at  Philadel 
phia,  where  he  received  his  medical  degree  in 
1768.  In  the  war  of  the  Revolution  he  acted  as 
a  surgeon  in  the  army.  In  the  battle  of  Lexing 
ton  he  served  as  a  volunteer,  and  bore  from  the 
field  the  corpse  of  his  townsman,  Isaac  Gardner, 
Esq.,  whose  daughter  he  afterwards  married. 
After  the  death  of  Dr.  Boylston  he  engaged  in 
the  business  of  inoculating  for  the  small  pox,  and 
erected  hospitals  for  the  purpose.  Perhaps  no 
man  in  America  ever  inoculated  so  many,  or  had 


such  reputation  for  skill  in  that  disease.  Yet, 
when  the  vaccine  inoculation  was  introduced, 
after  a  proper  trial  he  acknowledged  its  efficacy 
and  relinquished  his  own  profitable  establishment. 
For  forty-five  years  he  had  extensive  practice, 
frequently  riding  on  horseback  forty  miles  a  day. 
In  his  youth  he  lost  the  use  of  one  eye ;  in  his 
old  age  a  cataract  deprived  him  of  the  other. 
He  died  April  16,  1823,  in  his  80th  year,  in  the 
peace  of  one,  who  had  long  professed  the  religion 
of  Jesus  Christ  and  practised  its  duties.  At  the 
bed  of  sickness  he  was  accustomed  to  give  re 
ligious  counsel.  His  testimony  in  favor  of  the 
gospel  he  regarded  as  his  best  legacy  to  his  chil 
dren.  In  his  political  views  he  was  decidedly 
democratic  or  republican ;  yet  he  was  not  a  per 
secutor,  and  when  in  the  council,  he  resisted  the 
measures  of  the  violent.  He  was  anxious,  that 
wise  and  good  men  should  bear  sway,  and  that 
all  benevolent  and  religious  institutions  should  be 
perpetuated.  His  son  of  the  same  name  suc 
ceeded  him  in  his  profession.  Another  son,  Col. 
Thomas  Aspinwall,  lost  an  arm  in  the  war  of 
1812  and  was  afterwards  appointed  consul  at 
London.  —  Tliaclier's  Medical  Biography. 

ASPLUND,  JOHN,  died  in  Maryland  in  1807. 
Born  a  Swede,  he  was  a  Baptist  minister  in  Caro 
lina  in  1782.  He  was  drowned  from  a  canoe  in 
Maryland.  With  great  labor  he  prepared  the 
Register  of  the  Baptist  churches  in  1791  and 

ASTOR,  JOHN  JACOB,  died  in  New  York  March 
29,  1848,  aged  84.  He  was  born  in  Waldrop, 
near  Heidelberg,  of  humble  parents,  and  came  to 
Baltimore  in  1784,  commencing  business  as  a 
fur-trader.  He  made  frequent  voyages  up  the 
Mohawk  to  trade  with  the  Indians,  and  exte'ndcd 
his  business  to  the  Columbia  river,  founding  As 
toria.  W.  Irving  has  recorded  the  over-land 
journeys  projected  by  him  to  the  Pacific.  Pre 
vious  to  the  war  of  1812  he  had  ships  in  the 
Canton  trade :  their  safe  arrival  during  the  war 
gave  him  enormous  wealth.  He  purchased  Amer 
ican  stocks  at  sixty  to  seventy  cents,  which  after 
the  Avar  were  worth  twenty  per  cent,  above  par. 
His  chief  wealth  was  from  the  purchase  of  real 

ATHERTON,  HUMPHREY,  major-general,  came 
to  this  country  about  the  year  1636,  succeeded 
Robert  Sedgwick  in  his  military  office  in  1654, 
and  was  much  employed  in  negotiations  with  the 
Indians.  He  died  in  consequence  of  a  fall  from 
his  horse  Sept.  17,  1661.  His  residence  was  at 
Dorchester.  Among  his  children  are  the  names 
of  Rest,  Increase,  Thankful,  Hope,  Consider, 
Watching,  and  Patience.  —  Hope,  a  graduate  of 
1665,  was  the  first  minister  of  Hatfield.  As 
chaplain  he  was  at  the  Indian  battle  in  Montague, 
i  May  18,  1676.  —  Farmer's  Genealogical  Ueyis- 
\  ter ;  Savage's  Wintlirop,  II.  137. 




ATHERTdN,  CHARLES  II.,  an  eminent  law 
yer,  died  at  Amherst,  N.  H.,  Jan.  8,  1853,  aged 
79,  a  graduate  of  Harvard  in  1794.  He  was  a 
member  of  Congress  1815-1817,  and  register  of 
probate  thirty-nine  years. 

ATHERTON,  CHARLES  G.,  son  of  the  pre 
ceding,  died  in  Nashua  Nov.  15,  1853,  aged  53,  a 
graduate  of  Harvard  in  1822.  He  was  a  repre 
sentative  in  Congress  1837-1843,  and  a  senator 
from  1843  till  his  death.  lie  left  a  widow,  but 
no  children  to  inherit  an  estate  of  200,000  or 
300.000  dollars. 

ATKINS,  HEXRY,  a  navigator,  sailed  from 
Boston  in  the  ship  Whale,  on  a  voyage  to  Davis' 
Straits,  in  1729.  In  this  and  in  subsequent  voy 
ages  for  the  purpose  of  trade  with  the  Indians, 
the  last  of  which  was  made  in  1758,  he  explored 
much  of  the  coast  of  Labrador.  A  short  account 
of  his  observations  was  published  in  the  first  vol 
ume  of  Mass.  Historical  Collections. 

ATKINS,  ELISHA,  minister  of  Killingly,  died 
June  11,  1839,  aged  89,  formerly  a  chaplain  in  the 

ATKINSON,  THEODORE,  chief  justice  of  New 
Hampshire,  was  born  at  New  Castle,  son  of  Col. 
Theodore  Atkinson,  and  graduated  at  Harvard 
college  in  1718.  He  sustained  many  public  offi 
ces,  civil  and  military;  was  secretary  in  1741;  a 
delegate  to  the  congress  at  Albany  in  1754,  and 
chief  justice  in  the  same  year.  The  Revolution 
deprived  him  of  the  offices  of  judge  and  secre 
tary.  He  died  in  1779,  bequeathing  200  pounds 
to  the  Episcopal  church,  the  interest  to  be  ex 
pended  in  bread  for  the  poor,  distributed  on  the 
Sabbath.  —  Adams'  Annals  of  Portsmouth,  269. 

ATKINSON,  ISRAEL,  an  eminent  physician, 
was  a  native  of  Harvard,  Mass.,  and  graduated  at 
Cambridge  in  1762.  He  settled  in  1765,  at  Lan 
caster,  where  he  died  July  20,  1822,  aged  82. 
For  some  years  he  was  the  only  physician  in  the 
county  of  Worcester,  who  had  been  well  edu 
cated.  —  Thaclier's  Medical  Bioc/rapJty. 

ATKINSON,  HEXRY,  brigadier-general,  died 
near  St.  Louis  June  20,  1842,  aged  60.  He  en 
tered  the  army  in  1808. 

ATLEE,  SAMUEL  JOHN,  colonel,  commanded 
a  Pennsylvania  company  in  the  French  war  and  a 
regiment  in  the  war  of  the  Revolution,  and  ac 
quired  great  honor  in  the  battle  on  Long  Island, 
though  taken  prisoner  and  subject  to  a  long  cap 
tivity.  Afterwards  he  acted  as  commissioner  to 
treat  with  the  Indians.  In  1780  he  was  elected 
to  Congress  and  was  on  the  committee  concern 
ing  the  mutiny  of  the  Pennsylvania  troops  in 
1781.  His  usual  residence  was  at  Lancaster. 
He  died  at  Philadelphia  in  Nov.,  1786,  aged  48. 

ATLEE,  WILLIAM  AUGUSTUS,  a  judge  of  the 
supreme  court  and  president  of  the  common  pleas 
for  Lancaster  and  other  counties,  died  at  his  scat 
on  the  Susquehanna  Sept.  9,  1793.  —  Jcnnison. 

ATWELL,  LUCRETIA,  Mrs.,  died  at  Montville, 
Conn.,  Nov.  1,  1851,  aged  102;  retaining  all  her 
faculties  to  the  day  of  her  death. 

ATWELL,  ZACIIARIAH,  captain,  died  at  Lynn 
in  1847,  aged  67.  Crossing  the  Atlantic  seventy 
times,  he  never  lost  a  man. 

AT  WOOD,  MARY,  the  mother  of  Harriet  Newell, 
died  in  Boston  July  4,  1853,  aged  84.  She  was 
the  daughter  of  Thomas  Tenney  of  East  Brad 
ford,  of  an  eminent  family,  and  married  in  1788 
Moses  Atwood,  a  merchant  of  Haverhill,  who 
died  in  1808.  The  whole  care  of  her  family 
now  rested  upon  her  ;  but  she  was  diligent,  pru 
dent,  prayerful.  When  her  daughter  asked  her 
consent  to  quit  her  country  in  the  cause  of  Christ, 
she  resigned  the  beloved  one  to  her  work.  In 
the  course  of  her  life  her  home  was  with  her 
children  in  Medford,  Newton,  Pittsburg,  Granby, 
and  Philadelphia ;  and  widely  apart  did  she  bury 
most  of  them,  to  be  gathered  together  in  glory 
eternal.  The  Journal  of  Missions  for  Sept.,  1853, 
has  a  beautiful  piece  of  poetry  on  her  death. 

AUCHMUTY,  ROBERT,  an  eminent  lawyer, 
died  in  1750.  He  was  of  Scottish  descent,  and 
after  his  education  at  Dublin  studied  law  at  the 
Temple.  He  came  to  Boston  in  early  life ;  and 
on  the  death  of  Mr.  Menzies  was  appointed  judge 
of  the  court  of  admiralty  in  1703,  but  held  the 
place  only  a  few  months.  In  1740  he  was  one 
of  the  directors  of  the  Land  Bank  bubble,  or 
Manufacturing  Company,  in  which  the  father  of 
Samuel  Adams  was  involved.  When  sent  to 
England  as  agent  for  the  colony  on  the  boundary 
question  with  Rhode  Island,  he  projected  the 
expedition  to  Cape  Breton,  publishing  a  pam 
phlet,  entitled,  "  the  importance  of  Cape  Breton  to 
the  British  nation,  and  a  plan  for  taking  the 
place."  On  the  death  of  Byfield  he  was  again 
appointed  judge  of  admiralty  in  1733.  His  daugh 
ter  married  Mr.  Pratt.  His  son  Samuel  gradu 
ated  at  Harvard  college  in  1742,  was  an  Episcopal 
minister  in  New  York,  and  received  the  degree 
of  doctor  in  divinity  from  Oxford.  He  died 
March  3,  1777 ;  and  his  son,  Sir  Samuel,  licut.- 
general  in  the  British  army,  died  in  1822.  — His 
name  is  introduced  in  the  versification  of  Hugh 
Gaine's  petition,  Jan.  1,  1783.  He  is  alluded  to 
also  in  Trumbull's  M'Fingal.  His  other  son, 
Robert,  a  most  interesting,  persuasive  pleader, 
defended,  with  John  Adams,  Capt.  Preston.  He 
had  previously  been  appointed  judge  of  admiralty 
in  1768.  His  letters,  with  Ilutchinson's,  were 
sent  to  America  by  Franklin  in  1773.  Like  his 
brother,  he  was  a  zealous  royalist,  and  left  Amer 
ica  in  1776.  He  died  in  England.  —  Jennison, 
Manuscripts ;  Thomas,  II.  488 ;  Hutchinson's  Last 
History,  401 ;  Eliot. 

AUDUBON,  JOHN  JAMES,  died  at  Minniesland, 
near  New  York,  Jan.  27,  1851,  aged  71.  Born 
of  French  parents  at  New  Orleans,  he  was  edu- 



cated  at  Paris.  As  early  as  1810  he  went  down 
the  Ohio  in  an  open  boat  in  search  of  a  forest 
home.  His  life  was  a  life  of  adventure  and  ro 
mantic  interest,  hardly  a  region  of  the  United 
States  being  unvisited  by  him  in  his  ornithological 
pursuits,  lie  published  a  splendid  work,  —  Birds 
of  America,  from  original  drawings,  folio ;  also 
Ornithological  biography,  8vo.  1831. 

AUSTIN,  BENJAMIN,  a  political  writer,  died  in 
Boston  May  4, 1820,  aged  68.  He  early  espoused 
the  democratic  or  republican  side  in  the  political 
controversy,  which  raged  during  the  administra 
tion  of  John  Adams.  He  was  bold,  unflinching, 
uncompromising.  He  assailed  others  for  their 
political  errors;  and  he  was  himself  traduced 
with  the  utmost  virulence.  Perhaps  no  man  ever 
met  such  a  tide  of  obloquy.  Yet  many,  who  once 
detested  his  party,  have  since  united  themselves 
to  it.  After  the  triumph  of  Mr.  Jefferson,  he 
was  appointed,  without  soliciting  the  place,  com 
missioner  of  loans  for  Mass.  In  1806  his  son, 
Charles  Austin,  when  attempting  to  chastise  Mr. 
Selfridge  for  abuse  of  his  father,  was  by  him  shot 
and  killed  in  the  streets  of  Boston.  Mr.  S.  was 
tried  and  acquitted.  His  political  writings,  with 
the  signature  of  "  Old  South,"  published  in  the 
Chronicle,  were  collected  into  a  volume,  entitled 
"  Constitutional  Republicanism/'  8vo.  1803. 

AUSTIN,  JONATHAN  LOIUXG,  died  in  Boston 
May  10,  1826,  aged  78.  He  rendered  important 
services  in  the  Revolution.  Born  in  Boston  Jan. 
2,  1748,  he  was  graduated  in  1766 ;  was  a  mer 
chant  and  secretary  of  the  board  of  war  in  Mas 
sachusetts.  He  was  sent  to  Paris  in  1777  with 
news  to  our  commissioners  of  the  capture  of  Bur- 
goyne  :  presenting  a  note  to  Dr.  Chauncy's  church 
for  a  safe  voyage,  the  Doctor,  who  was  somewhat 
unskilful,  prayed,  that  whatever  might  become  of 
the  young  man,  the  packet  might  be  safe.  For 
two  years  in  Paris  he  was  Franklin's  secretary. 
A  large  cake  was  once  sent  to  the  apartment  of 
the  commissioners,  inscribed —  "  Le  digne  Frank 
lin," —  the  worthy  Franklin.  F.  immediately  re 
marked  —  "  The  present  is  for  all  of  us  —  these 
French  people  cannot  write  English :  they  mean 
Lee,  Deane,  Franklin." 

As  the  agent  of  Franklin  he  spent  two  years 
in  London  in  the  family  of  the  Earl  of  Shel- 
burnc.  On  his  return  in  May,  1779,  he  was  lib 
erally  rewarded  by  Congress.  In  1780  in  going 
to  Spain  as  an  agent  of  the  state  he  was  cap 
tured  and  carried  to  England.  lie  was  secretary 
and  treasurer  of  the  state,  and  an  exemplary 
member  of  the  church.  His  son,  James  T.  Austin, 
was  attorney-general  in  1832. 

AUSTIN,  MOSES,  an  enterprising  settler  in 
upper  Louisiana,  was  a  native  of  Durham,  Conn., 
and  after  residing  in  Philadelphia  and  Richmond 
emigrated  to  the  west  with  his  family  in  1798, 
having  obtained  a  considerable  grant  of  land 


from  the  Spanish  governor.  He  commenced  the 
business  of  mining  at  Mine  au  Breton,  and  cre 
ated  there  a  town ;  but  becoming  embarrassed  by 
his  speculations,  he  sold  his  estate  and  purchased 
a  large  tract  near  the  mouth  of  the  river  Colorado, 
in  Mexico.  Ere  his  arrangements  for  removal 
were  completed,  he  died  in  1821.  Believing  the 
gospel,  he  placed  his  hopes  of  future  happiness 
on  the  atonement  of  the  Saviour.  —  Schoolcraft's 
Travels,  1821,  p.  239-250. 

AUSTIN,  SAMUEL,  D.  D.,  president  of  the  uni 
versity  of  Vermont,  was  born  at  New  Haven, 
graduated  at  Yale  college  in  1783,  and  ordained, 
as  the  successor  of  Allyn  Mather,  at  Fairhaven, 
Conn.,  Nov.  9,  1786,  but  was  dismissed  Jan.  19, 
1790.  He  was  afterwards  for  many  years  pastor 
of  a  church  in  Worcester,  Mass.  He  was  but  a 
few  years  at  the  head  of  the  college  in  Burling 
ton.  After  his  resignation  of  that  place  he  was 
not  resettled  in  the  ministry.  He  died  at  Glas- 
tenbury,  Conn.,  Dec.  4,  1830,  aged  70  years. 
His  wife  was  a  daughter  of  Dr.  Hopkins  of  Had- 
ley.  He  Avas  eminently  pious  and  distinguished 
as  a  minister.  With  three  other  ministers  he 
was  the  projector  of  the  Massachusetts  mission 
ary  society,  and  was  active  in  originating  the 
Mass,  general  association.  Much  might  be  said 
of  his  high  intellectual  character,  of  his  zeal  and 
eloquence,  his  charity,  influence,  and  usefulness. 
But  for  the  last  three  years  it  pleased  God  to 
cast  a  thick  cloud  over  his  mind,  so  that  he  was 
in  a  state  of  despondence  and  sometimes  in 
paroxysms  of  horror.  His  last  words  in  prayer 
were,  "  Blessed  Jesus !  sanctify  me  wholly." 

He  published  two  important  works ;  a  view  of 
the  church,  and  theological  essays :  also  letters 
on  baptism,  examining  Merrill's  seven  sermons, 
1805  ;  reply  to  Merrill's  twelve  letters,  1806;  and 
the  following  sermons,  —  on  disinterested  love, 
1790;  ordination  and  installation  of  S.Worces 
ter;  on  the  death  of  Mrs.  Blair,  1792;  Mass, 
missionary,  1 803 ;  dedication  at  Hadley ;  ordina 
tion  of  W.  Fay,  J.  M.  Whiton,  N.  Nelson,  G.  S. 
Olds;  at  a  fast,  1811 :  at  two  fasts,  1812  ;  view  of 
the  economy  of  the  church. 

AUSTIN,  DAYID,  died  in  Norwich,  Conn.,  Feb. 
5,  1831,  aged  71.  His  father  was  collector  of  the 
customs  and  a  merchant  in  New  Haven.  —  He 
graduated  in  1779.  After  travelling  abroad  he 
was  ordained  at  Elizabethtown,  N.  J.,  in  1788. 
His  wife,  Lydia  Lathrop  of  Norwich,  was  the 
daughter  of  a  man  of  wealth.  An  illness  of  the 
scarlet  fever  in  1795,  it  is  supposed,  affected  his 
reason.  He  predicted  the  second  coming  of 
Christ  on  the  fourth  Sunday  of  May,  1796.  As 
the  event  did  not  cure  him  of  his  delusion,  the 
presbytery  dismissed  him  in  1797.  By  building 
houses  for  the  Jews,  who,  he  thought,  were 
coming  to  New  Haven,  he  incurred  debts,  for 
which  he  was  imprisoned.  Recovering  his  reason, 




he  was  the  minister  of  Bozrah  from  1815  till  his 
death.  He  published  in  four  vols.  the  "American 
Preacher,"  by  various  ministers,  and  the  "  Down 
fall  of  Babylon."—  Observer,  Aug.  11,  1844. 

AVERY,  JOHX,  a  minister,  came  to  this  coun 
try  in  1635.  While  sailing  from  Xewbury  towards 
Marblehead,  where  he  proposed  to  settle,  he  was 
shipwrecked  in  a  violent  storm  Aug.  14,  1635,  on 
a  rocky  island,  called  Thacher's  woe  and  Avery's 
fall,  and  died  with  his  wife  and  six  children.  — 
Mr.  A.  Thacher  escaped.  —  His  last  words  were  : 
"  I  can  lay  no  claim  to  deliverance  from  this 
danger,  but  through  the  satisfaction  of  Christ  I 
can  lay  claim  to  heaven  :  this,  Lord,  I  entreat  of 
thee." —  Magnal.  in.  77  ;  Savage,  I.  165  ;  Eliot. 

AVERY,  WILLIAM,  Dr.,  died  in  Dedham  about 
1687,  having  lived  there  as  early  as  1653.  Of 
his  grandchildren,  Joseph  was  the  first  minister 
of  Norton  from  1714  to  1770,  and  John  the  first 
minister  of  Truro,  dying  in  1754,  aged  about  70. 
Rev.  David  A.  of  Holden  and  Rev.  Daniel  A.  of 
Wrentham  were  also  his  descendants. 

AXTELL,  HENRY,  D.  D.,  minister  of  Geneva, 
X.  Y.,  was  born  at  Mendham,  X.  J.,  in  1773,  and 
graduated  at  Princeton  in  1796.  He  went  to 
Geneva  soon  after  the  settlement  of  that  part  of 
the  state,  and  was  very  useful.  At  the  time  of 
his  ordination  in  1812  his  church  consisted  of 
seventy  members :  at  the  time  of  his  death  of 
about  400.  In  two  revivals  his  labors  had  been 
particularly  blessed.  He  died  Feb.  11,  1829, 
aged  55.  His  eldest  daughter  was  placed  in  the 
same  grave. 

BACHE,  RICHARD,  postmaster-general  of  the 
United  States,  was  appointed  in  the  place  of  Dr. 
Franklin  in  Xov.  1776,  and  was  succeeded  by 
Mr.  Hazard  in  1782.  A  native  of  England,  he 
came  in  early  life  to  this  country,  and  was  at  the 
beginning  of  the  Revolution  chairman  of  the  re 
publican  society  in  Philadelphia.  He  married  in 
1767  Sally,  the  only  daughter  of  Dr.  Franklin, 
who  died  in  Oct.,  1808;  he  died  at  Settle  in  the 
county  of  Berks,  Penn.,  July  29,  1811,  aged  74. 

BACHE,  BENJAMIN  FRANKLIN,  a  printer,  died 
in  1799.  He  was  the  son  of  the  preceding,  and 
accompanied  Dr.  Franklin  to  Paris,  where  he 
completed  his  education  as  a  printer  and  founder 
in  the  printing  house  of  the  celebrated  Didot. 
After  his  return  in  1785  he  pursued  with  honor 
his  studies  at  the  college  of  Philadelphia.  In 
Oct.,  1790,  he  commenced  the  publication  of  the 
General  Advertiser,  the  name  of  which  was  after 
wards  changed  to  that  of  the  Aurora,  —  a  paper, 
which  under  the  direction  of  Mr.  Bache  and  his 
successor,  Mr.  I  Hume,  exerted  a  powerful  influ 
ence  on  the  politics  of  the  country  in  hostility  to 
the  two  first  administrations.  His  widow  married 
Mr.  Duanc.  —  Jennison's  Manuscripts. 

BACHE,  GEORGE  M.,  a  lieutenant  in  the  navy, 
was  swept  from  the  deck  of  his  ship  off  Cape  Ilat- 

teras  in  a  hurricane  Sept.  8, 1846.  He  had  toiled 
for  eight  years  in  a  scientific  coast-survey,  being 
chief  of  a  hydrographic  party.  He  was  a  native 
of  Philadelphia. 

BACHI,  PIETRO,  died  in  Boston  Aug.  22, 1853, 
aged  66.  Born  in  Sicily,  he  came  to  this  country 
in  1825  and  was  teacher  of  Italian  at  Harvard 
from  1826  to  1846. 

BACKUS,  ISAAC,  a  distinguished  Baptist  min 
ister  of  Massachusetts,  died  Xov.  20,  1806,  aged 
82.  He  was  born  at  Xorwich  in  Connecticut,  in 
1724.  In  1741,  a  year  memorable  for  the  revival 
of  religion  through  this  country,  his  attention 
was  first  arrested  by  the  concerns  of  another 
world,  and  he  was  brought,  as  he  believed,  to  the 
knowledge  of  the  truth,  as  it  is  in  Jesus.  In 
1746  he  commenced  preaching  the  gospel;  and 
April  13,  1748,  he  was  ordained  first  minister  of 
a  Congregational  church  in  Titicut  precinct,  in  the 
town  of  Middlcborough,  Mass.  This  society  was 
formed  in  Feb.,  1743,  in  consequence  of  disputes 
with  regard  to  the  settlement  of  a  minister.  The 
members  of  it  wished  for  a  minister  of  different 
sentiments  from  the  man,  who  was  settled,  and, 
as  they  could  not  obtain  a  dismission  from  the 
church  by  an  ecclesiastical  council,  at  the  end 
of  five  years  they  withdrew  without  this  sanction, 
and  formed  a  church  by  themselves  in  Feb.,  1748. 
The  society,  however,  was  not  permitted  now  to 
rest  in  peace,  for  they  were  taxed  with  the  other 
inhabitants  of  the  town  for  the  purpose  of  build 
ing  a  new  meeting-house  for  the  first  church. 

In  1749  a  number  of  the  members  of  Mr. 
Backus'  church  altered  their  sentiments  with  re 
gard  to  baptism,  and  obtained  an  exemption  from 
the  congregational  tax ;  and  he  at  length  united 
with  them  in  opinion.  He  was  baptized  by  im 
mersion  in  August,  1751.  For  some  years  after 
wards  he  held  communion  with  those,  who  were 
baptized  in  infancy,  but  he  withdrew  from  this 
intercourse  with  Christians  of  other  denomina 
tions.  A  Baptist  church  was  formed  Jan.  16, 
1756,  and  he  was  installed  its  pastor  June  23  of 
the  same  year  by  ministers  from  Boston  and  Re- 
hoboth.  In  this  relation  he  continued  through 
the  remainder  of  his  life.  He  had  been  enabled 
to  preach  nearly  sixty  years  until  the  spring  before 
his  death,  when  he  experienced  a  paralytic  stroke, 
which  deprived  him  of  speech,  and  of  the  use  of 
his  limbs. 

Mr.  Backus  was  a  plain,  evangelical  preacher, 
without  any  pretensions  to  eloquence.  It  may  be 
ascribed  to  his  natural  diffidence  that,  when 
preaching  or  conversing  on  important  subjects, 
he  was  in  the  habit  of  shutting  his  eyes.  To  his 
exertions  the  Baptist  churches  in  America  owe 
not  a  little  of  their  present  flourishing  condition. 
He  was  ever  a  zealous  friend  to  the  equal  rights 
of  Christians.  When  the  Congress  met  at  Phil 
adelphia  in  1774,  he  was  sent  as  an  agent  from 



the  Baptist  churches  of  the  Warren  association 
to  support  their  claims  to  the  same  equal  liber 
ties,  wlu'ch  ought  to  be  given  to  every  denomina 
tion.  In  October  he  had  a  conference  with  the 
Massachusetts  delegation  and  others,  at  which  he 
contended  only  for  the  same  privileges,  which 
were  given  to  the  churches  in  Boston;  and  he 
received  the  promise,  that  the  rights  of  the 
Baptists  should  be  regarded.  On  his  return,  as  a 
report  had  preceded  him,  that  he  had  been  at 
tempting  to  break  up  the  union  of  the  colonies, 
he  addressed  himself  to  the  convention  of  Mass. 
Dec.  9,  and  a  vote  was  passed,  declaring  his  con 
duct  to  have  been  correct.  When  the  convention 
in  1779  took  into  consideration  the  constitution 
of  the  state,  the  subject  of  the  extent  of  the  civil 
power  in  regard  to  religion  naturally  presented 
itself,  and  in  the  course  of  debate  the  perfect 
correctness  of  the  Baptist  memorial,  which  was 
read  at  Philadelphia,  was  called  in  question.  In 
consequence  of  which  Mr.  Backus  published  in 
the  Chronicle  of  Dec.  2d  a  narrative  of  his  pro 
ceedings  as  Baptist  agent,  and  brought  arguments 
against  an  article  in  the  bill  of  rights  of  the  con 
stitution  of  Massachusetts.  He  believed,  that  the 
civil  authority  had  no  right  to  require  men  to 
support  a  teacher  of  piety,  morality,  and  religion, 
or  to  attend  public  worship ;  that  the  church 
ought  to  have  no  connection  with  the  state ;  that 
the  kingdom  of  the  Lord  Jesus  was  not  of  this 
world,  and  was  not  dependent  on  the  kingdoms 
of  this  world;  and  that  the  subject  of  religion 
should  be  left  entirely  to  the  consciences  of 

The  publications  of  Mr.  Backus  are  more 
numerous,  than  those  of  any  other  Baptist  writer 
in  America.  An  abridgement  of  the  whole  work 
was  published  in  one  volume,  when  the  author 
was  80  years  of  age. 

Little  can  be  said  in  commendation  of  his 
three  volumes  of  the  history  of  the  Baptists,  of 
which  he  published  an  abridgment,  brought 
down  to  1804.  It  contains  indeed  many  facts, 
for  which  the  public  is  indebted  to  the  patient  in 
dustry  of  the  writer,  and  it  must  be  a  very  valu 
able  work  to  the  Baptists,  as  it  presents  a  minute 
account  of  almost  every  church  of  that  denom 
ination  in  New  England.  But  these  facts  are 
combined  without  much  attention  to  the  connec 
tion,  which  ought  to  subsist  between  them,  and 
the  author  shows  himself  too  much  under  the  in 
fluence  of  the  zeal  of  party.  —  Backus'  Church 
History,  III.  139-141 ;  Benedict,  n.  267-274. 

BACKUS,  CHARLES,  D.  D.,  an  eminent  minister, 
was  born  in  Norwich,  Conn.,  in  1749.  He  lost 
his  parents  in  his  childhood,  but,  as  he  early  dis 
covered  a  love  of  science,  his  friends  assisted  him 
to  a  liberal  education.  He  was  graduated  at 
Yale  college  in  1769.  His  theological  education 
was  directed  by  Dr.  Hart  of  Preston.  In  1774 


he  was  ordained  to  the  pastoral  charge  of  the 
church  in  Somers,  in  which  town  he  remained  till 
his  death  Dec.  30,  1803,  after  a  faithful  ministry 
of  more  than  twenty-nine  years.  In  the  last 
year  of  his  residence  at  college  the  mind  of  Dr. 
Backus  was  impressed  by  Divine  truth,  and, 
although  his  conduct  had  not  been  immoral,  he 
was  deeply  convinced  of  his  sinfulncss  in  the 
sight  of  God.  He  was  for  a  time  opposed  to  the 
doctrines  of  the  gospel,  particularly  to  the  doc 
trine  of  the  atonement,  and  of  the  dependence 
of  man  upon  the  special  influences  of  the  Holy 
Spirit  to  renew  his  heart.  But  at  last  his  pride 
was  humbled,  and  he  was  brought  to  an  acquaint 
ance  with  the  way  of  salvation  by  a  crucified  Re 
deemer.  From  this  time  he  indulged  the  hope 
that  he  was  reconciled  unto  God.  A  humble  and 
an  exemplary  Christian,  under  the  afflictions  of 
life  he  quietly  submitted  to  the  will  of  his  Father 
in  heaven.  He  was  a  plain,  evangelical,  impressive 
preacher.  Knowing  the  worth  of  immortal  souls, 
he  taught  with  the  greatest  clearness  the  way  of 
salvation  through  faith  in  the  Redeemer,  and 
enforced  upon  his  hearers  that  holiness,  without 
which  no  man  can  see  the  Lord.  During  his 
ministry  there  were  four  seasons  of  peculiar  atten 
tion  to  religion  among  his  people.  Dr.  Backus 
was  eminent  as  a  theologian.  His  retired  situa 
tion  and  his  eminence  as  an  instructor  drew 
around  him  many,  who  were  designed  for  the 
Christian  ministry.  Nearly  fifty  young  men  were 
members  of  his  theological  school,  among  whom 
were  Drs.  Woods,  Church,  Hyde,  Moore,  Davis, 
Lovell,  and  Cooley.  He  refused  invitations  to  the 
theological  chair  in  Dartmouth  and  Yale.  His 
only  child,  a  son,  a  member  of  college,  died  in 
1794.  He  was  a  very  fervent,  eloquent,  extempo 
raneous  preacher.  In  his  last  sickness  he  had 
much  of  the  Divine  presence.  The  last  words, 
which  he  was  heard  to  whisper,  were,  "  Glory  to 
God  in  the  highest,  and  on  earth  peace,  good 
will  towards  men."  He  published  the  following 
sermons:  at  the  ordination  of  A.  Backus,  1791; 
of  F.  Reynolds,  1795 ;  of  J.  Russell,  Princeton, 
and  T.  M.  Cooley,  1796 ;  of  J.  H.  Church  and  T. 
Snell,  1798;  of  Z.  S.  Moore  and  V.  Gould;  on 
death  of  J.  Howard,  1785;  of  M.  Chapin,  1794; 
of  Mrs.  Prudden  ;  of  six  young  persons,  drowned 
at  Wilbraham,  1799;  to  free  masons,  1795;  five 
on  the  truth  of  the  Bible,  1797 ;  century  sermon, 
1801;  a  volume  on  regeneration. 

BACKUS,  AZEL,  D.  D.,  president  of  Ham 
ilton  college,  died  Dec.  28,  1816,  aged  51. 
He  was  the  son  of  Jabez  Backus  of  Norwich, 
Conn.  His  father  bequeathed  to  him  a  farm  in 
Franklin,  which,  he  says,  "  I  wisely  exchanged  for 
an  education  in  college."  He  was  graduated  at 
Yale  in  1787.  While  in  college  he  was  a  deist; 
but  his  uncle  and  friend,  Charles  Backus  of 
Somers,  won  him  from  infidelity  through  the 




Divine  blessing,  and  reared  him  up  for  the  minis 
try.  From  the  time  that  he  believed  the  gospel, 
he  gloried  in  the  cross.  In  early  life  he  was  or 
dained  as  the  successor  of  Dr.  Bellamy  at  Beth- 
lorn,  where  he  not  only  labored  faithfully  in  the 
ministry,  but  also  instituted  and  conducted  a  school 
of  considerable  celebrity.  After  the  establishment 
of  Hamilton  college,  near  Utica,  he  was  chosen 
the  first  president,  and  was  succeeded  by  President 
Davis  of  Middlebury  college.  He  was  a  man  of 
an  original  cast  of  thought,  distinguished  by  sus 
ceptibility  and  ardor  of  feeling  and  by  vigorous 
and  active  piety.  Of  his  benevolence  and  good 
ness  no  one  could  doubt.  In  his  sermons,  though 
familiar  and  not  perhaps  sufficiently  correct  and 
elevated  in  style,  he  was  earnest,  affectionate,  and 
faithful.  He  published  a  sermon  on  the  death  of 
Gov.  Wolcott,  1797;  at  the  election,  1798;  at  the 
ordination  of  John  Frost,  Whitesborough,  1813. 
—  Belig.  Intel.  I.  527,  592;  Panoplist,  XIII.  43. 
BACON,  NATHANIEL,  general,  a  Virginia  rebel, 
died  Oct.  1,  1G76.  He  was  educated  at  the  Inns 
of  court  in  England,  and  after  his  arrival  in  this 
country  was  chosen  a  member  of  the  council. 
He  was  a  young  man  of  fine  accomplishments,  of 
an  interesting  countenance,  and  of  impressive 
eloquence.  The  treachery  of  the  English  in  the 
murder  of  six  Woerowances  or  Indian  chiefs,  who 
came  out  of  a  beseiged  fort  in  order  to  negotiate 
a  treaty,  induced  the  savages  to  take  terrible 
vengeance,  inhumanly  slaughtering  sixty  for  the 
six,  for  they  thought  that  ten  for  one  was  a  just 
atonement  for  the  loss  of  their  great  men.  Their 
incursions  caused  the  frontier  plantations  to  be 
abandoned.  Thus  did  the  crime  of  the  Virginians, 
as  is  always  the  case  with  public  crime,  draw  after 
it  punishment.  The  governor,  Berkeley,  resorted 
to  the  wretched  policy  of  building  a  few  forts  on 
the  frontiers,  which  could  have  no  effect  in  pre 
venting  the  incursions  of  the  savages,  who  quickly 
found  out,  as  an  old  history  of  the  affair  expresses 
it, "  where  the  mouse-traps  were  set!"  The  people, 
in  their  indignation,  determined  on  wiser  and 
more  active  measures.  Having  chosen  Bacon  as 
their  general,  he  sent  to  their  governor  for  a 
commission,  but  being  refused,  he  marched  with 
out  one  at  the  head  of  eighty  or  ninety  men,  and 
in  a  battle  defeated  the  Indians  and  destroyed 
their  magazine.  In  the  mean  time  the  governor, 
at  the  instigation  of  men  who  were  envious  of  the 
rising  popularity  of  Bacon,  proclaimed  him  a 
rebel  May  29,  1G7G,  and  marched  a  force  against 
him  to  "  the  middle  plantation,"  or  Williamsburg, 
but  in  a  few  days  returned  to  meet  the  assembly. 
Bacon  himself  soon  proceeded  in  a  sloop  with 
thirty  men  to  Jamestown ;  but  was  taken  by  sur 
prise  and  put  in  irons.  At  his  trial  before  the 
governor  and  council  June  10,  he  was  acquitted 
and  restored  to  the  council,  and  promised  also  in 
two  days  a  commission  as  general  for  the  Indian 

war,  agreeably  to  the  passionate  wishes  of  the 
people.  Their  regard  to  him  will  account  for  his 
acquittance.  As  the  governor  refused  to  sign  the 
promised  commission,  Bacon  soon  appeared  at  the 
head  of  five  hundred  men  and  obtained  it  by 
force.  Thus  was  he  "  crowned  the  darling  of  the 
people's  hopes  and  desires."  Nor  did  the  people 
misjudge  as  to  his  capacity  to  serve  them.  By 
sending  companies  under  select  officers  into  the 
different  counties  to  scour  the  thickets,  swamps, 
and  forests,  where  the  Indians  might  be  sheltered, 
he  restored  the  dispersed  people  to  their  planta 
tions.  While  he  was  thus  honorably  employed, 
the  governor  again  proclaimed  him  a  rebel.  This 
measure  induced  him  to  countermarch  to  Wil 
liamsburg,  whence  he  issued,  Aug.  6,  his  declara 
tion  against  the  governor  and  soon  drove  him 
across  the  bay  to  Accomac.  He  also  exacted  of 
the  people  an  oath  to  support  him  against  the 
forces  employed  by  the  governor.  He  then 
prosecuted  the  Indian  war.  In  September  he 
again  put  the  governor  to  flight  and  burned 
Jamestown,  consisting  of  sixteen  or  eighteen 
houses  and  a  brick  church,  the  first  that  was  built 
in  Virginia.  At  this  period  he  adopted  a  singular 
expedient  to  prevent  an  attack  by  the  governor, 
beseiged  by  him.  He  seized  the  wives  of  several 
of  the  governor's  adherents  and  brought  them 
into  camp;  then  sent  word  to  their  husbands, 
that  they  would  be  placed  in  the  fore  front  of  his 
men.  Entirely  successful  on  the  western  shore, 
Bacon  was  about  to  cross  the  bay  to  attack  the 
governor  at  Accomac,  when  he  was  called  to  sur 
render  up  his  life  "  into  the  hands  of  that  grim 
and  all  conquering  captain,  Death."  In  his  sick 
ness  he  implored  the  assistance  of  Mr.  Wading,  a 
minister,  in  preparing  for  the  future  world. 

After  the  death  of  Bacon  one  Ingram,  a  Aveak 
man,  assumed  his  commission,  but  was  soon  won 
over  by  the  governor.  Among  his  followers,  who 
were  executed,  was  Col.  Hansford,  who,  with  the 
feelings  of  Maj.  Andre,  had  no  favor  to  ask,  but 
that  "  he  might  be  shot  like  a  soldier,  and  not  be 
hanged  like  a  dog ; "  also  Capt.  Carver,  and  Far- 
low,  and  Wilford.  Maj.  Cheisman  died  in  prison. 
Drummond  also,  formerly  governor  of  Carolina, 
and  Col.  llichard  Lawrence  were  \ictims  of  this 
civil  war,  which,  besides  the  loss  of  valuable  lives, 
cost  the  colony  100,000  pounds.  After  reading 
;  the  history  of  this  rebellion,  one  is  ready  to  per 
suade  himself,  that  its  existence  might  have  been 
prevented,  had  the  governor  consulted  the  wishes 
of  the  people  by  giving  Bacon  the  command  in 
the  Indian  war ;  had  he  been  faithful  to  his  own 
promise ;  had  he  not  yielded  to  the  envious  or 
malignant  counsels  of  others.  Had  Bacon  lived 
and  been  triumphant,  he  would  probably  have 
been  remembered,  not  as  an  insurgent,  but  as  the 
deliverer  of  his  country.  Yet  it  is  very  obvious, 
that  under  an  organized  government  he  did  not 



prove  himself  a  good  citizen,  but  was  an  artful 
demagogue,  and  borne  away  by  a  reprehensible 
and  rash  ambition.  —  Death  of  Bacon;  Keith's 
Hist,  of  Virginia,  156-162;  Chalmers,  I.  332- 
335;  Beverly,  105;  Wynne,  II.  222,  223;  Mar 
shall,  I.  198-201. 

BACON,  THOMAS,  an  Episcopal  minister  at 
Frederictown,  Md.,  died  May  24,  1768.  He 
compiled  "  a  complete  system  of  the  revenue  of 
Ireland,"  published  in  1737  ;  also  a  complete  body 
of  the  laws  of  Maryland,  fol.,  1765.  He  also 
wrote  other  valuable  pieces.  —  Jenn. 

BACON,  JACOB,  first  minister  of  Keene,  N.  II., 
died  at  Rowley  in  1787,  aged  81.  A  graduate  of 
Harvard  in  1731,  he  was  ordained  in  1738.  The 
settlement  was  broken  up  by  the  Indians  in 
April,  1747.  He  afterwards  was  settled  in  Ply 
mouth.  His  successors  at  K.  were  Carpenter, 
Sumner,  Hall,  Oliphant,  and  Barstow.  The  last 
was  ordained  July  1,  1818. 

BACON,  JOHN,  minister,  of  Boston,  died  Oct. 
25,  1820.  He  was  a  native  of  Canterbury, 
Conn.,  and  was  graduated  at  the  college  of 
New  Jersey  in  1765.  After  preaching  for  a  time 
in  Somerset  county,  Maryland,  he  and  John  Hunt 
were  settled  as  colleague  pastors  over  the  old 
south  church  in  Boston,  as  successors  to  Mr. 
Blair,  Sept.  25,  1771.  His  style  of  preaching 
was  argumentative ;  his  manner  approaching  the 
severe.  Difficulties  soon  sprung  up  in  regard  to 
the  doctrines  of  the  atonement  and  of  imputation 
and  the  administration  of  baptism  on  the  half 
way  covenant,  which  led  to  the  dismission  of  Mr. 
Bacon  Feb.  8,  1775.  His  views  seem  to  have 
been  such  as  now  prevail  in  New  England,  while 
his  church  advocated  limited  atonement  and  the 
notion  of  the  actual  transference  of  the  sins  of 
believers  to  Christ  and  of  his  obedience  to  them. 
Probably  the  more  popular  talents  of  Mr.  Hunt 
had  some  influence  in  creating  the  difficulty.  Mr. 
Bacon  removed  to  Stockbridge,  Berkshire  county, 
where  he  died.  He  was  a  magistrate ;  a  repre 
sentative  ;  associate  and  presiding  judge  of  the 
common  pleas ;  a  member  and  president  of  the 
state  senate ;  and  a  member  of  Congress.  In  his 
political  views  he  accorded  with  the  party  of  Mr. 
Jefferson.  He  married  the  widow  of  his  prede 
cessor,  Mr.  Gumming.  She  was  the  daughter  of 
Ezekiel  Goldthwait,  register  of  deeds.  His  son, 
Ezekiel  Bacon,  was  a  distinguished  member  of 
Congress  just  before  the  war  of  1812.  He  pub 
lished  a  sermon  after  his  installation,  1772 ;  an 
answer  to  Huntington  on  a  case  of  discipline, 
1781 ;  a  speech  on  the  courts  of  U.  S.,  1802 ;  con 
jectures  on  the  prophecies,  1805.  —  Wisner's  Hist. 
0.  8.  Church,  33;  Hint,  of  Berkshire,  104,  201. 

BACON,  MARY,  died  at  Providence  July  3, 
1848,  aged  108  ;  born  June  10,  1740,  the  daughter 
of  John  Matthewson. 

BACON,  SAMUEL,  agent  of  the  American  gov- 

ernment  for  establishing  a  colony  in  Africa,  was  an 
Episcopal  clergyman.  He  proceeded  in  the 
Elizabeth  to  Sierra  Leone  with  eighty-two  colored 
people,  accompanied  by  Mr.  Bankson,  also  agent, 
and  Dr.  Crozer  ;  and  arrived  March  9,  1820.  The 
Augusta  schooner  was  purchased  and  the  people 
and  stores  were  transhipped,  and  carried  to 
Campelar  in  Sherbro  river  March  20th.  Dr. 
Crozer  and  Mr.  Bankson  died  in  a  few  weeks,  and 
Mr.  Bacon  being  taken  ill  on  the  17th  April 
proceeded  to  Kent,  at  Cape  Shilling,  but  died  two 
days  after  his  arrival,  on  the  3d  of  May.  Many 
others  died.  The  circular  of  the  colonization 
society,  signed  by  E.  B.  Caldwell,  Oct.  26, 
describes  this  disastrous  expedition.  —  Memoirs 
by  Ashmun. 

BADGER,  STEPHEN,  minister  of  Natick,  Mass., 
was  born  in  Charlestown  in  1725  of  humble 
parentage,  and  graduated  at  Harvard  college  in 
1747,  his  name  being  last  in  the  catalogue,  when 
the  names  were  arranged  according  to  parental 
dignity.  Employed  by  the  commissioners  for 
propagating  the  Gospel  in  New  England,  he  was 
ordained  as  missionary  over  the  Indians  at  Natick, 
as  successor  of  Mr.  Peabody,  March  27,  1753, 
and  died  Aug.  28,  1803,  aged  78  years.  Mr. 
Biglow  represents  him  as  in  reality  a  Unitarian, 
although  not  avowedly  such.  He  published  a 
letter  from  a  pastor  against  the  demand  of  a  con 
fession  of  particular  sins  in  order  to  church  fellow 
ship  ;  a  letter  concerning  the  Indians  in  the  Mass. 
hist,  collections,  dated  1797  ;  and  two  discourses 
on  drunkenness,  1774,  recently  reprinted.  In 
his  letter  concerning  the  Indians  he  states,  that 
Deacon  Ephraim,  a  good  Christian  Indian  of  his 
church,  on  being  asked  how  it  was  to  be  accounted 
for,  that  Indian  youths,  virtuously  educated  in 
English  families,  were  apt,  when  losing  the  re 
straints  under  which  they  had  been  brought  up, 
to  become  indolent  and  intemperate  like  others, 
replied  :  "  Ducks  will  be  ducks,  notwithstanding 
they  are  hatched  by  the  hen,"  —  or  in  his  own 
imperfect  English  —  "Tucks  will  be  tucks,  for  all 
ole  hen  he  hatchum."  Another  Indian  of  Natick 
once  purchased  a  dram  at  a  shop  in  Boston,  and 
the  next  spring,  after  drinking  rum  at  the  same 
shop,  found  that  the  price  of  the  poison  was 
doubled.  On  inquiring  the  reason,  the  dealer 
replied,  that  he  had  kept  the  cask  over  winter, 
and  it  was  as  expensive  as  to  keep  a  horse. 
"  Hah,"  replied  the  Indian,  "  he  no  eat  so  much 
hay  ;  but  I  believe  he  drink  as  much  water  !  " 
Of  the  strength  of  rum  the  Naticks  were  un 
happily  too  good  judges.  It  is  deplorable,  that  in 
1797  there  were  among  the  Natick  Indians,  for 
whom  the  apostolic  Eliot  labored,  only  two  or 
three  church-members,  and  not  one  who  could 
speak  their  language,  into  which  he  translated  the 
Bible.  Among  the  many  causes  of  their  degene 
racy  may  be  mentioned  the  sale  of  their  lands, 




their  intermixture  with  blacks  and  whites,  leaving 
only  about  twenty  clear-blooded  Indians,  their 
unconquerable  indolence  and  propensity  to  excess, 
and  perhaps  the  want  of  zeal  on  the  part  of  their 
religious  teachers.  In  1670  there  were  forty  or 
fifty  church-members.  The  number  of  Indians 
in  1749  was  one  hundred  and  sixty;  in  1703  only 
thirty-seven.  The  war  of  1759  and  a  putrid  fever 
had  destroyed  many  of  them.  —  Si  glow's  Hist. 
Natick,  59^-69,  77 ;  Col.  Hist.  Soc.  \.  32-45. 

BADGER,  WILLIAM,  governor  of  N.  H.,  died 
at  Gilmanton  Sept.  21,  1852,  aged  73.  He  was 
governor  in  1834  and  1835  and  had  sustained 
many  offices. 

BADGER,  RACHEL,  Mrs.,  died  at  Lynde- 
borough,  X.  II.,  1834,  aged  100. 

BADGER,  JOSEPH,  died  at  Perrysburgh  May 
5,  184G,  aged  87,  a  soldier  of  the  Revolution,  and 
chaplain  under  Harrison  at  Fort  Meigs ;  an  ex 
emplary  Christian. 

BADLAM,  STEPHEN,  brigadier-general  of  the 
militia,  died  in  Aug.,  1815.  He  was  born  in  Can 
ton,  Mass.,  and  joined  the  American  army  in 
1775.  In  the  next  year,  as  major  of  artillery,  he 
took  possession,  July  4th,  of  the  mount,  which 
from  that  circumstance  was  called  Mount  Inde 
pendence.  He  did  good  service  with  his  fieklpiece 
in  the  action  at  Fort  Stanwix,  under  Willett,  in 
Aug.,  1777.  His  residence  was  at  Dorchester, 
where  he  was  an  eminently  useful  citizen,  acting 
as  a  magistrate  and  a  deacon  of  the  church.  — 
Codman's  Funeral  Sermon ;  Panoplist,  XI.  572. 

BAILEY,  MOUNTJOY,  general,  died  at  Wash 
ington  March  22,  1836,  aged  81 ;  an  officer  of  the 

BAILEY,  EBENEZER,  died  at  Lynn  Mineral 
Springs  Aug.,  1839,  long  an  eminent  teacher  of 
youth  in  Boston.  A  lock-jaw  was  occasioned  by 
running  a  nail  into  his  foot. 

BAILEY,  MOSES,  died  in  Andover,  Mass., 
March  14,  1842,  aged  98,  leaving  one  hundred 
and  thirty-five  descendants. 

BAILEY,  JACOB,  a  graduate  of  Harvard  in 
1755,  died  in  1808,  an  Episcopal  preacher  in 
Pownalborough  and  Xova  Scotia.  His  journal 
was  published  in  1853,  with  a  biography  by  W.  J. 

BAILY,  JOHN,  an  excellent  minister  in  Boston, 
died  in  1697,  aged  53.  He  was  born  in  1644  in 
Lancashire,  England.  From  his  earliest  years 
his  mind  seems  to  have  been  impressed  by  the 
truths  of  religion.  While  he  was  yet  very  young, 
his  mother  one  day  persuaded  him  to  lead  the 
devotions  of  the  family.  When  his  father,  who 
was  a  very  dissolute  man,  heard  of  it,  his  heart 
was  touched  with  a  sense  of  his  sin  in  the  neglect 
of  this  duty,  and  he  became  afterwards  an 
eminent  Christian.  After  having  been  carefully 
instructed  in  classical  learning,  he  commenced 
preaching  the  gospel  about  the  age  of  twenty-two. 

He  soon  went  to  Ireland,  where  by  frequent 
labors  he  much  injured  his  health,  which  was 
never  perfectly  restored.  He  spent  about  fourteen 
years  of  his  life  at  Limerick,  and  was  exceedingly 
blessed  in  his  exertions  to  turn  men  from  dark 
ness  to  light.  Yet  while  in  this  place  as  well  as 
previously,  he  was  persecuted  by  men,  who  were 
contending  for  form  and  ceremony  in  violation  of 
the  precepts  and  the  spirit  of  the  gospel.  While 
he  was  a  young  man,  he  often  travelled  far  by 
night  to  enjoy  the  ordinances  of  the  gospel, 
privately  administered  in  dissenting  congregations, 
and  for  this  presumptuous  offence  he  was  some 
times  thrown  into  Lancashire  jail.  As  soon  as  he 
began  to  preach,  his  fidelity  was  tried,  and  he 
suffered  imprisonment  because  in  his  conscience 
he  could  not  conform  to  the  established  church. 
While  at  Limerick  a  deanery  was  offered  him,  if 
he  would  conform,  with  the  promise  of  a  bishopric 
upon  the  first  vacancy.  But  disdaining  worldly 
things,  when  they  came  in  competition  with  duty 
to  his  Saviour  and  the  purity  of  Divine  worship, 
he  rejected  the  offer  in  true  disinterestedness  and 
elevation  of  spirit.  But  neither  this  proof,  that 
he  was  intent  on  higher  objects,  than  this  world 
presents,  nor  the  blamelessness  of  his  life,  nor  the 
strong  hold,  which  he  had  in  the  affections  of  his 
acquaintance,  could  preserve  him  from  again 
suffering  the  hardships  of  imprisonment,  while 
the  papists  in  the  neighborhood  enjoyed  liberty 
and  countenance.  When  he  was  before  the 
judges  he  said  to  them,  "If  I  had  been  drinking, 
and  gaming,  and  carousing  at  a  tavern  with  my 
company,  my  lords,  I  presume,  that  would  not 
have  procured  my  being  thus  treated  as  an 
offender.  Must  praying  to  God,  and  preaching 
of  Christ  with  a  company  of  Christians,  who  are 
peaceable  and  inoffensive  and  as  serviceable  to  his 
majesty  and  the  government  as  any  of  his  sub 
jects;  must  this  be  a  greater  crime?"  The 
recorder  answered,  "  We  will  have  you  to  know 
it  is  a  greater  crime."  His  flock  often  fasted  and 
prayed  for  his  release ;  but  he  was  discharged  on 
this  condition  only,  that  he  should  depart  from 
the  country  within  a  limited  time. 

He  came  to  New  England  in  1684,  and  was 
ordained  the  minister  of  Watertown,  Oct.  6, 1686, 
with  his  brother,  Thomas  Bailey,  as  his  assistant ; 
he  removed  to  Boston  in  1692,  and  became  as 
sistant  minister  of  the  first  church  July  17,  1693, 
succeeding  Mr.  Moody.  In  1696  Mr.  Wadsworth 
was  settled.  His  brother,  Thomas,  who  died  in 
Watertown  in  Jan.,  1689,  wrote  Latin  odes  at 
Lindsay  in  1668,  which  are  in  manuscript  in  the 
library  of  the  Mass.  Historical  Society. 

He  was  a  man  eminent  for  piety,  of  great  sen 
sibility  of  conscience,  and  very  exemplary  in  his 
life.  It  was  his  constant  desire  to  be  patient  and 
resigned  under  the  calamities,  which  were  ap 
pointed  him,  and  to  fix  his  heart  more  upon 



things  above.  —  His  ministry  was  very  acceptable 
in  different  places,  and  he  was  a  warm  and  ani 
mated  preacher.  Dunton  says,  "  I  heard  him 
upon  these  words  — '  Looking  unto  Jesus '  —  and 
I  thought  he  spake  like  an  angel."  But  with  all 
his  faithfulness  he  saw  many  disconsolate  hours. 
He  was  distressed  with  doubts  respecting  him 
self;  but  his  apprehensions  only  attached  him 
the  more  closely  to  his  Redeemer. 

In  his  last  sickness  he  suffered  under  a  com 
plication  of  disorders ;  but  he  did  not  complain. 
His  mind  was  soothed  in  dwelling  upon  the  suf 
ferings  of  his  Saviour.  At  times  he  was  agitated 
with  fears,  though  they  had  not  respect,  as  he 
said,  so  much  to  the  end,  as  to  what  he  might 
meet  in  the  way.  His  last  words  were,  speaking 
of  Christ,  "  O,  what  shall  I  say  ?  He  is  altogether 
lovely.  His  glorious  angels  are  come  for  me ! " 
He  then  closed  his  eyes,  and  his  spirit  passed 
into  eternity.  He  published  an  address  to  the 
people  of  Limerick ;  and  man's  chief  end  to 
glorify  God,  a  sermon  preached  at  Watertown, 
1089.  —  Middleton's  Evang,  Biography,  iv. 
101-105;  Nonconformist  Memorial,  i.  331-335; 
Mather's  Funeral  Sermon ;  Magnalia,  in.  224- 
238;  Eliot. 

BAIXBRIDGE,  WILLIAM,  commodore,  died  at 
Philadelphia  July  27,  1833,  aged  59.  He  was 
born  at  Princeton,  N.  J.,  the  son  of  Dr.  Absalom 
B. :  in  1798  he  was  a  lieutenant  in  the  navy ;  in 
1800  he  commanded  a  frigate  and  sailed  for 
Algiers.  In  consequence  of  his  vessel's  grounding 
before  Tripoli,  he  was  captured  in  the  Philadel 
phia  in  1800.  In  the  Constitution  he  captured 
the  British  frigate  Java,  Dec.  29,  1812.  After  the 
war  he  had  the  command  at  several  naval  sta 
tions  :  for  several  years  he  was  commissioner  of 
the  navy  board. 

BAIRD,  THOMAS  D.,  editor  of  the  Pittsburgh 
Christian  Herald,  died  Jan.  7,  1839,  aged  65. 

BALCH,  WILLIAM,  minister  of  Bradford,  Mass., 
was  born  at  Beverly  in  1704  and  graduated  in 
1724.  He  was  a  descendant  of  John  Balch, 
who  came  to  this  country  about  1625  and  died  at 
Salem  in  1648.  Ordained  in  1728  over  the  sec 
ond  church  in  Bradford,  he  there  passed  lu's 
days,  and  died  Jan.  12,  1792,  aged  87  years. 

About  the  year  1742  or  1743  several  members, 
a  minority  of  his  church,  dissatisfied  with  his 
preaching,  applied  to  a  neighboring  church  to 
admonish  their  pastor,  agreeably  to  the  Platform. 
A  council  was  convened,  which  censured  the  con 
duct  of  the  complainants.  But  in  1746  Mr.  Wig- 
glesworth  and  Mr.  Chipman,  ministers  of  Ipswich 
and  Beverly,  accused  Mr.  Balch  of  propagating 
Arminian  tenets.  He  wrote  a  reply,  mingling 
keen  satire  with  solid  argument.  After  this,  they, 
who  were  dissatisfied  with  Mr.  Balch,  built  a 
meeting-house  for  themselves.  In  his  old  age  he 
received  a  colleague.  He  lived  in.  retirement, 


occupied  in  agriculture,  and  raising  the  best 
apples  in  Essex.  His  mental  powers  retained 
their  vigor  in  old  age.  New  writings  delighted 
him;  and  he  engaged  freely  in  theological  dis 
cussion. — He  published  the  following  discourses: 
on  reconciliation,  1740;  faith  and  Avorks,  1743; 
at  the  election,  1749;  at  the  convention,  1760; 
account  of  the  proceedings  of  the  2d  church; 
reply  to  Wigglesworth  and  Chipman,  1746.  — 
Eliot ;  Mass.  Historical  Collections,  rv.  s.  s.  145. 

BALCH,  THOMAS,  first  minister  of  the  2d  parish 
of  Dedham,  died  in  1774,  aged  about  60.  He 
graduated  in  1733,  and  was  ordained  in  1736. 
He  published  a  sermon  at  the  ordination  of  J. 
Newman,  Edgartown,  1747 ;  Christ  present,  1748 ; 
at  election,  1749;  ordination  of  W.  Patten,  1757; 
at  artillery  election,  1763. 

BALCH,  STEPHEN  B.,  D.  D.,  died  at  George 
town,  D.  C.,  Sept,  22,  1833,  aged  86. 

BALCH,  JOSEPH,  died  in  Johnstown,  N.  Y., 
Dec.  5,  1855,  aged  95,  a  soldier  of  the  Revolu 
tion,  then  of  Wethcrsfield.  At  the  age  of  about 
80  he  made  a  Christian  profession.  On  the  day 
of  his  death  he  was  attending  a  public  fast :  the 
Bible  fell  from  his  hands,  and  he  died. 

BALDWIN,  EBENEZER,  minister  of  Danbury, 
Conn.,  was  graduated  at  Yale  college  in  1763,  and 
was  tutor  in  that  seminary  from  1766  to  1770. 
He  was  ordained  as  successor  of  Mr.  Warner  and 
Mr.  White,  Sept.  19,  1770,  and  died  Oct.  1, 1776, 
aged  31  years.  He  was  a  man  of  great  talents 
and  learning,  an  unwearied  student,  grave  in 
manners,  and  an  able  supporter  of  the  sound 
doctrines  of  the  gospel.  He  left  a  legacy  of 
about  300  pounds  to  his  society,  which  is  appro 
priated  to  the  support  of  religion.  —  Bobbins' 
Centennial  Sermon. 

BALDWIN,  JONATHAN,  died  at  Brookficld  in 
1788,  aged  57.  He  was  a  captain  in  the  French 
war ;  and  was  a  prominent  member  of  the  Mass, 
congress  in  1774 :  a  colonel  in  the  Revolutionary 
struggle.  A  soldier,  a  patriot,  a  Christian,  he  was 
also  a  friend  of  literature,  leaving  a  bequest  to 
Leicester  academy. 

BALDWIN,  ABRAHAM,  a  distinguished  states 
man,  was  born  in  Connecticut  in  1754  and  grad 
uated  at  Yale  college  in  1772.  From  1775  to 
1779  he  was  a  tutor  in  that  seminary,  being  an 
eminent  classical  and  mathematical  scholar.  Hav 
ing  studied  law,  he  removed  to  Savannah  and  was 
admitted  a  counsellor  at  the  Georgia  bar,  and  in 
three  months  was  elected  a  member  of  the  state 
legislature.  At  the  first  session  he  originated 
the  plan  of  the  university  of  Georgia,  drew  up 
the  charter,  by  which  it  was  endowed  with  forty 
thousand  acres  of  land,  and,  vanquishing  many 
prejudices,  by  the  aid  of  John  Milledge  persuaded 
the  assembly  to  adopt  the  project.  The  college 
was  located  at  Athens,  and  Josiah  Meigs  was  ap 
pointed  its  first  president.  Being  elected  a  dele- 




gate  to  congress- in  1786,  he  was  an  active  mem 
ber  of  the  convention,  which  formed  the  present 
constitution  of  the  United  States,  during  its  ses 
sion  from  May  25  to  Sept.  17,  1787.  After  its 
adoption  he  was  continued  a  member  of  congress 
until  1799,  when  he  was  appointed  as  colleague 
with  Mr.  Millcdge  a  senator,  in  which  station  he 
remained  until  his  death,  at  Washington  city, 
March  4,  1807,  aged  53  years.  His  remains  were 
placed  by  the  side  of  his  friend  and  former  col 
league,  Gen.  J.  Jackson,  whom  he  had  followed  to 
the  grave  just  one  year  before.  He  was  the 
brother-in-law  of  Joel  Barlow.  Having  never 
been  married,  his  economy  put  it  in  his  power  to 
assist  many  young  men  in  their  education.  His 
father  dying  in  1787  with  little  property,  six 
orphan  children,  his  half  brothers  and  sisters, 
were  protected  and  educated  by  him,  and  owed 
every  tiling  to  his  care  and  affection.  In  public 
life  he  was  industrious  and  faithful.  Though  firm 
in  his  own  republican  principles  during  the  con 
tests  of  the  last  ten  years  of  his  life,  he  was  yet 
moderate,  and  indulgent  towards  his  opponents. 
Until  a  week  before  his  death  his  public  sen-ices 
for  twenty-two  years  had  been  uninterrupted  by 
sickness.  —  National  Intelligencer. 

BALDWIN,  THOMAS,  D.  D.,  a  Baptist  minister 
in  Boston,  was  born  in  Norwich,  Conn.,  Dec.  23, 
1753.  After  he  had  removed  to  Canaan,  in  New 
Hampshire,  he  became  pious,  and  joined  the 
Baptist  church  in  1781.  It  was  with  pain,  that 
he  thus  forsook  his  connections  and  early  friends, 
for  he  had  been  educated  a  pedo-Baptist  and  his 
venerable  minister  at  Norwich  was  his  grand 
uncle.  Having  for  some  time  conducted  the  re 
ligious  exercises  at  public  meetings,  in  Aug.,  1782, 
he  ventured  for  the  first  time  to  take  a  text  and 
preach  doctrinally  and  methodically.  His  ad 
vantages  for  intellectual  culture  had  been  few. 
At  the  request  of  the  church  he  was  ordained 
June  11, 1783,  as  an  evangelist,  and  he  performed 
the  duties  of  pastor  for  seven  years,  besides 
preaching  often  during  each  week  in  the  towns 
within  a  circle  of  fifty  miles,  "  chiefly  at  his  own 
charges,"  sometimes  receiving  small  presents,  but 
never  having  a  public  contribution.  In  these  jour 
neys  he  was  obliged  to  climb  rocky  steeps  and  to 
pass  through  dismal  swamps;  and  as  the  poor 
people  had  no  silver,  and  the  continental  cur 
rency  was  good  for  nothing,  sometimes  the  trav 
elling  preacher  was  obliged  either  to  beg  or  to 
starve.  For  several  years  he  was  chosen  a  mem 
ber  of  the  legislature. 

In  1790  he  was  invited  to  Boston,  as  the  pastor 
of  the  second  Baptist  church.  He  now  success 
fully  pursued  a  course  of  study,  and  by  his  un 
wearied  exertions  acquired  a  high  rank  as  a 
preacher.  His  church,  though  small  in  1790,  be 
came  under  his  care  numerous  and  flourishing. 
Of  his  own  denomination  in  New  England  he 

was  the  head,  and  to  him  all  his  brethren  looked 
for  advice.  Besides  being  connected  with  most 
of  the  benevolent  institutions  of  Boston,  he  was  a 
member  of  the  convention  for  revising  the  con 
stitution  of  the  state,  and  just  before  his  death 
was  fixed  upon,  by  one  party  among  the  people, 
as  a  candidate  for  an  elector  of  president  of  the 
United  States.  He  died  very  suddenly  at  Water- 
ville,  Me.,  whither  he  had  gone  to  attend  the 
commencement,  Aug.  29,  1825,  aged  71  years. 
The  following  stanza  on  his  death  will  apply  to  a 
multitude  of  others,  recorded  in  this  work. 

"  He  was  a  goorl  man.    Yet  amid  onr  tears 
Sweet,  grateful  thoughts  within  our  bosoms  rise  ; 
We  trace  his  spirit  up  to  brighter  spheres, 
And  think  with  what  pure,  rapturous  surprise 
He  found  himself  translated  to  the  skies  : 
From  night  at  once  awoke  to  endless  noon. 
Oh  !  with  what  transport  did  his  eager  eyes 
Behold  his  Lord  ia  glory  ?     'T  was  the  boon 
His  heart  had  longed  for  !    Why  deem  we  it  came  to  soon  ?  " 

He  published  the  following  discourses  :  at  the 
thanksgiving,  1795 ;  quarterly  sermon ;  at  the 
concert  of  prayer ;  account  of  revival  of  religion, 
1799  ;  on  the  death  of  Lieut-Gov.  Phillips ;  elec 
tion  sermon,  1802 ;  on  the  eternal  purpose  of 
God ;  at  thanksgiving ;  before  a  missionary  soci 
ety,  1804;  at  the  ordination  of  D.  Merrill,  1805; 
installation  of  J.  Winchell,  1814 ;  before  the  fe 
male  asylum,  1806;  on  the  death  of  Dr.  Still- 
man  ;  at  the  artillery  election,  1807 ;  and  the  bap 
tism  of  believers  only,  and  particular  communion 
vindicated,  12mo.  1806.  Of  this  work  the  first 
and  second  parts  were  originally  published  in 
1789  and  1794. 

rian  of  the  Antiquarian  Society  at  Worcester,  wras 
killed  by  the  upsetting  of  a  stage,  in  which  he 
was  travelling,  at  Norwich,  Ohio,  Aug.  20,  1835, 
aged  35.  He  was  riding  with  the  driver,  and 
leaped  from  the  stage  for  security,  but  fell  back 
from  the  bank. 

BALDWIN,  LOAMMI,  died  at  Charlestown, 
June  30,  1838,  of  paralysis.  He  was  graduated 
in  1800,  and  educated  for  the  law,  but  became 
one  of  the  most  distinguished  civil  engineers  of 
our  country.  The  dry  docks  at  the  navy  yards  at 
Charlestown  and  near  Norfolk  and  other  public 
works  attested  his  skill.  He  was  lamented  by 
many  friends. 

BALDWIN,  ELILTU  W.,  D.  D.,  president  of 
Wabash  college,  Crawfordsville,  Ind.,  died  Oct. 
15,  1840,  aged  50.  Born  at  Durham,  N.  Y.,  he 
graduated  at  Yale  in  1812,  studied  at  Andover, 
and  was  a  minister  in  New  York  from  1820  to 
1835.  He  died  in  peace  and  joyful  hope. 

BALDAVIN,  ELI,  D.  D.,  of  the  Reformed 
Dutch  Church  at  New  Brunswick,  N.  J.,  died  in 

BALDWLN,  ASIIBEL,  died  at  Rochester,  New 
York,  Feb.  8,  1846,  aged  89.  A  graduate  of 




Yale,  he  served  in  the  army,  and  \vas  ordained  by 
Bishop  Seabury  in  1785 —  the  first  Episcopal  or 
dination  in  the  U.  S.  He  was  secretary  of  the 
general  Episcopal  convention  many  years. 

BALDWIN,  HENRY,  Judge,  died  in  Philadel 
phia  Apr.  21,  1844,  aged  Go.  A  native  of  New 
Haven,  he  graduated  in  1797,  and  settled  in 
Pennsylvania.  lie  was  a  member  of  Congress 
and  judge  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  U.  S. ; 
and  was  highly  respected. 

BALDWIN,  SIMEON,  judge,  died  in  New  Ha 
ven  May  26,  1851,  aged  89.  He  was  born  in 
Norwich  and  graduated  1781.  After  being  a 
tutor  for  several  years  he  commenced  the  practice 
of  the  law  in  1786.  He  was  in  congress  from 
1803  to  1805 ;  a  judge  of  the  superior  court  in 
1806;  in  1822  president  of  the  Farmington  canal 
board ;  and  mayor  of  the  city  in  1826. 

BALDWIN,  METHUSELAH,  minister  of  Scotch- 
town,  N.  Y.,  died  in  1847,  aged  84. 

BALDWIN,  CYRUS,  Dr.,  died  in  Goodrich, 
Mich.,  Aug.,  1855,  aged  81.  Born  in  Worcester, 
he  assisted  as  an  earnest  Christian  in  founding 
churches  in  Baldwinsviile,  N.  Y.,  and  elsewhere. 
He  lived  in  Hebron,  and  in  Home,  Mich.,  in 
Grand  Blanc,  in  Atlas,  and  Goodrich. 

BALFOUR,  WALTER,  died  in  Charlestown, 
Jan.  3,  1852,  aged  74;  a  Scotchman,  who  came 
early  to  this  country  as  a  Presbyterian  preacher. 
After  ten  years  he  became  a  Baptist,  and  in  a  few 
years  more  a  Universalist.  He  published  inqui 
ries,  essays,  reply  and  letters  to  Mr.  Stuart,  and 
letters  to  Mr.  Hudson.  He  had  also  a  contro 
versy  with  Sabinc  and  Whitman. 

BALL,  HEMAN,  1).  D.,  died  at  Rutland,  Vt, 
Dec.  17,  1821,  aged  57,  highly  respected  and  of 
extensive  influence.  He  was  a  native  of  West 
Springfield,  and  a  graduate  of  Dartmouth  in  1791. 
He  published  a  sermon  on  the  death  of  Washing 

BALL,  LUCY,  missionary  to  China,  died  June 
6,  1844,  aged  37.  Her  name  was  Mills  of  New 
Haven ;  her  husband  was  Dyer  Ball,  who  em 
barked  in  1838.  Her  oldest  daughter  made  a 
profession  of  religion  in  the  presence  of  all  the 
missionaries  at  Hong  Kong  a  few  weeks  before 
her  mother's  death. 

BALLANTLNE,  JOHN,  minister  of  Wcstfield, 
was  the  son  of  John  B.  of  Boston,  clerk  of  court 
and  register  of  deeds,  and  of  Mary  Winthrop, 
daughter  of  Adam  W. ;  was  graduated  in  1735 
and  was  ordained  June  17,  1741.  He  died  Feb. 
12,  1776,  aged  59.  His  wife  was  Mary,  daughter 
of  Luther  Gay  and  sister  of  Dr.  Gay  of  Suflield. 
His  son,  Wm.  G.,  a  graduate  of  1771,  died  in 
1854  ;  he  was  the  minister  of  Washington,  Mass., 
ancestor  of  Rev.  Henry  B.,  missionary  to  India. 
His  daughter,  Mary,  married  Gen.  Ashley.  He 
published  a  sermon  on  the  march  of  a  company 
to  Crown  Point  June  2,  1756. 

BALLARD,  JOHN  B.,  died  in  New  York  Jan. 
29,  185G,  aged  60.  A  native  of  Dudley,  Mass., 
he  was  the  pastor  of  several  Baptist  churches, 
then  a  dozen  years  the  agent  of  the  Sunday 
school  union  in  N.  C.  and  Ky. ;  last  a  useful  tract 
missionary  six  years  in  N.  Y. 

BALLOU,  HOSEA,  died  June  7,  1851,  aged  80. 
Born  in  Richmond,  N.  II.,  the  son  of  a  Baptist 
minister,  he  was  a  member  of  the  Baptist  church ; 
but  on  becoming  a  Universalist  he  was  excluded 
from  the  church.  He  was  settled  in  Dana,  Barn 
ard,  Vt.,  Portsmouth,  Salem ;  and  in  the  School 
street  church  in  Boston  from  1817  till  his  death. 
He  published  two  orations ;  a  dedication  and  or 
dination  sermon  ;  orthodoxy  unmasked ;  reply  to 
T.  Merritt ;  divine  benevolence,  1815  ;  strictures 
on  Channing's  sermon  ;  series  of  lecture  sermons, 
1818;  series  of  letters;  on  the  atonement,  1828. 

BANCROFT,  AARON,  D.  D.,  died  at  Worces 
ter  Aug.  19,  1839,  aged  84.  Born  at  Reading  in 
1735,  he  graduated  at  Cambridge  in  1778,  and 
was  the  minister  of  a  Unitarian  church  from  1786 
till  his  death.  He  was  the  father  of  Mr.  Bancroft, 
the  historian. 

He  published  eulogy  on  Washington,  1800; 
life  of  Washington,  1807  ;  election  sermon,  1801 ; 
on  conversion,  1818;  convention  sermon,  1820; 
sermons  on  the  doctrines  of  the  gospel,  1822  ;  on 
the  death  of  John  Adams;  at  the  end  of  fifty 
years  of  his  ministry  ;  and  about  twenty-five  other 
single  sermons  and  controversial  pieces. 

BANISTER,  JOHN,  an  eminent  botanist,  was 
a  native  of  England.  After  passing  some  time 
in  the  West  Indies  he  came  to  Virginia  and  set 
tled  on  James  River,  near  James  Town.  Rees 
I  speaks  of  him  as  a  clergyman.  In  1680  he  trans 
mitted  to  Mr.  Ray  a  catalogue  of  plants,  observed 
by  him  in  Virginia,  which  was  published  by  Ray 
in  the  second  volume  of  his  history  of  plants,  in 
the  preface  to  the  supplement  of  which  work, 
published  in  1704,  he  speaks  of  Banister  as  an 
illustrious  man,  who  had  long  resided  in  Virginia, 
devoted  to  botanical  pursuits,  and  as  drawing  with 
his  own  hand  the  figures  of  the  rarer  species.  He 
mentions  a!ro,  thnt  he  had  fallen  a  victim  to  his 
favorite  pursuit  before  he  had  completed  a  work, 
in  which  he  was  engaged,  on  the  natural  history 
of  Virginia.  In  one  of  his  botanical  excursions, 
while  clambering  the  rocks,  Banister  fell  and  was 
killed.  This  event  occurred  after  1687  and  prob 
ably  before  the  end  of  the  century.  Many  of  his 
descendants  arc  living  in  Virginia  and  are  very 
respectable.  In  honor  of  him  Dr.  Houston 
named  a  plant  Banisteria,  of  which  twenty-four 
species  are  enumerated.  Lawson  says,  he  "  was 
the  greatest  virtuoso  we  ever  had  on  the  conti 
nent."  Besides  his  "  catalogue  of  plants,"  his  prin 
cipal  work  in  the  philosophical  transactions  1693, 
other  communications  on  natural  history  were 
published  ;  observations  on  the  natural  produc- 




tions  of  Jamaica;  the  insects  of  Virginia,  1700; 
curiosities  in  Virginia ;  observations  on  the  musca 
lupus ;  on  several  sorts  of  snails ;  a  description 
of  the  pistolochia  or  serpentaria  Virginiana,  the 
snake  root.  —  Barton's  Med.  Jour.  II.  134-139 ; 
Hay's  Sup.;  Lau'son,  136. 

BANNEKER,  BENJAMIN,  a  negro  astronomer, 
died  in  Baltimore  county,  Md.,  in  Oct.,  1806,  aged 
70.  His  parents  obtained  their  freedom,  and  sent 
him  to  a  common  school,  where  he  acquired  a 
great  readiness  in  calculation.  He  assisted  Ellicott 
in  laying  out  the  city  of  Washington.  Procuring 
Mayer's  tables,  Ferguson's  astronomy,  and  some 
instruments,  he  made  sets  of  observations  for  an 
almanac  for  the  years  1792  and  1793.  He  pub 
lished  a  letter  to  the  secretary  of  state,  1792. 

BANNISTER,  WILLIAM  B.,  died  at  Newbury- 
port  July  1,  1853,  aged  79.  Born  in  Brookfield, 
he  was  a  graduate  of  Dartmouth  in  1797  ;  he  was 
a  man  of  wealth,  pious,  and  benevolent.  In  his 
age  he  married  Miss  Grant,  the  eminent  teacher 
at  Ipswich,  \vho  survived  him.  For  some  years 
he  was  a  member  of  the  senate,  and  a  trustee  of 
Amherst  college  and  a  visitor  of  the  theological 
seminary  at  Andover,  and  a  worthy  member  of 
various  charitable  institutions,  to  which  he  be 
queathed  about  40,000  dollars,  most  of  his  prop 

BARBOUR,  THOMAS,  colonel,  was  a  whig  of 
the  Revolution  and  in  1769  was  a  member  of  the 
house  of  burgesses  of  Virginia,  which  made  the 
first  protest  against  the  stamp  act.  He  died  at 
Barboursville  May  16,  1825,  aged  90.  For  60 
years  he  had  discharged  the  duties  of  a  civil  mag 
istrate,  and  was  many  years  the  sheriff  of  the 
county,  enjoying  in  a  high  degree  the  confidence 
of  his  fellow  citizens.  He  was  the  father  of 
James  Barbour,  the  secretary  of  war. 

BARBOUR,  PHILIP  P.,  a  judge  of  the  Su 
preme  court,  and  a  member  of  congress  1814-25, 
and  speaker,  died  at  Washington  Feb.  25,  1841, 
aged  about  60.  He  was  a  man  of  talents  and 
eloquence,  and  successful.  His  disease  was  ossi 
fication  of  the  heart. 

BARBOUR,  JOHN  S.,  died  in  Ciilpepper  co., 
Va.,  Jan.  12,  1855,  aged  65 ;  from  1823  to  1833  a 
member  of  Congress,  a  man  of  ability  and  influ 

BARCLAY,  ROBERT,  governor  of  East  Jer 
sey,  the  author  of  the  "  Apology  for  the  Quakers," 
died  in  1690,  aged  41.  lie  was  born  in  1648  in 
Scotland,  and  receiving  his  education  at  Paris  he 
at  first  imbibed  the  Catholic  tenets,  but  afterwards 
with  his  father  embraced  the  principles  of  the 
Quakers.  His  book  was  published  in  Latin  in 
1676,  and  translated  by  himself.  He  travelled 
with  William  Penn  in  England  and  on  the  conti 
nent.  In  1682,  when  East  Jersey  was  transferred 
to  Penn  and  eleven  associates,  he  was  appointed 
the  governor,  though  he  never  came  to  this  coun 

try;  in  which  office  lord  Neil  Campbell  succeeded 
him  in  1685.  His  brother,  John,  a  useful  citizen 
of  Jersey,  died  at  Amboy  in  1731,  leaving  two 
sons.  His  grandson,  Alexander,  was  comptroller 
of  the  customs  in  Philadelphia,  and  died  in  1771. 
—  Jennison. 

BARCLAY,  HENRY,  D.  D.,  an  Episcopal  cler 
gyman  in  New  York,  was  a  native  of  Albany, 
and  graduated  at  Yale  college  in  1734.  In 
England  he  received  orders  in  the  church,  and 
was  appointed  missionary  to  the  Mohawk  Indians. 
Having  served  in  this  capacity  for  some  years 
with  but  little  success,  he  was  called  to  the  city  of 
New  York  and  appointed  rector  of  Trinity  church. 
In  this  respectable  station  he  continued  till  his 
death,  in  1765.  The  translation  of  the  liturgy 
into  the  Mohawk  language,  made  under  his  di 
rection  and  that  of  Rev.  W.  Andrews  and  J. 
Ogilvic,  was  printed  in  1769.  Mr.  Ogilvie  suc 
ceeded  him  both  among  the  Indians  and  at  New 
York.  —  Life  of  Ritten.  245 ;  Miller's  Retros 
pect,  n.  356. 

BARD,  JOHN,  a  learned  physician,  died  March 
30,  1799,  aged  83.  He  was  born  in  Burlington, 
N.  J.,  Feb.  1,  1716.  His  father,  Peter  Bard,  an 
exile  from  France  in  consequence  of  the  revoca 
tion  of  the  edict  of  Nantes,  came  to  this  country 
in  1703  as  a  merchant ;  he  soon  married  the 
daughter  of  Dr.  Marmion,  and  was  for  many 
years  a  member  of  the  council  and  a  judge  of  the 
supreme  court. 

Mr.  Bard  received  his  early  education  under 
the  care  of  Mr.  Annan  of  Philadelphia,  a  very 
eminent  teacher.  About  the  age  of  fifteen  he 
was  bound  an  apprentice  for  seven  years  to  Dr. 
Kearsly,  a  surgeon  of  unhappy  temper  and  rigor 
ous  in  the  treatment  of  his  pupils.  Under  his 
thraldom  the  kindness  of  Mrs.  Kearsly  and  the 
friendship  of  Dr.  Franklin  beguiled  his  sorrows. 
He  engaged  in  business  in  1737  and  soon  ac 
quired  a  large  share  of  practice  and  became  much 
respected.  In  1743  he  was  induced  by  urgent  ap 
plications  from  New  York  to  remove  to  that  city 
to  supply  the  loss  of  several  eminent  physicians. 
Here  he  continued  till  within  a  few  months  of  his 
death.  In  the  year  1795,  when  the  yellow  fever 
had  put  to  flight  a  number  of  physicians,  who 
were  in  the  meridian  of  life,  the  veteran  Dr.  Bard, 
though  verging  towards  his  eightieth  year,  re 
mained  at  his  post.  In  May,  1798,  he  removed 
to  his  estate  at  Hyde  Park,  near  Poughkecpsie. 
Here  he  continued  in  the  enjoyment  of  perfect 
health,  till  he  felt  a  paralytic  stroke,  which  in  a 
few  days  occasioned  his  death.  He  was  a  firm  be 
liever  in  the  truth  and  excellency  of  the  Christian 
religion.  In  a  letter  to  his  son,  Dr.  Samuel  Bard, 
he  said,  "  above  all  things  suffer  not  yourself  by 
any  company  or  example  to  depart,  either  in  your 
conversation  or  practice,  from  the  highest  rever 
ence  to  God  and  your  religion."  In  liis  old  age 




he  was  cheerful  and  remarkable  for  his  gratitude 
to  his  heavenly  Father. 

Dr.  Bard  was  eminent  in  his  profession,  and  his 
practice  was  very  extensive.  Soon  after  the  close 
of  the  war  with  Great  Britain,  on  the  re-establish 
ment  of  the  medical  society  of  the  state  of  NCAV 
York,  he  was  elected  its  president,  and  he  was 
placed  in  the  chair  for  six  or  seven  successive 
years.  He  possessed  a  singular  ingenuity  and 
quickness  in  discriminating  diseases ;  yet  he  did 
not  presumptuously  confide  in  his  penetration, 
but  was  remarkably  particular  in  his  inquiries  into 
the  circumstances  of  the  sick.  Ever  desirous  of 
removing  the  disorders,  to  which  the  human  frame 
is  subject,  his  anxiety  and  attention  were  not 
diminished,  when  called  to  visit  the  indigent,  from 
whom  he  could  not  expect  compensation.  His 
conduct  through  his  whole  life  was  marked  by  the 
strictest  honor  and  integrity.  In  conversation  he 
was  polite,  affable,  cheerful,  and  entertaining.  To 
his  pupils  he  was  not  only  an  instructor,  but  a 
father.  In  the  early  part  of  his  life  he  devoted 
much  attention  to  polite  learning,  in  which  he 
made  great  proficiency.  He  possessed  a  correct 
and  elegant  taste,  and  wrote  with  uncommon  ac 
curacy  and  precision.  He  drew  up  an  essay  on 
the  pleurisy  of  Long  Island  in  1749,  which  paper 
was  not  published ;  a  paper,  inserted  in  the  Lon 
don  Medical  Observations;  and  several. papers  on 
the  yellow  fever  and  the  evidence  of  its  importa 
tion,  inserted  in  the  American  Medical  Register. 
In  1750  he  assisted  Dr.  Middleton  in  the  first  re 
corded  dissection  in  America,  that  of  Hcrmannus 
Carroll,  executed  for  murder.  —  Thacher's  Med. 
Biog.  96-103  ;  M'Vickar's  life  of  S.  Sard. 

BAUD,  'SAMUEL,  M.  D.,  son  of  the  preceding, 
died  May  24,  1821,  aged  79.  He  was  born  in 
Philadelphia  April  1,  1742.  When  a  boy,  in  order 
to  screen  a  servant,  who  had  broken  his  father's 
cane,  he  falsely  took  the  blame  to  himself.  His 
father  praised  his  generosity,  but  severely  pun 
ished  his  falsehood,  thus  giving  him  a  lesson  on 
the  value  of  truth,  which  he  was  careful  to  trans 
mit  to  his  children.  From  his  mother  he  received 
early  impressions  in  favor  of  religion.  Residing 
one  summer,  on  account  of  ill  health,  in  the  fam 
ily  of  Lieut.-Gov.  Golden,  his  father's  friend,  he 
acquired  a  taste  for  botany  under  the  teaching  of 
Miss  Golden.  His  skill  in  painting  enabled  him 
to  perpetuate  the  beauty  of  plants.  While  a  stu 
dent  at  Columbia  college  he  formed  the  habit  of 
early  rising,  at  daylight  in  summer  and  an  hour 
previous  to  it  in  winter,  which  he  continued 
through  life.  In  Sept.,  1761,  he  embarked  for 
England  in  order  to  obtain  a  thorough  medical 
education,  and  was  absent,  in  France,  England, 
and  Scotland,  five  years.  His  professional  studies 
were  pursued  with  undiminished  zeal,  and  espe 
cially  under  the  illustrious  teachers  in  the  school 
of  Edinburgh.  Such  was  his  skill  in  botany,  that 

he  obtained  the  annual  medal,  given  by  Dr.  Hope, 
the  professor,  for  the  best  collection  of  plants. 
He  received  his  degree  at  Edinburgh  in  May, 
1765.  On  his  return  he  found  his  father  in  debt 
for  his  education,  which  had  cost  more  than  a 
thousand  pounds;  he  entered  into  partnership 
with  him  and  for  three  years  drew  notliing  beyond 
his  expenses  from  the  profits  of  the  business, 
amounting  to  £1500  a  year.  Having  thus  hon 
orably  discharged  this  debt,  he  married  liis  cousin 
Mary  Bard,  a  lady  of  beauty  and  accomplish 
ments,  to  whom  he  had  long  been  attached.  He 
formed  this  connection  on  a  stock  of  £100,  ob 
serving,  that  "  his  wife's  economy  would  double  his 

Dr.  Bard  formed  the  plan  of  the  medical  school 
of  New  York,  which  was  established  within  a  year 
after  his  return.  He  was  appointed  professor  of 
the  practice  of  physic.  Medical  degrees  were 
first  conferred  in  1769.  In  the  same  year  the 
hospital  was  founded  by  his  exertions ;  but  the 
building  was  burnt,  causing  a  delay  of  the  estab 
lishment  until  1791.  In  1774  he  delivered  a 
course  of  chemical  lectures.  In  the  time  of  the 
war  he  left  the  city,  placing  his  family  in  the' 
house  of  his  father  at  Hyde  Park ;  but,  anxious  to 
provide  for  his  wife  and  children,  and  to  secure 
his  property,  he  the  next  year  by  permission 
returned  to  New  York,  while  the  enemy  had 
possession  of  it,  and  engaged  anew  in  his  pro 
fessional  business,  after  being  a  considerable  time 
without  a  call  and  reduced  to  his  last  guinea. 
After  the  return  of  peace  Washington  selected 
him  as  his  family  physician.  At  this  period  he 
lost  four  out  of  his  six  children  by  the  scarlatina, 
which  prevailed  in  a  virulent  form,  attended  with 
delirium.  In  consequence  of  the  illness  of  Mrs. 
Bard  he  withdrew  from  business  for  a  year, 
devoting  himself  to  her.  A  prayer  for  her 
recovery  was  found  among  his  papers.  In  1784 
he  returned  to  the  city.  At  this  period  he  devoted 
5000  guineas  to  enable  his  father  to  free  himself 
from  debt.  At  another  time,  when  he  had  ac 
cumulated  1500  guineas,  he  sent  that  sum  to 
England,  but  lost  it  by  the  failure  of  the  banker. 
On  receiving  the  intelligence,  he  said  to  his  wife, 
"  We  are  ruined ; "  but  she  replied,  "  Never  mind 
the  loss,  we  will  soon  make  it  up  again."  Having 
formed  the  purpose  to  retire  from  business,  he  in 
1795  took  Dr.  Hosack  into  partnership,  and  in 
1798  removed  to  his  seat  in  the  neighborhood  of 
his  father  at  Hyde  Park.  But,  when  the  yellow 
fever  appeared,  he  resolutely  returned  to  his  post. 
By  his  fearless  exposure  of  himself  he  took  the 
disease,  but  nursed  by  his  faithful  wife  he  recovered. 
The  remaining  twenty-three  years  of  his  life  were 
spent  in  happy  retirement,  surrounded  by  his 
children  and  grandchildren,  delighted  with  their 
society,  and  finding  much  enjoyment  also  in 
agricultural  improvements,  in  contemplating  the 




beauties  of  nature,  and  in  the  gratification  of  his 
continued  thirst  for  knowledge.  For  the  benefit 
of  those,  who  with  himself  had  engaged  in  rearing 
merino  sheep,  he  published  "The  Shepherd's 
Guide."  In  1813  he  was  appointed  president  of 
the  college  of  physicians  and  surgeons.  His 
discourses,  on  conferring  degrees,  were  very  im 
pressive.  He  died  of  the  pleurisy,  and  his  wife 
of  the  same  disorder  the  preceding  day;  they 
•were  buried  in  one  grave.  It  had  long  been 
their  wish  to  be  thus  united  in  death,  and  a  re 
markable  dream  of  Mrs.  Bard  to  tin's  effect  was 

Dr.  Bard  was  attached  to  the  Episcopal  mode 
of  religious  worship.  The  church  at  Hyde  Park 
was  chiefly  founded  by  him  in  1811,  and  to 
provide  for  the  absence  of  its  rector  he  procured 
a  license  to  act  as  lay  reader  at  the  age  of  seventy. 
He  regularly  devoted  a  part  of  the  morning  to 
religious  reading  and  reflection.  Of  religion  he 
said  to  his  son,  William  Bard,  Esq.,  "  This  is  our 
stronghold,  our  castle  and  rock  of  defence,  our 
refuge  in  times  of  adversity,  our  comforter  under 
misfortune,  our  cheerful  companion  and  friendly 
monitor  in  the  hours  of  gladness  and  prosperity." 
The  following  is  an  extract  from  the  form  of 
dailv  devotion,  used  by  himself  and  wife :  "  O 
God!  enlighten  our  understanding,  that  we  may 
comprehend  thy  will,  strengthen  our  resolution  to 
obey  thy  commands,  endow  us  with  resignation 
under  thy  dispensations,  and  fill  our  hearts  with 
love  and  gratitude  for  all  thy  benefits.  Give  unto 
us,  O  Lord,  whose  lives  thou  hast  continued  to  so 
late  a  day,  sincere  and  true  repentance,  and  grant, 
that  as  age  advances  upon  us,  our  minds  may  be 
more  and  more  enlightened  by  the  knowledge  of 
thy  will,  more  resigned  to  thy  dispensations,  and 
more  invigorated  with  the  resolution  to  obey  thy 
commands.  Calm  all  our  thoughts  and  fears; 
give  peace  and  quiet  to  our  latter  days ;  and  so 
support  us  by  thy  grace  through  the  weakness 
and  infirmities  of  age,  that  we  may  die  in  humble 
hope  and  confidence  of  thy  merciful  pardon 
through  the  merits  of  our  Redeemer."  He  pub 
lished  a  treatise  de  viribus  opii,  17 Go;  on  angina 
sufiocativa,  repub.  in  vol.  I.  Amer.  Phil.  Soc. ;  on 
the  use  of  cold  in  hemorrhage ;  compendium  of 
midwifery,  1807,  and  subsequent  editions;  many 
occasional  addresses  to  public  bodies ;  and  anni 
versary  discourses  to  medical  students.  —  Life  by 
McVickar;  Thaclier's  Med.  Diog.  103-143. 

BARKER,  JOHN,  general,  an  officer  of  the 
Revolution,  died  at  Philadelphia  April  3,  1818, 
aged  72;  he  was  sheriff,  mayor,  and  a  popular 

BARLOW,  JOEL,  an  eminent  statesman  and 
poet,  died  in  Poland  Dec.  22,  1812,  aged  08.  He 
was  born  at  Reading,  Conn.,  March  24,  1754, 
and  was  the  youngest  of  ten  children.  His 
father,  Samuel,  a  respectable  fanner,  died  while  he 

was  yet  at  school,  leaving  him  property  sufficient 
only  to  defray  the  expenses  of  his  education.  In 
1775  he  was  placed  at  Dartmouth  college  ;  but  he 
very  soon  removed  to  Yale  college,  where  he  was 
graduated  in  1778,  being  ranked  among  the  first 
cf  his  class,  for  talents  and  learning,  and  particu 
larly  conspicuous  for  his  skill  in  poetry.  During 
the  vacations  of  the  college  he  more  than  once 
seized  his  musket,  and  repaired  as  a  volunteer  to 
the  camp,  where  four  of  his  brothers  were  on  duty. 
He  was  present  at  several  skirmishes,  and  is  said 
to  have  fought  bravely  in  the  battle  of  the  Wlu'te 

After  leaving  college  he  engaged  for  a  short 
time  in  the  study  of  the  law ;  but,  being  urged  to 
qualify  himself  for  the  office  of  chaplain,  he 
applied  himself  diligently  to  the  study  of  theology, 
and  at  the  end  of  six  weeks  was  licensed  to 
preach.  He  immediately  joined  the  army  and 
discharged  the  duties  of  his  new  station  until  the 
return  of  peace.  As  a  preacher  he  was  much 
respected.  But  in  the  camp  he  continued  to 
cultivate  his  taste  for  poetry,  writing  patriotic 
songs,  and  composing,  in  part,  his  Vision  of  Co 
lumbus.  He  also  published  in  1780  an  elegy  on 
the  death  of  his  early  friend  and  patron,  Titus 
Hosmcr,  and  in  1781  a  poem  entitled  "The 
Prospect  of  Peace,"  which  he  had  pronounced  at 
Commencement.  About  this  time  he  married 
Ruth  Baldwin  of  New  Haven,  sister  of  Abraham 

In  1783,  after  the  army  was  disbanded,  he 
returned  to  the  study  of  the  law  at  Hartford, 
where  for  his  immediate  support  he  established  a 
weekly  newspaper.  The  original  articles,  which 
he  inserted,  gave  it  celebrity  and  a  wide  circula 
tion.  In  17  80  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar  and 
in  the  same  year  published  a  corrected  and 
enlarged  edition  of  Watts'  version  of  the  Psalms 
with  a  collection  of  hymns.  It  was  printed  at 
Hartford  by  "Barlow  &  Babcock."  This  work 
was  undertaken  at  the  request  of  the  General 
.Association  of  the  ministers  of  Connecticut,  and 
published  by  their  recommendation.  Many  of 
the  psalms  were  altered  so  as  to  be  adapted  to 
the  American  churches,  several  were  Avritten 
almost  anew,  and  several,  which  had  been 
omitted  by  Dr.  Watts,  were  supplied.  Barlow 
inserted  also  some  original  hymns.  In  1787  he 
published  the  Vision  of  Columbus,  a  large  poem, 
with  flattering  success.  It  was  dedicated  to  Louis 
XVI.  Some  of  its  interesting  passages  are  said 
to  be  imitations  or  copies  of  descriptions  in  the 
Incas  of  Marmontel. 

About  this  time  he  gave  up  his  concern  in  the 
weekly  paper,  and  opened  a  book-shop,  chiefly 
with  a  view  to  the  sale  of  his  poem  and  of  the 
new  edition  of  the  psalms..  Having  accomplished 
these  objects,  he  quitted  the  business  and  engaged 
in  the  practice  of  the  law.  But  in  this  profession 




he  was  not  successful.  lie  was  concerned  in 
several  occasional  publications  at  Hartford,  par 
ticularly  in  the  Anarchiad,  a  very  singular  poem, 
which  was  projected  by  Dr.  Hopkins,  and  which 
had  considerable  political  influence.  In  an  oration 
July  4,  1787,  he  earnestly  recommended  an 
efficient  general  government,  the  new  Constitution 
being  then  under  consideration  of  the  convention 
at  Philadelphia.  Urged  by  the  necessity  of  pro 
viding  for  his  subsistence,  he  went  to  Europe  in 
1788  as  the  agent  of  the  Scioto  land  company, 
but  ignorant  of  their  fraudulent  designs.  From 
England  he  crossed  over  to  France,  where  he 
made  sale  of  some  of  the  lands ;  but  in  the 
result  he  was  left  without  any  resource  for  his 
maintenance,  excepting  his  own  talents  and  repu 
tation.  At  this  period  his  zeal  for  republicanism 
induced  him  to  take  an  active  part  in  the  French 
Revolution,  being  particularly  connected  with  the 
Girondists,  or  the  moderate  party.  In  1791  he 
went  to  England,  where  he  published  the  first 
part  of  his  "  Advice  to  the  Privileged  Orders,"  a 
work  in  which  he  reprobates  the  feudal  system, 
the  national  church  establishments,  the  military 
system,  the  administration  of  justice,  and  the 
system  of  revenue  and  finance,  as  they  exist  in 
the  royal  and  aristocratical  governments  of  Eu 
rope.  In  Feb.,  1792,  he  published  the  "  Conspiracy 
of  Kings,"  a  poem  of  about  four  hundred  lines, 
occasioned  by  the  first  coalition  of  the  continental 
sovereigns  against  France  ;  and  in  the  autumn  of 
the  same  year  a  letter  to  the  national  convention 
of  France,  in  which  he  recommends  among  other 
measures  the  abolition  of  the  connection  between 
the  government  and  the  national  church.  These 
publications  brought  him  some  profit  as  well  as 
fame.  At  the  close  of  this  year  he  was  deputed 
by  the  London  constitutional  society  to  present 
their  address  to  the  French  national  convention, 
which  conferred  upon  him  the  rights  of  a  French 
citizen.  Feari'ul  of  the  resentment  of  the  English 
government,  he  now  fixed  his  residence  in  France. 
A  deputation  being  soon  sent  to  Savoy  to  organize 
it  as  a  department  of  the  Republic,  he  accompanied 
it  with  his  friend,  Gregoire,  to  Chamberry,  the 
capital,  where  he  resided  several  months,  and  at 
the  request  of  his  legislative  friends  wrote  an 
address  to  the  people  of  Piedmont,  inciting  them 
to  throw  off  their  allegiance  to  their  king.  At 
this  time  he  also  composed  "  Hasty  Pudding,"  a 
mock  didactic  poem,  the  most  popular  of  his 
poetical  productions.  After  his  return  to  Paris  he 
translated  Volney's  Ruins,  but  his  time  was  prin 
cipally  occupied  by  commercial  speculations,  in 
which  he  acquired  a  large  property.  Shocked  by 
the  atrocities  of  the  Revolution,  he  took  little 
part  in  politics. 

About  the  year  179o  he  went  to  the  north  of 
Europe  to  accomplish  some  private  business, 
entrusted  to  him,  and  on  lus  return  was  appointed 

by  President  Washington  as  consul  at  Algiers, 
with  powers  to  negotiate  a  treaty  of  peace  with 
the  l)ey  and  redeem  the  American  captives  on  the 
coast  of  Barbary.  He  immediately  left  Paris,  and 
passing  through  Spain  crossed  over  to  Algiers. 
He  soon  concluded  a  treaty  and  negotiated  also  a 
treaty  with  Tripoli,  rescuing  many  American 
citizens  from  slavery.  His  humane  exertions  were 
attended  with  great  danger.  In  1797  he  resigned 
his  consulship  and  returned  to  Paris,  where  he 
purchased  the  splendid  hotel  of  the  Count  Cler- 
mont  de  Tonnerc,  in  which  he  lived  for  some  years 
in  a  sumptuous  manner. 

On  the  occurrence  of  the  rupture  between  his 
native  country  and  France,  he  published  a  letter 
to  the  people  of  the  United  States  on  the  meas 
ures  of  Mr.  Adams'  administration.  Tin's  was 
soon  followed  by  a  second  part,  containing  specu 
lations  on  various  political  subjects.  At  this 
period  he  presented  a  memoir  to  the  French 
government,  denouncing  the  whole  system  of 
privateering,  and  contending  for  the  right  of 
neutrals  to  trade  in  articles  contraband  of  war. 

In  the  spring  of  180.3,  having  sold  his  real 
estate  in  France,  he  returned  to  America  after  an 
absence  of  nearly  seventeen  years.  He  purchased 
a  beautiful  situation  and  house  near  Georgetown, 
but  within  the  limits  of  the  city  of  Washington. 
This  place  he  called  "  Kalorama."  He  printed  in 
180G  a  prospectus  of  a  national  institution  at 
Washington,  which  should  combine  a  university 
with  a  learned  society,  together  with  a  military 
and  naval  academy  and  a  school  of  fine  arts.  In 
compliance  with  this  project  a  bill  was  introduced 
into  the  Senate,  but  it  was  not  passed  into  a  law. 

In  1808  he  published  the  Columbiad,  a  poem, 
which  had  been  the  labor  of  half  his  life,  in  the 
most  splendid  volume,  which  had  ever  issued  from 
the  American  press.  It  was  adorned  by  excellent 
engravings,  executed  in  London,  and  was  inscribed 
to  Robert  Fulton,  with  whom  he  had  long  lived  in 
friendship  and  whom  he  regarded  as  his  adopted 
son.  This  work,  though  soon  published  in  a 
cheaper  form,  has  never  acquired  much  popularity. 
As  an  epic  poem  it  has  great  faults  both  in  the 
plan  and  the  execution.  It  is  justly  exposed  to 
severe  criticism  for  some  extravagant  and  absurd 
flights  of  fancy  and  for  the  many  new-coined  and 
uncouth  words  which  it  contains.  Its  sentiments 
also  have  been  thought  hostile  to  Christianity. 
Gregoire  addressed  a  letter  to  the  author,  re 
proving  him  for  placing  the  cross  among  the 
symbols  of  fraud,  folly,  and  error.  Mr.  Barlow  in 
his  reply  declared,  that  he  was  not  an  unbeliever, 
or  that  he  had  not  renounced  Christianity,  and 
justified  the  description,  which  had  offended 
Gregoire,  on  the  ground  that  he  had  been  ac 
customed  to  regard  the  cross  not  as  the  emblem 
of  Christianity  itself  but  of  its  corruptions  by 




In  1811  he  was  nominated  a  minister  plenipo 
tentiary  to  the  French  government,  but  in  his 
attempt  to  negotiate  a  treaty  of  commerce  and 
indemnification  for  spoliations  he  was  not  success 
ful.  At  length,  in  October,  1812,  he  was  invited 
to  a  conference  with  the  emperor  at  Wilna.  He 
immediately  set  off,  travelling  day  and  night. 
Overcome  by  fatigue,  and  exposed  to  sudden 
changes  from  extreme  cold  to  the  excessive  heat 


of  the  small  cottages  of  the  Jews,  which  are  the 
only  taverns  in  Poland,  he  was  seized  by  a  violent 
inflammation  of  the  lungs,  which  terminated  his 
life  at  Zarnowica,  or  Zarnowitch,  an  obscure 
village  near  Cracow.  His  widow  died  in  Wash 
ington  May  30,  1818,  aged  62. 

He  was  of  an  amiable  disposition  and  domestic 
habits,  generally  silent  in  mixed  company,  and 
often  absent  in  mind.  His  manners  were  grave 
and  dignified.  If,  as  there  is  reason  to  conclude, 
though  once  a  preacher  of  the  gospel  he  had 
ceased  to  regard  it  as  of  Divine  authority,  and 
died  without  the  support  of  its  glorious  promises ; 
there  is  no  wise  man,  who  will  envy  him  the 
possession  of  his  worldly  prosperity  and  distinc 
tion  acquired  at  the  price  of  the  abandonment 
of  the  religion,  which  he  once  preached.  As  a 
poet  Mr.  Barlow  will  hardly  live  in  the  memory 
of  future  ages.  His  vision  of  Columbus,  replete 
with  the  scenes  of  the  Revolution,  acquired,  not 
withstanding  its  imperfections,  great  popularity  as 
a  national,  patriotic  poem.  But,  when  cast  anew 
into  an  epic  form,  with  the  attempt  to  give,  by 
means  of  a  vision,  an  epic  unity  to  a  long  scries  of 
unconnected  actions,  presenting  philosophical  spec 
ulation  rather  than  interesting  narrative,  the  Co- 
lumbiad  sunk  into  neglect.  Besides  intellectual 
power  a  poet  must  have  a  rich  fancy,  a  refined 
taste,  and  a  heart  of  feeling.  Mr.  Barlow  had 
meditated  a  general  history  of  the  United  States, 
and  made  large  collections  of  the  necessary  docu 

He  published  several  pieces  in  American  Poems ; 
prospect  of  peace,  1781 ;  vision  of  Columbus,  1787 ; 
the  conspiracy  of  kings,  London,  1796;  advice  to 
privileged  orders,  in  tw  o  parts ;  a  letter  to  the 
national  convention ;  address  to  the  people  of 
Piedmont;  hasty  pudding,  a  poem,  12mo.  1796; 
the  Columbiad,  4to.  1808,  and  12mo.  1809;  ora 
tion  on  the  fourth  July,  1809.  —  London  Monthly 
Mag.  1798;  Public 'Characters,  1806,  p.  152- 
180;  Monthly  Mag.  and  American  Revieiv,  I. 
465-468;  Analectic  Mag.  IV.  130-158;  Speci 
mens  of  American  Poetry,  II.  1-13. 

BARNARD,  JOHN,  minister  of  Marblchead, 
died  Jan.  24,  1770,  aged  88  years.  He  was  born 
in  Boston  Nov.  6,  1681.  His  parents  were  re 
markable  for  their  piety,  and  they  took  particular 
care  of  his  education.  He  was  graduated  at  Har 
vard  college  in  1700.  In  the  former  part  of  his 
collemal  course  the  sudden  death  of  two  of  his 

acquaintance  impressed  his  mind  and  led  him  to 
think  of  his  own  departure  from  this  world;  but 
the  impression  was  soon  effaced.  However,  be 
fore  he  left  that  institution  he  was  brought  to 
repentance,  and  he  resolved  to  yield  himself  to 
the  commands  of  God.  In  1702  he  united  him 
self  to  the  north  church  in  Boston  under  the 
pastoral  care  of  the  Mathers.  In  1705  he  was 
invited  to  settle  at  Yarmouth,  but  he  declined 
accepting  the  invitation.  He  was  employed  for 
some  time  as  an  assistant  to  Dr.  Colman.  Being 
fond  of  active  life,  he  was  appointed  by  Gov. 
Dudley  one  of  the  chaplains,  who  accompanied 
the  army  to  Port  Royal  in  1707  to  reduce  that 
fortress.  In  an  attempt  to  take  a  plan  of  the 
fort,  a  cannon  ball  was  fired  at  him,  that  covered 
him  with  dirt  without  doing  him  any  injury.  At 
the  solicitation  of  Capt.  John  Wentworth,  he 
sailed  with  him  to  Barbadoes  and  London.  While 
he  was  in  this  city  the  affair  of  Dr.  Sachcverel 
took  place,  of  which  he  would  often  speak.  He 
became  acquainted  with  some  of  the  famous  dis 
senting  ministers,  and  received  some  advantageous 
offers  of  settlement  if  he  would  remain  in  Eng 
land.  He  might  have  accompanied  Lord  Whar- 
ton  to  Ireland  as  his  chaplain,  but  he  refused  to 
conform  to  the  articles  of  the  national  church. 
Soon  after  this  he  returned  to  seek  a  settlement 
in  his  own  country.  The  north  church  in  Boston 
was  built  for  him  and  he  preached  the  dedication 
sermon  May  23,  1714,  expecting  soon  to  be  or 
dained  according  to  mutual  agreement;  but  a 
more  popular  candidate,  a  Mr.  Webb,  being  in 
vited  at  the  request  of  Dr.  Cotton  Mather,  the 
people  chose  him  for  their  pastor.  Of  this  trans 
action  he  could  not  speak  with  calmness  to  the 
day  of  his.  death.  He  was  ordained  minister  of 
Marblehead  July  18,  1716,  as  colleague  with  Mr. 
Cheever.  In  1762  he  received  Mr.  Whitwell  as 
his  assistant.  The  last  sermon,  which  he  preached, 
was  delivered  Jan.  8,  1769. 

Mr.  Barnard  was  eminent  for  his  learning  and 
piety,  and  was  famous  among  the  divines  of 
America.  During  the  latter  part  of  his  life,  Avhen 
he  retained  a  vigor  of  mind  and  zeal  uncommon 
at  so  advanced  an  age,  he  was  regarded  as  the 
father  of  the  churches.  His  form  was  remark 
ably  erect,  and  he  never  bent  under  the  infirmi 
ties  of  years.  His  countenance  was  grand,  his 
mien  majestic,  and  there  was  a  dignity  in  his 
whole  deportment.  His  presence  restrained  the 
imprudence  and  folly  of  youth,  and  when  the 
aged  saw  him,  they  arose  and  stood  up.  He 
added  a  knowledge  of  the  Hebrew  to  his  other 
theological  attainments ;  he  was  well  acquainted 
Avith  the  mathematics;  and  he  excelled  in  skill 
for  naval  architecture.  Several  draughts  of  his, 
the  amusement  of  leisure  hours,  were  commended 
by  master  ship-builders.  When  he  first  went  to 
Marblehead  and  for  some  years  afterwards,  there 



was  not  one  trading  vessel  belonging  to  the  town. 
It  was  through  his  exertions,  that  a  commercial 
improvement  soon  took  place.  Having  taken 
great  pains  to  learn  "  the  mystery  of  the  fish 
trade,"  he  directed  the  people  to  the  best  use, 
•which  they  could  make  of  the  advantages  of  their 
situation.  A  young  man  was  first  persuaded  to 
send  a  small  cargo  to  Barbadoes,  and  his  success 
was  so  encouraging,  that  the  people  were  soon 
able  in  their  own  vessels  to  transport  their  fish  to 
the  West  Indies  and  Europe.  In  1767  there 
were  thirty  or  forty  vessels,  belonging  to  the 
town,  employed  in  the  foreign  trade.  When  Mr. 
Barnard  first  went  to  Marblehead,  there  was  not 
in  the  place  so  much  as  one  proper  carpenter, 
nor  mason,  nor  tailor,  nor  butcher. 

By  prudence  in  the  management  of  his  affairs 
he  acquired  considerable  property;  but  he  gave 
tithes  of  all  he  possessed.  His  charity  was  of  a 
kind,  which  is  Avorthy  of  imitation.  He  was  not 
disposed  to  give  much  encouragement  to  common 
beggars,  but  he  sought  out  those  objects  of  be 
nevolent  attention,  who  modestly  hid  their  wants. 
The  poor  were  often  fed  by  him,  and  the  widow's 
heart  was  gladdened,  while  they  knew  not  where 
to  return  thanks,  except  to  the  merciful  Father 
of  the  wretched.  In  one  kind  of  charity  he  was 
somewhat  peculiar.  He  generally  supported  at 
school  two  boys,  whose  parents  were  unable  to 
meet  this  expense.  By  his  last  will  he  gave  200 
pounds  to  Harvard  college.  He  left  no  children. 
In  his  sickness,  which  terminated  in  his  death,  he 
said  with  tears  flowing  from  his  eyes,  "  My  very 
soul  bleeds,  when  I  remember  my  sins ;  but  1 
trust  I  have  sincerely  repented,  and  that  God  will 
accept  me  for  Christ's  sake.  His  righteousness  is 
my  only  dependence." 

The  publications  of  Mr.  Barnard  are  numerous 
and  valuable.  They  show  his  theological  knowl 
edge,  and  his  talents  as  a  writer.  His  style  is 
plain,  warm,  and  energetic.  The  doctrines,  which 
he  enforces,  are  the  same,  which  were  embraced 
by  the  fathers  of  New  England.  His  autobiog 
raphy  is  in  Historical  Collections,  in.  vol.  v.  He 
published  a  sermon  on  the  death  of  G.  Cur- 
win  of  Salem,  1717;  on  the  death  of  his  col 
league,  S.  Cheever,  1724;  history  of  the  strange 
adventures  of  Philip  Ashton,  1725 ;  two  discourses 
addressed  to  young  persons,  with  one  on  the 
earthquake,  1727 ;  a  volume  of  sermons  on  the 
confirmation  of  the  Christian  religion,  on  com 
pelling  men  to  come  in,  and  the  saints'  victory 
and  rewards,  1727 ;  judgment,  mercy,  and  faith, 
1729;  on  the  certainty  of  the  birth  of  Christ, 
1731 ;  election  sermon,  1734;  call  to  parents  and 
children,  1737 ;  convention  sermon,  1738 ;  zeal 
for  good  works,  1742;  election  sermon,  174G; 
the  imperfection  of  the  creature  and  the  excel 
lency  of  the  divine  commandment,  in  nine  ser 
mons,  1747;  the  mystery  of  the  gospel  in  the 

salvation  of  a  sinner,  in  several  discourses,  1750; 
a  version  of  the  psalms,  1752  ;  a  proof  of  Jesus 
Christ's  being  the  Messiah,  a  Dudleian  lecture, 
the  first  that  was  published,  1756;  the  true  di 
vinity  of  Jesus  Christ,  1761;  a  discourse  at  the 
ordination  of  Mr.  Whitwcll,  a  charge,  and  an  ad 
dress  to  the  people,  annexed  to  Mr.  T.  Barnard's 
ordination  sermon,  1762.  A  letter  from  Mr.  Bar 
nard  to  President  Stiles,  written  in  1767,  giving  a 
sketch  of  the  eminent  ministers  of  New  England, 
is  published  in  the  Mass.  Hist.  Coll.  —  WhitvielVs 
Funeral  Sermon  ;  Collections  of  Historical  So 
ciety,  VIII.  66-69;  X.  157,  167  ;  Holmes,  II.  525. 

BARNARD,  JOHN,  minister  of  Andover,  Mass., 
was  the  grandson  of  P'rancis  Barnard  of  Hadley, 
and  the  son  of  Thomas  Barnard,  the  third  min 
ister  of  Andover,  who  was  ordained  colleague 
with  Francis  Dane  in  1682  and  died  Oct.  13,  1718. 
The  first  minister  of  Andover  was  J.  Woodbridge. 
—  Mr.  Barnard  was  graduated  in  1709  and  suc 
ceeding  his  father  in  the  ministry  died  June  14, 
1758,  aged  68.  During  liis  ministry  Mr.  Phillips 
was  the  minister  of  the  south  parish.  He  was 
succeeded  by  Mr.  Symmes.  His  sons  were  min 
isters  of  Salem  and  Haverhill.  He  published  a 
discourse  on  the  earthquake  ;  to  a  society  of 
young  men;  on  sinful  mirth,  1728;  on  death  of 
A.  Abbot,  1739  ;  at  ordination  of  T.  Walker, 
1731  ;  election  sermon,  1746. 

BARNAHI),  THOMAS,  minister  of  Salem,  the 
son  of  the  preceding,  died  Aug.  15,  1776,  aged  62. 
He  was  graduated  at  Harvard  college  in  1732 
and  ordained  at  Newbury  Jan.  31,  1739.  Dis 
turbed  by  those,  who  called  in  question  the  cor 
rectness  of  his  sentiments,  he  was  dismissed  at  his 
own  request,  and  afterwards  studied  law.  He  was 
installed  Sept.  17,  1755,  as  the  minister  of  the 
first  church  at  Salem,  and  received  Asa  Dunbar 
as  his  colleague  in  1772  ;  Dr.  Prince  succeeded 
Mr.  Dunbar  in  1779.  A  paralytic  affection  im 
paired  his  mental  powers.  He  was  regarded  as  a 
semi-arian  of  Dr.  Clarke's  school,  and  as  rather  an 
Arminian,  than  a  Calvinist.  As  a  preacher  he 
was  destitute  of  animation  and  he  was  deficient 
in  perspicuity  of  style.  He  published  discourses 
at  the  ordination  of  E.  Barnard,  1743;  of  Mr. 
Bailey  of  Portsmouth,  1757;  of  W.  Whitvell, 
1762;  before  the  society  for  encouraging  industry, 
1757  ;  at  the  artillery  election,  1758;  at  the  elec 
tion,  1763;  Dudleian  lecture,  1768;  at  the  funeral 
of  P.  Clarke,  1768.  —  Muss.  Historical  Collec 
tions,  vi.  273. 

BARNARD,  EDWARD,  minister  of  Haverhill, 
the  brother  of  the  preceding,  was  graduated  in 
1736,  and  ordained  April  27,  1743,  as  the  suc 
cessor  of  John  Brown.  He  died  Jan.  26,  1774, 
aged  53,  and  was  succeeded  by  John  Shaw.  In 
his  last  days  a  division  sprung  up  in  his  society. 
There  were  those,  who  accused  him  of  not  preach 
ing  the  gospel.  He  was  regarded  as  an  Ar- 




minian.  Yet  he  was  accustomed  to  preach,  as  he 
said,  "  the  fallen  state  of  man,  which  gave  rise  to 
the  gospel  dispensation,  the  fulness  and  freeness 
of  divine  grace  in  Christ  as  the  foundation  of  all 
our  hopes,  the  influence  of  the  Spirit,  the  necessity 
of  regeneration,  implying  repentance  towards 
God  and  faith  towards  onr  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  the 
necessity  of  practical  religion,  originating  from 
evangelical  principles."  He  was  an  excellent 
scholar  and  a  highly  esteemed  preacher  and  min 
ister.  He  published  a  poem  on  the  death  of 
Abiel  Abbot ;  sermon  at  the  ordination  of  II. 
True,  1754;  of  G.  Merrill,  1765;  of  T.  Cary;  at 
the  fast,  1764;  at  the  election,  1766;  at  the  con 
vention,  1773.  —  SaltonstalVs  Sketch  of  Haver- 
hill  in  Historical  Collections,  n.  s.  IV.  143-146. 

BARNARD,  THOMAS,  D.  D.,  minister  in  Salem, 
the  son  of  T.  Barnard,  graduated  at  Harvard  col 
lege  in  1766,  and  was  ordained  over  the  north 
church  Jan.  13,  1773.  He  died  of  the  apoplexy 
Oct.  1,  1814,  aged  66.  He  published  the  follow 
ing  discourses  :  at  the  ordination  of  A.  Bancroft, 
1786;  of  I.  Nichols,  1809;  at  the  election,  1789; 
at  the  convention,  1793 ;  before  the  humane  so 
ciety,  1794;  at  the  thanksgiving;  Dudleian  lec 
ture,  1795;  at  thanksgiving,  1796;  before  a  char 
itable  society,  1803 ;  before  the  society  for  propa 
gating  the  gospel  among  the  Indians,  1806 ;  be 
fore  the  Bible  society  of  Salem,  1814. 

BARNARD,  JEREMIAH,  minister  of  Amherst, 
N.  H.,  died  Jan.  15,  1834,  aged  84. 

BARNES,  DAVID,  D.  D.,  minister  of  Scituate, 
Mass.,  was  born  at  Marlborough,  graduated  in 
1752,  and  ordained  Dec.  4,  1754.  His  predeces 
sors  in  the  second  society  since  1645  were  Weth- 
erell,  Mighill,  Lawson,  Eelles,  and  Dorby.  He 
died  April  27,  1811,  aged  80  years.  His  wife  was 
the  daughter  of  Col.  G.  Leonard.  David  L. 
Barnes,  a  lawyer  of  Providence,  appointed  dis 
trict  judge  of  Rhode  Island  in  1801,  and  who 
died  Nov.  3, 1812,  was  lu's  only  son.  —  Dr.  Barnes 
is  represented  as  remarkable  for  meekness.  A 
volume  of  his  sermons  was  published  with  a  bio 
graphical  sketch.  He  published  an  ordination 
sermon,  1756 ;  on  the  love  of  life  and  fear  of 
death,  1795 ;  on  the  death  of  "Washington,  1800; 
on  the  death  of  James  Hawley,  1801 ;  ordination 
sermon,  1802;  discourse  on  education,  1803. — 
Mass.  Historical  Collections,  s.  s.  iv.  237. 

BARNES,  DANIEL  II.,  a  distinguished  con- 
chologist,  died  in  the  meridian  of  life  Oct.  27, 
1818.  He  and  Dr.  Grificom  originated  and  con 
ducted  with  great  reputation  the  high  school  of 
New  York.  He  was  also  a  Baptist  preacher. 
Invited  by  Gen.  Van  Rcnsselacr  to  attend  the 
first  public  examination  of  the  school  established 
by  him  at  Troy,  he  proceeded  to  New  Lebanon 
and  there  preached  on  Sunday,  the  day  before  his 
death,  from  the  text,  "  Ye  know  not  what  shall 
be  on  the  morrow.  For  what  is  your  life,"  &c. 


On  Monday,  while  riding  between  Nassau  and 
Troy,  the  driver  being  thrown  from  his  seat  as 
the  stage  was  rapidly  descending  a  hill,  Mr. 
Barnes  in  his  alarm  jumped  from  the  carriage  and 
fractured  his  skull.  He  died  in  a  short  time 
after.  Of  the  New  York  Lyceum  of  natural  lu's- 
tory  he  was  an  active  member.  He  was  a  clas 
sical  scholar  of  high  attainments,  and  of  a  most 
estimable  character  as  a  man.  He  had  presided 
over  several  seminaries,  and  refused  the  presi 
dency  of  the  college  at  Washington  city.  He 
was  probably  the  first  conchologist  in  the  United 
States.  His  learned  communications  on  con- 
chology  were  published  in  Silliman's  journal,  with 
explanatory  plates.  Of  his  writings  in  that  jour 
nal  the  following  is  a  catalogue :  geological  sec 
tion  of  the  Canaan  mountain,  v.  8-21 ;  memoir 
on  the  genera  unio  and  alasmodonta,  with  nu 
merous  figures,  VI.  107-127,  258-280 ;  five  species 
of  chiton,  with  figures,  VII.  69-72 ;  memoir  on 
batrachian  animals  and  doubtful  reptiles,  XI.  269- 
297,  XIII.  66-70 ;  on  magnetic  polarity,  XIII.  70- 
73 ;  reclamation  of  unios,  XIII.  358-364.  —  Silli 
man's  Journal,  XV.  401. 

BARNES,  JOHN,  died  in  Dudley  in  1813,  aged 
92,  a  Revolutionary  soldier. 

BARNES,  JOHN,  a  distinguished  engineer,  died 
at  Marseilles  Sept,  24,  1852. 

BARNES,  LEWIS,  a  worthy,  respected  citizen 
of  Portsmouth,  died  June  27,  1856,  aged  79.  A 
native  of  Gottenburg,  with  ancestors  of  rank,  his 
name  was  Ludwig  Baarnhiclm.  On  coming  to 
this  country  at  the  age  of  14,  he  lived  at  Salem 
under  the  patronage  of  Hasket  Derby,  and  changed 
his  name  to  Barnes.  For  more  than  fifty  years 
he  lived  in  Portsmouth.  At  first  he  commanded 
a  ship,  and  then  became  a  merchant ;  and  was 
intelligent,  charitable,  and  a  blessing  to  the  com 
munity.  His  last  hours  were  peaceful,  full  of 
faith  and  hope.  —  His  daughter  married  C.  S. 
Franklin  of  New  York. 

BARNEY,  JOSHUA,  commodore,  a  distinguished 
commander,  died  Dec.  1, 1818,  aged  59.  He  was 
born  in  Baltimore  July  6,  1759.  In  early  life  he 
made  several  voyages.  At  the  beginning  of  the 
war  he  entered  as  master's  mate  in  the  sloop-of- 
war  Hornet,  in  which  vessel  he  accompanied  the 
fleet  of  Commodore  Hopkins,  who  in  1775  cap 
tured  New  Providence.  Promoted  to  the  rank 
of  lieutenant  for  his  bravery,  he  was  captured  in 
the  Sachem,  but  was  soon  exchanged.  He  was 
twice  afterwards  captured.  But  in  Oct.,  1779,  he 
and  his  friend  Capt.  Robinson  brought  a  valuable 
prize  into  Philadelphia.  In  1780  he  married  the 
daughter  of  Alderman  Bedford.  In  a  lew  weeks 
afterwards,  having  all  his  fortune  with  him  in 
paper  money,  he  was  robbed  of  it,  wliilc  going  to 
Baltimore.  Without  mentioning  his  loss  he  soon 
went  to  sea,  but  was  captured  and  sent  to  Ply 
mouth,  England.  From  the  Mill  prison  he  es- 



capcd,  and  returning  to  Pennsylvania,  the  state  in 
March,  1782,  gave  him  the  command  of  the 
Ilyder  Ally,  a  small  ship  of  sixteen  guns.  In 
this  vessel,  carrying  four  nine  and  twelve  six 
pounders,  he  captured,  April  26th,  after  an  action 
of  twenty-six  minutes,  the  Gen.  Monk  of  eighteen 
guns,  nine  pounders,  with  the  loss  of  four  killed 
and  eleven  wounded.  The  Gen.  Monk  lost  thirty 
killed  and  fifty-three  wounded.  In  Sept.,  1782, 
he  sailed  in  the  command  of  the  Gen.  Monk, 
which  was  bought  by  the  United  States,  with 
dispatches  for  Dr.  Franklin  at  Paris ;  he  brought 
back  a  valuable  loan  from  the  king  of  France  in 
chests  of  gold  and  barrels  of  silver.  In  17%  he 
went  to  France  with  Mr.  Monroe,  deputed  the 
bearer  of  the  American  flag  to  the  national  con 
vention,  lie  was  induced  to  take  the  command 
of  a  squadron  in  the  French  service,  but  resigned 
in  1800  and  returned  to  America.  In  1813  he 
was  appointed  to  the  command  of  the  flotilla  for 
the  defence  of  the  Chesapeake.  He  participated 
in  the  battle  of  Bladensburg  Aug.  24,  1814,  and 
was  wounded  in  the  thigh  by  a  ball,  which  was 
never  extracted.  In  May,  1815,  he  was  sent  on 
a  mission  to  Europe,  and  returned  in  Oct.,  and 
resided  on  his  farm  at  Elkridge.  He  visited  the 
western  country  in  1817.  Having  resolved  to  em 
igrate  to  Kentucky,  while  on  his  journey  he  was 
taken  ill  at  Fittsburg  and  died  there.  He  had 
been  forty-one  years  in  public  service  and  engaged 
in  twenty-six  battles  and  one  duel.  He  fought 
with  Lemuel  Tailor  in  private  combat  Sept.  3, 
1813,  —  observing  the  laws  of  honor  but  con 
temning  the  laws  of  liis  country  and  of  God. 
The  want  of  moral  courage,  the  courage  to  do 
right  in  disregard  of  the  opinion  of  those,  who 
judge  wrong,  the  want  of  fixed  virtuous  principle, 
is  a  great  deficiency  in  any  character.  — Encyclo 
paedia  Americana. 

BARON,  ALEXANDER,  M.  D.,  was  born  in 
Scotland  in  1745,  and  received  his  medical  educa 
tion  at  Edinburgh.  He  arrived  at  Charleston, 
S.  C.,  and  soon  obtained  extensive  practice  in  part 
nership  successively  with  Drs.  Milligan,  Oliphant, 
and  S.  and  R.  Wilson.  He  died  Jan.  9,  1819, 
aged  74.  He  had  great  reputation  as  a  physi 
cian.  Possessing  extensive  knowledge  and  en 
dowed  with  almost  every  attribute  of  genius,  he 
was  a  most  agreeable  and  instructive  companion. 
His  affability  and  kindness  made  him  a  favorite 
with  the  younger  members  of  the  profession. — 
Thaclier's  Med.  Biog.  144-146. 

had  the  title  of  colonel,  and  was  lieut.-gov.  of 
Cape  Breton,  and  afterwards  of  Prince  Edward 
Island.  He  died  at  Halifax,  Nova  Scotia,  Oct.  22, 
1804,  aged  102  years.  During  the  revolutionary 
war  he  published  in  1780,  by  order  of  Admiral 
Howe,  for  the  use  of  the  British  navy,  valuable 
charts  of  the  coasts  and  harbors  in  the  gulf  of 


St.  Lawrence,  of  Nova  Scotia,  of  New  England, 
of  New  York  and  southerly,  compiled  from  sur 
veys  by  Maj.  Samuel  Holland,  surveyor-general. 
These  charts  of  DCS  Barres  were  authentic  and 
useful  surveys  of  these  extensive  coasts.  All 
the  numerous  islands  in  Casco  bay  and  along  the 
whole  coast  of  Maine  are  here  described.  A  copy, 
with  the  title  of  Atlantic  Neptune,  Vol.  IL,  is  in 
the  library  of  Bowdoin  college  and  another  in 
that  of  the  American  philosophical  society  at 

BARRON,  SAMUEL,  a  commodore  in  the  navy, 
commanded  about  the  year  1798  the  brig  Au 
gusta,  equipped  by  the  citizens  of  Norfolk  in  con 
sequence  of  aggressions  by  the  French.  When  a 
fleet  was  sent  to  the  Mediterranean  in  1805  to 
co-operate  with  Gen.  Eaton  in  his  operations 
against  Tripoli,  Com.  Barron  had  the  command 
of  it ;  but  ill  health  induced  him  to  transfer  the 
command  to  Capt.  Rodgers.  Eaton  was  indig 
nant  at  the  negotiation  for  peace  conmmcnced  by 
Barron.  On  his  return  Barron  felt  keenly  the 
neglect  of  the  government  in  not  continuing  him 
in  service.  A  few  months  before  his  death  he 
was  made  superintendent  of  the  naval  arsenal  at 
Gosport.  He  died  of  the  apoplexy  at  Hampton, 
Va.,  Oct.  29,  1810.  In  the  private  walks  of  life 
he  was  greatly  esteemed. — Norfolk  Ledger; 
Life  of  Eaton,  368. 

BARRON,  JAMES,  commodore,  died  in  Norfolk, 
Apr.  21,  1851,  aged  82.  His  father  was  commo 
dore  of  the  vessels  of  Virginia.  He  was  lieuten 
ant  in  1798;  in  1799  he  went  to  the  Mediterra 
nean  under  the  command  of  his  brother  Samuel. 
In  the  ship  Chesapeake  he  was  compelled  to 
strike  to  the  British  frigate  Leopard,  after  winch 
he  was  not  on  sea  duty. 

BARRY,  JOHN,  first  commodore  in  the  Amer 
ican  navy,  died  Sept.  13,  1803,  aged  58.  He  was 
born  in  the  county  of  Wcxford,  Ireland,  in  1745. 
With  an  education  adapted  to  his  proposed  ac 
tive  life  upon  the  sea,  he  came  to  this  country 
about  1760,  and  was  for  years  employed  by  the 
most  respectable  merchants  in  the  command  of 
vessels,  having  their  unreserved  confidence.  In 
Feb.,  1776,  congress  appointed  him  to  the  com 
mand  of  the  brig  Lexington  of  sixteen  guns,  and 
he  sailed  on  a  successful  cruise  from  Philadelphia. 
From  this  vessel  he  was  transferred  to  the  Effing- 
ham,  a  large  frigate.  Shut  up  by  the  ice  in  the 
winter  he  joined  the  army  as  aid  to  Gen.  Cadwal- 
lader  in  the  operations  near  Trenton.  When 
Philadelphia  was  in  the  hands  of  the  enemy  and 
the  American  frigates  were  up  the  river,  at  White- 
hill,  Barry  formed  and  executed  the  project  of  de 
scending  the  river  in  boats  to  cut  off  the  supplies  of 
the  enemy.  For  this  enterprise  he  received  the 
thanks  of  Washington.  After  his  vessel  was  de 
stroyed,  he  was  appointed  to  the  command  of 
the  Raleigh  of  thirty-two  guns,  which  a  British 


squadron  compelled  him  to  run  on  shore  at  Fox's 
island  in  Penobscot  bay.  He  next  made  several 
voyages  to  the  West  Indies.  In  Feb.,  1781,  he 
sailed  in  the  frigate  Alliance  of  thirty-six  guns 
from  Boston  for  L'Orient,  carrying  Col.  Laurens 
on  an  embassy  to  the  French  court.  On  his  re 
turn,  May  29,  1781,  he  fought  the  ship  of  war 
Atlanta,  of  between  twenty  and  thirty  guns,  and 
her  consort  the  brig  Trepasa.  After  a  severe  ac 
tion  both  struck  their  colors.  Com.  Barry  was 
dangerously  wounded  in  the  shoulder  by  a  grape- 
shot.  He  sailed  again  from  Boston  in  the  Alli 
ance,  and  carried  La  Fayette  and  Count  de 
Noailles  to  France,  and  proceeded  on  a  cruise. 
Returning  from  Havana  he  fought  a  vessel  of  the 
enemy  of  equal  size,  which  escaped  only  by  the 
aid  of  her  consorts.  It  is  related,  that  Gen. 
Howe  at  one  period  attempted  to  bribe  him  to 
desert  the  cause  of  America  by  the  promise  of 
fifteen  thousand  guineas  and  the  command  of  a 
British  frigate,  and  that  the  offer  was  rejected 
with  disdain.  Under  the  administration  of  Mr. 
Adams  he  superintended  the  building  at  Philadel 
phia  of  the  frigate  United  States,  of  which  he 
retained  the  command,  until  she  was  laid  up  in 
ordinary  after  the  accession  of  Mr.  Jefferson  to 
the  executive  chair.  He  died  at  Philadelphia  of 
an  asthmatic  affection.  His  person,  above  the 
ordinary  stature,  was  graceful  and  commanding. 
His  strongly  marked  countenance  expressed  the 
qualities  of  his  mind  and  virtues  of  lu's  heart. 
He  possessed  all  the  important  qualities,  requisite 
in  a  naval  commander.  Though  a  rigid  discipli 
narian,  his  kindness  and  generosity  secured  the 
attachment  of  his  men.  There  was  no  desertion 
from  his  ship.  To  the  moral  deportment  of  his 
crew  he  scrupulously  attended,  and  he  enforced  on 
board  a  strict  observance  of  divine  worship.  Ed 
ucated  in  the  habits  of  religion,  he  experienced 
its  comforts ;  and  he  died  in  the  faith  of  the  gos 
pel.  —  Portfolio ;  American  Naval  Biography, 

BARRY,  WILLIAM  T.,  died  at  Liverpool,  Aug. 
30,  1835.  A  native  of  Kentucky,  he  had  been  a 
senator,  and  postmaster-general,  and  minister  to 

BARSTOW,  JOHN,  deacon,  died  in  Canterbury, 
Conn.,  Dec.  9,  1838,  aged  85.  A  soldier,  he  -was 
present  at  the  surrender  of  Burgoync.  In  the 
army  he  kept  a  journal.  His  services  to  the  town 
and  church  were  very  great.  Many  years  super 
intendent  of  the  Sabbath  school,  in  lu's  old  age  he 
taught  the  aged.  In  his  sickness  he  sent  word  to 
his  friends  to  prepare  to  meet  him  in  heaven.  lie 
was  the  father  of  Rev.  Dr.  B.  of  Keene. 

BARTLETT,  Josun,  M.  D.,  governor  of  New 
Hampshire,  died  suddenly  of  a  paralytic  affection, 
May  19,  1795,  aged  65.  He  was  the  son  of  Ste 
phen  Bartlctt,  and  born  in  Amcsbury,  Mass.,  in 



Nov.,  1729.  After  an  imperfect  medical  education 
he  commenced  the  practice  of  physic  at  Kings 
ton  in  1750.  During  the  prevalence  of  the  angi 
na  maligna  in  1754,  lu's  successful  antiseptic  prac 
tice  in  the  use  of  the  Peruvian  bark  established 
lu's  fame.  He  also  acted  as  a  magistrate,  and 
Gov.  Wrentworth  gave  him  the  command  of  a  reg 
iment,  but  at  last  deprived  him  of  his  commis 
sions  in  Feb.,  1775,  in  consequence  of  his  being  a 
zealous  whig.  Being  appointed  a  delegate  to  con 
gress,  his  name  was  first  called  as  representing 
the  most  easterly  province,  on  the  vote  of  the  de 
claration  of  independence,  and  he  boldly  an 
swered  in  the  affirmative.  In  1777,  as  medical 
agent,  he  accompanied  Stark  to  Bennington.  In 
1778  he  withdrew  from  congress.  He  was  ap 
pointed  chief  justice  of  the  court  of  common 
pleas  in  1779,  a  justice  of  the  superior  court  in 
1784,  and  chief  justice  in  1788.  In  1790  he  was 
President  of  New  Hampshire,  chosen  by  the  leg 
islature,  though  Pickering  and  Joshua  Wentwor th 
received  each  many  more  of  the  votes  of  the  peo 
ple.  In  1791  and  1792  he  was  chosen  by  the 
people.  He  had  nominated  his  rival,  J.  Picker 
ing,  chief  justice.  In  1793  he  was  elected  the 
first  governor  under  the  new  form  of  government. 
Of  the  medical  society,  established  by  his  efforts 
in  1791,  he  was  the  president.  The  duties  of  his 
various  offices  were  faithfully  discharged.  He 
was  a  good  physician,  devoting  most  of  his  time 
to  his  profession.  His  patriotism  induced  him  to 
make  great  sacrifices  for  the  public  good.  By  the 
force  of  his  talents,  without  much  education,  he 
rose  to  his  various  high  offices.  His  mind  was 
discriminating,  his  judgment  sound,  and  in  all 
his  dealings  he  was  scrupulously  just.  In  his  last 
years  his  health  was  impaired  and  after  the  loss 
of  his  wife  in  1789  his  spirits  greatly  depressed. 
His  son,  Dr.  Ezra  B.,  died  at  Ilaverhill,  N.  II., 
Dec.  6,  1848,  aged  78.  —  ThacJier's  Med.  Biog., 
147-150  ;  Eliot ;  Goodrich's  Lives. 

BARTLETT,  Josun,  M.  I).,  was  born  in 
jCharlestown  in  1759,  and  studied  physic  with  Dr. 
I.  Foster,  who  was  chief  surgeon  of  the  military 
hospital  in  the  war  of  1775,  under  whom  he  served 
as  surgeon's  mate  till  1780.  He  then  went  two 
voyages  as  surgeon  to  ships  of  war.  He  settled 
in  Charlestown,  where  for  many  years  he  had 
extensive  practice.  At  length  misfortune  broke 
down  liis  spirits  and  health,  and  life  ceased  to  be 
desired.  After  two  years  the  apoplexy  terminated 
his  life  March  5,  1820.  He  had  been  a  represen 
tative,  senator,  and  councillor.  He  delivered 
many  orations,  medical,  political  and  literary ;  and 
published  various  papers  in  the  works  of  the 
medical  society  and  in  the  N.  E.  medical  journal  ; 
address  to  free  masons,  1797;  discourse  before 
the  Middlesex  medical  association ;  progress  of 
medical  science  in  Mass.,  1810;  history  of 




Charlestown,  1814;  oration  on  the  death  of  Dr. 
John  Warren,  1815.  —  Thacher's  Med.  Biog.,  150, 

BARTLETT,  JOSIAH,  M.  D.,  died  at  Stratham 
April  14,  1838,  aged  70.  The  son  of  Governor 
Josiah  B.,  he  Avas  a  member  of  Congress  in  1811- 

BARTLETT,  JOHN,  died  at  Marblehead  in 
Feb.,  1840,  aged  GO,  having  been  the  pastor  of  the 
Unitarian  church  thirty-seven  years.  He  published 
two  discourses. 

BARTLETT,  ELISHA,  M.  D.,  died  in  Smith- 
field,  R.  I.,  July  19,  1855,  aged  about  40.  For 
some  years  he  had  been  unable  to  practice. 
When  residing  at  Lowell,  he  was  its  first  mayor; 
afterwards  he  was  at  the  head  of  a  medical  college 
at  the  West,  whence  in  failing  health  he  went  back 
to  the  old  homestead  in  R.  I. 

BARTLETT,  SHUBAEL,  minister  of  Scantic, 
descended  from  the  little  company,  which  landed 
at  Plymouth  in  1620,  and  his  character  corres 
ponded  with  that  of  his  puritan  ancestry.  At  the 
age  of  twenty-two  he  entered  Yale  college,  in 
which  he  and  one  other  were  the  only  professors 
of  religion.  lie  graduated  in  1800,  and  having 
studied  theology  with  Dr.  Dwight  was  ordained  at 
East  Windsor  Feb.  12,  1804;  and  there  he  died 
June  6,  1854,  aged  76.  A  half-century  sermon, 
which  he  prepared,  was  read  to  his  people  by  his 
son-in-law,  Rev.  S.  B.  Brown,  late  a  missionary  to 
Cliina.  He  was  a  faithful  preacher,  endowed 
with  a  spirit  of  prayer.  During  his  ministry  five 
hundred  and  twenty-four  members  were  added  to 
his  church.  His  descent  was  from  several  of  the 
Pilgrims  at  Plymouth. 

BARTLETT,  WILLIAM,  a  generous  benefactor 
of  theological  literature,  was  born  in  Newbury 
Jan.  31,  1748,  and  died  Feb.  8,  1841,  aged  93. 
He  was  one  of  the  founders  of  the  theological 
seminary  in  Andover.  He  gave  25,000  dollars  to 
endow  a  professorship  of  sacred  rhetoric;  built 
two  professors'  houses,  one  of  the  large  halls,  and 
the  chapel;  paid  the  president's  salary  for  five  or 
six  years ;  contributed  largely  to  another  professor 
ship  ;  and  bequeathed  50,000  dollars  in  his  Mill. 

BARTLETT,  ZACCIIEUS,  M.  D.,  died  at  Ply 
mouth  in  Dec.,  1835,  aged  70.  A  graduate  of 
Harvard  in  1780,  he  was  a  member  of  the  state 
convention  in  1820,  and  president  of  the  pilgrim 

BARTLETT,  ICIIABOD,  a  lawyer  of  distinction 
in  N.  II.,  died  at  Portsmouth  Oct.  19,  1853,  aged 
67.  Born  in  Salisbury,  he  graduated  at  Dart 
mouth  in  1808,  and  lived  first  in  Durham,  then  in 
P.  He  Avas  a  member  of  Congress  from  1823  to 

BARTLETT,  RICILUID,  secretary  of  state  of 
IST.  II.,  died  at  New  York  Oct.  23,  1837,  aged  45. 

BARTLETT,  ELISIIA,  died  in  Georgia,  Vt.,  in 
1855,  aged  100,  a  soldier  of  the  Revolution.  His 

father  was  Moses  B.,  the  minister  of  Chatham, 
Conn.,  who  graduated  in  1730,  and  died  in  1766. 

BARTON,  THOMAS,  an  Episcopal  minister,  M'as 
a  native  of  Ireland  and  educated  at  the  university 
of  Dublin.  In  1753  he  married  at  Philadelphia 
the  sister  of  Mr.  Rittenhouse,  and  the  next  year 
Avas  ordained  in  England.  His  talents  and  learn 
ing  M'ere  of  great  service  to  his  friend  Mr.  Ritten 
house,  who  enjoyed  few  advantages  of  early  edu 
cation.  From  1755  to  1759  he  M'as  a  missionary 
of  a  society  in  England  and  resided  in  Redding 
township,  York  county.  In  1758  he  M'as  a  chap 
lain  in  the  expedition  against  Fort  Du  Qucsne, 
and  became  acquainted  M'ith  Washington  and 
Mercer  and  other  distinguished  officers.  He 
resided  in  Lancaster  as  rector  nearly  twenty  years. 
Adhering  to  the  royal  government  in  the  Revolu 
tion  and  refusing  to  take  a  required  oath,  he  M'cnt 
in  1778  to  New  York,  M'here  he  died  May  25, 
1780,  aged  50  years.  His  eldest  son,  William 
Barton  of  Lancaster,  M-rote  the  memoirs  of  Ritten 
house  and  a  tract  on  free  commerce ;  he  left  seven 
other  children,  one  of  M'hom  was  Prof.  Barton. 
His  M'idow  passed  her  last  years  in  the  house  of 
her  nephew  and  niece,  Dr.  Samuel  Bard  and  -wife. 
Within  a  few  days  of  their  decease  she  also  died, 
aged  90.  He  published  a  sermon  on  Braddock's 
defeat,  1755. — Mem.  of  Rittenhouse,  100,  112, 
287,  441 ;  Thacher's  Med.  Biog.,  139. 

BARTON,  BENJAMIN  SMITH,  M.  D.,  professor 
in  the  university  of  Pennsylvania,  died  Dec.  19, 
1815,  aged  49.  lie  was  the  son  of  the  Rev. 
Mr.  Barton  of  Lancaster,  Penn.,  and  was  born 
Feb.  10,  1766.  His  mother  was  the  sister  of 
Rittenhouse,  M'hose  life  M'as  written  by  his  brother, 
William  Barton.  After  spending  several  years  in 
study  in  Philadelphia,  he  went  to  Edinburgh  and 
London  in  1786  to  pursue  his  medical  studies. 
His  medical  degree  he  obtained  at  Gottingen.  In 
1789  he  returned  to  Pliiladelphia  and  commenced 
the  practice  of  physic.  In  the  same  year  he  was 
appointed  professor  of  natural  history  and  botany 
in  the  college.  He  succeeded  Dr.  Griffiths  as 
professor  of  materia  medica  and  Dr.  Rush  as 
professor  of  the  theory  and  practice  of  medicine. 

Dr.  Barton  was  distinguished  by  his  talents  and 
professional  attainments.  He  contributed  much 
to  the  progress  of  natural  science,  and  his  various 
works  evince  a  closeness  of  observation,  an  extent 
of  learning,  and  a  comprehensiveness  of  mind, 
honorable  to  his  character.  He  was  the  first 
American  M'ho  gave  to  his  country  an  elementary 
M'ork  on  botany.  His  publications  are  the  folloAV- 
ing:  On  the  fascinating  quality  ascribed  to  the 
rattlesnake,  1796;  new  vieAvs  of  the  origin  of  the 
tribes  of  America,  1797 ;  collections  toM-ards  a 
materia  medica  of  the  U.  S.,  1798;  remarks  on 
the  speech  attributed  by  Jefferson  to  Logan,  1798; 
medical  physical  journal,  begun  1804,  continued 
several  years ;  eulogy  on  Dr.  Priestley ;  elements 


of  botany  with  thirty  plates,  1804;  also  in  two 
vols.  40  plates,  1812;  flora  Virginica,  1812;  an 
tdition  of  Cullen's  materia  medica,  1808 ;  account 
of  the  Syren  laccrtina ;  observations  on  the  oppos- 
sum,  1813;  collections  on  extinct  animals,  &c., 
1814;  fragments  of  the  natural  history  of  Penn. ; 
remedy  for  the  bite  of  the  rattlesnake ;  on  the 
honey  bee ;  on  the  native  country  of  the  potato, 
and  other  papers  in  the  Am.  Philos.  Transactions. 
— W.  P.  C.  Barton's  Biog.  Sketch;  Thacher's 
Med.  Biog.,  151-153. 

BARTON,  WILLIAM,  lieutenant-colonel,  a  patriot 
of  the  Revolution,  planned  the  capture  of  Maj.- 
Gen.  Prescott  on  Rhode  Island,  and  executed  the 
project  July  10,  1777.  Information  had  been 
received  at  Providence,  that  the  general  was  to 
sleep  at  Overing's  house,  four  miles  from  Newport. 
Barton  went  with  a  party  of  forty  men,  including 
Capts.  Adams  and  Phillips,  in  four  whale-boats 
from  Warwick  neck  ten  miles  by  water,  landed 
about  half  way  from  Newport  to  Bristol  ferry,  then 
marched  one  mile  to  the  general's  quarters.  On 
reaching  the  chamber,  at  midnight,  the  sentry  was 
secured ;  then  a  negro,  called  Prince,  who  accom 
panied  Barton,  and  who  died  at  Plymouth  1821, 
aged  78,  dashed  his  head  against  the  door  and 
knocked  out  a  panel,  so  that  Col.  Barton  rushed 
in  and  surprised  Prescott  in  bed,  and  carried  him 
off  with  his  aid,  Maj.  William  Barrington,  who 
jumped  from  the  window  in  his  shirt.  He  escaped 
the  guard  boats  and  no  alarm  was  given  to  the 
enemy,  until  the  party  on  their  return  had  nearly 
reached  the  main,  when  the  firing  of  rockets  was 
in  vain.  For  this  exploit  Congress  presented  him 
with  a  sword  and  with  a  grant  of  land  in  Ver 
mont.  By  the  transfer  of  some  of  this  land  he 
became  entangled  in  the  toils  of  the  law  and  was 
imprisoned  in  Vermont  for  years,  until  the  visit  to 
this  country  in  1825  of  La  Fayette,  who  in  his 
munificence  liberated  his  fellow  soldier  and  re 
stored  the  hoary  veteran  to  his  family.  Col.  Bar 
ton  was  wounded  in  an  action  at  Bristol  ferry  in 
May,  1778.  He  died  at  Providence  in  Oct.,  1831, 
aged  84  years. — Amer.  Rememb.,  1777,  271,  361; 
Mass.  Hist.  Coll.,  n.,  107,  138;  Heath,  122. 

BARTON,  CYRUS,  editor  of  the  Concord  Re 
porter,  died  Feb.  17,  1855.  At  the  close  of  a 
political  speech  near  C.  he  fell  and  expired.  He 
was  an  associate  with  Isaac  Hill  in  business. 

BARTON,  ROGER,  died  in  Mississippi  March 
4,  1855,  aged  about  55;  for  fifteen  years  a  Senator 
of  the  U.  S. 

BARTRAM,  Jonx,  an  eminent  botanist,  died 
in  Sept.,  1777,  aged  75.  He  was  born  at  Marpole, 
Chester  county,  Penn.,  in  the  year  1701.  His 
grandfather,  Richard,  accompanied  William  Penn 
to  this  country  in  1682.  His  father,  John,  re 
moved  to  North  Carolina  and  was  killed  by  the 
Whitoc  Indians.  He  himself  inherited  the  estate 



of  his  uncle,  Isaac,  at  Derby,  a  few  miles  from 

This  self-taught  genius  early  discovered  an 
ardent  desire  for  the  acquisition  of  knowledge, 
especially  of  botanical  knowledge ;  but  the  infant 
state  of  the  colony  placed  great  obstacles  in  his 
way.  He  however  surmounted  them  by  intense 
application  and  the  resources  of  his  own  mind. 
By  the  assistance  of  respectable  characters  he 
obtained  the  rudiments  of  the  learned  languages, 
Avhich  he  studied  with  extraordinary  success.  So 
earnest  was  he  in  the  pursuit  of  learning,  that  he 
could  hardly  spare  time  to  eat ;  and  he  might 
often  have  been  found  with  his  victuals  in  one 
hand  and  his  book  in  the  other.  He  acquired  so 
much  knowledge  of  medicine  and  surgery,  as  to 
administer  great  assistance  to  the  indigent  and 
distressed  in  his  neighborhood.  He  cultivated 
the  ground  as  the  means  of  supporting  a  large 
family ;  but  while  ploughing  or  sowing  his  fields, 
or  mowing  his  meadows,  he  was  still  puslmig  his 
inquiries  into  the  operations  of  nature. 

He  was  the  first  American  who  conceived  and 
carried  into  effect  the  design  of  a  botanic  garden, 
for  the  cultivation  of  American  plants,  as  well  as 
of  exotics.  He  purchased  a  fine  situation  on  the 
west  bank  of  the  Schuylkill  about  four  miles  below 
Philadelphia,  where  he  laid  out  with  his  own 
hands  a  garden  of  five  or  six  acres.  He  furnished 
it  with  a  variety  of  the  most  curious  and  beautiful 
vegetables,  collected  in  his  excursions  from  Canada 
to  Florida.  These  excursions  were  made  princi 
pally  in  autumn,  when  his  presence  at  home  was 
least  demanded  by  his  agricultural  avocations. 
His  ardor  in  these  pursuits  was  such,  that  at  the 
age  of  seventy  he  made  a  journey  into  East 
Florida  to  explore  its  natural  productions.  His 
travels  among  the  Indians  were  frequently  at 
tended  with  danger  and  difficulty.  By  his  means 
the  gardens  of  Europe  were  enriched  with  elegant 
flowering  shrubs,  with  plants  and  trees,  collected 
in  different  parts  of  our  country  from  the  shore 
of  Lake  Ontario  to  the  source  of  the  River  St. 
Juan.  He  made  such  proficiency  in  his  favorite 
pursuit,  that  Linnaeus  pronounced  him  "  the 
greatest  natural  botanist  in  the  world."  His 
eminence  in  natural  history  attracted  the  esteem 
of  the  most  distinguished  men  in  America  and 
Europe,  and  he  corresponded  with  many  of  them. 
He  was  a  fellow  of  the  Royal  Society.  By  means 
of  the  friendship  of  Sir  Hans  Sloane,  Mr.  Catesby, 
Dr.  Hill,  Linnccus,  and  others,  he  was  furnished 
with  books  and  apparatus,  which  he  much  needed, 
and  which  greatly  lessened  the  difficulties  of  his 
situation.  He  in  return  sent  them  what  was  new 
and  curious  in  the  productions  of  America.  He 
was  elected  a  member  of  several  of  the  most 
eminent  societies  and  academies  abroad,  and  was 
at  length  appointed  American  botanist  to  his 




Britannic  majesty,  George  III.,  in  which  appoint 
ment  he  continued  till  his  death. 

Mr.  Bartram  was  an  ingenious  mechanic.  The 
stone  house  in  which  he  lived,  he  built  himself, 
and  several  monuments  of  his  skill  remain  in  it. 
He  was  often  his  own  mason,  carpenter,  and  black 
smith,  and  generally  made  his  own  farming  uten 
sils.  His  stature  was  rather  above  the  middle 
size ;  his  body  was  erect  and  slender ;  his  com 
plexion  was  sandy ;  his  countenance  was  cheerful, 
though  there  was  a  solemnity  in  his  air.  His  gen 
tle  manners  corresponded  with  his  amiable  dispo 
sition.  He  was  modest  and  charitable ;  a  friend 
to  social  order ;  and  an  advocate  for  the  abolition 
of  slavery.  He  gave  freedom  to  a  young  African, 
whom  he  had  brought  up  ;  but  he  in  gratitude  to 
his  master  continued  in  his  service.  Though  tem 
perate,  he  kept  a  plentiful  table ;  and  annually  on 
new  year's  day  he  made  an  entertainment,  conse 
crated  to  friendship  and  philosophy.  Born  and 
educated  in  the  society  of  Quakers,  he  professed 
to  be  a  worshipper  of  "  God  alone,  the  Almighty 
Lord."  He  often  read  the  scriptures,  particularly 
on  Sundays.  Of  his  children,  John,  his  youngest 
son,  who  succeeded  him  in  his  botanic  garden, 
died  at  Philadelphia  Nov.,  1812.  In  addition  to 
his  other  attainments  he  acquired  some  knowledge 
of  medicine  and  surgery,  which  rendered  him  use 
ful  to  his  neighbors.  In  his  first  efforts  to  make 
a  collection  of  American  plants  he  was  aided  by 
a  liberal  subscription  of  some  scientific  gentlemen 
in  Pliiladclphia.  In  1737,  Mr.  Collinson  wrote  to 
Col.  Custis  of  Virginia,  that  Bartram  was  em 
ployed  by  "  a  set  of  noblemen"  at  his  recommen 
dation  ;  and  he  added, "  Be  so  kind  as  to  give  him 
a  little  entertainment,  and  recommendation  to  a 
friend  or  two  of  yours  in  the  country,  for  he  does 
not  value  riding  50  or  100  miles  to  see  a  new 

Mr.  Bartram's  communications  in  the  British 
Philosophical  Transactions,  vols.  41,  43,  46,  62, 
are  these :  on  the  teeth  of  a  rattlesnake ;  on  the 
muscles  and  oyster  banks  of  Perm. ;  on  clay  wasp 
nests ;  on  the  great  black  wasp  ;  on  the  libella ; 
account  of  an  aurora  borealis,  observed  Nov.  12, 
1757.  He  published  also  observations  on  the 
inhabitants,  climate,  soil,  &c.,  in  his  travels  to 
lake  Ontario,  4lh  cd.  4to.  Loud.  1751;  descrip 
tion  of  East  Florida,  with  a  journal,  4to.  1774. 
—  Miller,  I.  515  ;  II.  367  ;  Life  of  Eittenlwuse, 
375  ;  Mem.  Penns.  Hist.  Soc.  I.  134 ;  Barton's 
Med.  and  Phys.  Jour.  I.  115-124. 

BARTRAM,  WILLIAM,  a  botanist,  son  of  the 
preceding,  died  July  22,  1823,  aged  84.  He  was 
born  at  the  Botanic  Garden,  Kingsessing,  Penns., 
in  1739.  After  living  with  a  merchant  in  Phila 
delphia  six  years,  he  went  to  North  Carolina,  en 
gaged  in  mercantile  pursuits ;  but,  attached  to 
the  study  of  botany,  he  accompanied  his  father  in 
his  journey  to  E.  Florida.  After  residing  for  a 

time  on  the  river  St.  John's  in  Florida,  he  re 
turned  to  Ins  father's  residence  in  177 1.  In  April, 
1773,  at  the  request  of  Dr.  Fothergill  he  pro 
ceeded  to  Charleston  in  order  to  examine  the  nat 
ural  productions  of  Carolina,  Georgia,  and  the 
Floridas,  and  was  thus  employed  nearly  five  years. 
His  collections  and  drawings  were  forwarded  to 
Dr.  Fothergill.  His  account  of  his  travels  was 
published  in  1791.  It  is  a  delightful  specimen  of 
the  enthusiasm  with  which  the  lover  of  nature, 
and  particularly  the  botanist,  surveys  the  beautiful 
and  wonderful  productions  which  are  scattered 
over  the  face  of  the  earth.  Of  himself  Mr.  Bar- 
tram  said,  —  "  continually  impelled  by  a  restless 
spirit  of  curiosity  in  pursuit  of  new  productions 
of  nature,  my  chief  happiness  consisted  in  tracing 
and  admiring  the  infinite  power,  majesty,  and  per 
fection  of  the  great  Almighty  Creator,  and  in  the 
contemplation,  that  through  divine  aid  and  per 
mission  I  might  be  instrumental  in  discovering 
and  introducing  into  my  native  country  some  orig 
inal  productions  of  nature,  which  might  be  useful 
to  society."  Ilcposing  in  a  grove  of  oranges, 
palms,  live  oaks,  and  magnolias,  in  the  midst  of 
beautiful  flowers  and  singing  birds,  he  cried  out, 
—  "  ye  vigilant  and  most  faithful  servants  of  the 
Most  High ;  ye,  who  worship  the  Creator  morning, 
noon,  and  eve,  in  simplicity  of  heart !  I  haste  to 
join  the  universal  anthem.  My  voice  and  heart 
unite  with  yours  in  sincere  homage  to  the  great 
Creator,  the  universal  sovereign." 

In  1782  he  was  elected  professor  of  botany  in 
the  university  of  Penns.,  but  from  ill  health  de 
clined  the  appointment.  Besides  his  discoveries 
in  botany,  he  prepared  the  most  complete  table  of 
American  ornithology  before  the  appearance  of 
the  book  of  Wilson,  whom  he  assisted  in  the  com 
mencement  of  that  work.  Such  was  his  continued 
love  for  botany,  that  he  wrote  a  description  of  a 
plant  a  few  minutes  before  his  death,  which  oc 
curred  suddenly  by  the  rupture  of  a  blood-vessel 
in  the  lungs.  He  published  Travels  through  N. 
and  S.  Carolina,  Georgia,  East  and  West  Florida, 
the  Cherokee  country,  with  observations  on  the 
manners  of  the  Indians,  with  plates,  8vo.  Phil., 
1731;  the  same,  London,  1792;  and  translated 
into  French  by  Benoist,  entitled  Voyage,  &c.,  2 
vols.;  Paris,  1801;  an  account  of  J.  Bartram  ; 
anecdotes  of  a  crow ;  description  of  Ccrthia ;  on 
the  site  of  Bristol.  —  Enc.  Amer.  ;  Barton's  Med. 
Jour.  I.  i.  89-95  ;  I.  ii.  103. 

BASCOM,  II.  B.,  D.  I).,  bishop  of  the  Meth 
odist  church,  died  in  Louisville  on  liis  return  from 
St.  Louis  to  Kentucky  Sept.  9,  1850,  aged  about 
56.  He  was  born  in  Western  New  York ;  in 
1828  was  president  of  Madison  college,  the  sec 
ond  Methodist  college  in  the  U.  S.  In  1842,  he 
was  chosen  president  of  Transylvania  university, 
Ky.  In  1849  he  was  elected  bishop.  He  was  a 
pulpit  orator  of  great  power,  though  not  of  good 


taste.  He  delighted  in  strong  epithets  and  high 
flown  metaphors.  A  volume  of  his  sermons  was 
published  in  1849.  He  published  inaugural  ad 
dress,  1828. 

BASS,  EDWARD,  D.  D.,  first  bishop  of  Massa 
chusetts,  was  born  at  Dorchester  Nov.  23,  172G, 
and  graduated  at  Harvard  college  in  1744.  For 
several  years  he  was  the  teacher  of  a  school. 
From  1747  to  17*51  he  resided  at  Cambridge,  pur 
suing  In's  theological  studies,  and  occasionally 
preaching.  In  1752,  at  the  request  of  the  Episco 
pal  society  in  Newburyport,  he  went  to  England 
for  orders,  and  was  ordained  May  24,  by  bishop 
Sherlock.  In  1796  he  was  elected  by  the  conven 
tion  of  the  Protestant  Episcopal  Church  of  Mas 
sachusetts  to  the  office  of  bishop,  and  was  conse 
crated  May  7,  1797,  by  the  bishops  of  Pennsylva 
nia,  New  York,  and  Maryland.  Afterwards  the 
Episcopal  churches  in  Rhode  Island  elected  him 
their  bishop,  and  in  1803  a  convention  of  the 
churches  in  NCAV  Hampshire  put  themselves  under 
his  jurisdiction.  He  died  Sept.  10,  1803,  humble 
and  resigned.  He  was  a  sound  divine,  a  critical 
scholar,  an  accomplished  gentleman,  and  an  exem 
plary  Christian.  —  Mass.  Hist.  Coll.,  IX.  188. 

BASSETT,  RICHARD,  governor  of  Delaware, 
was  a  member  of  the  old  congress  in  1787,  and 
was  appointed  a  senator  under  the  new  constitu 
tion.  He  was  governor,  after  Mr.  Bedford,  from 
1798  to  1801,  when  he  was  placed  by  Mr.  Adams 
on  the  bench  of  the  federal  judiciary.  The  repeal 
of  the  act,  constituting  the  courts,  displaced  him 
from  his  office  in  1802.  He  had  practised  law 
for  many  years  with  reputation  and  was  a  gentle 
man  of  fortune.  His  daughter  married  Mr.  Bay 
ard.  He  died  in  Sept.,  1815. 

BASSETT,  AMOS,  D.  D.,  died  in  Cornwall  in 
1828,  aged  44.  A  native  of  Derby,  he  graduated 
in  1784,  and  was  the  minister  of  Hebron  from 
about  1793  to  1820,  and  was  then  the  head  of  the 
Mission  school  at  Cornwall.  His  voice  and  man 
ner  in  preaching  were  extremely  solemn.  He 
was  perhaps  gloom}-  and  hypochondriacal ;  some 
times  keen  and  severe.  Seeing  some  men  of  in 
fluence,  whom  he  deemed  anti-patriotic  and  anti- 
christian,  following  in  the  funeral  procession  of  a 
very  wicked  man,  he  said,  —  "if  it  had  been  the 
devil  liimsclf,  they  would  have  followed  him,  only 
they  would  have  chosen  to  follow  him  alive."  He 
published  election  sermon,  1807 ;  and  before  a 
missionary  society  ;  he  wrote  a  reply  of  the  con 
sociation  to  A.  Abbot. 

BATES,  BARNABAS,  died  at  Boston  Oct.  11, 
1853,  aged  66.  A  native  of  England,  he  was  a 
Baptist  minister  in  R.  I.,  then  a  Unitarian.  He 
was  collector  of  Bristol,  and  connected  with  the 
post  office.  As  a  zealous  advocate  of  cheap  post 
age  he  deserves  public  remembrance. 

BATES,  ISAAC  C.,  died  in  Washington,  a  sen 
ator,  March  10,  1845,  aged  65.  Born  in  Cran- 



villc,  he  graduated  at  Yale  in  1802,  and  settled  as 
a  lawyer  in  Northampton.  For  eight  years  he 
was  a  member  of  the  house  of  representatives, 
and  afterwards  of  the  senate,  rendering  important 
public  services.  At  his  funeral  in  Washington, 
Mr.  Tuston  delivered  an  eloquent  sermon  on  the 
happiness  of  heaven,  described  as  "  light."  He 
delivered  an  able  speech,  costing  much  effort, 
against  the  admission  of  Texas  into  the  Union ; 
and  in  a  few  days  afterwards  died.  His  printed 
addresses  and  speeches  are  specimens  of  logical 
and  beautiful  writing. 

BATES,  JOSHUA,  D.  D.,  president  of  Middle- 
bury  college,  died  in  Dudley  Jan.  14,  1854,  aged 
77.  Born  at  Cohasset,  he  graduated  at  Cam 
bridge  in  1800  ;  was  settled  as  a  minister  in  Ded- 
ham  in  1803;  was  chosen  president  in  1818  and 
continued  at  Middlebury  twenty-one  years,  till 
1840,  when  he  resigned.  In  1843  he  was  settled 
at  Dudley,  where  he  toiled  during  ten  years  of  a 
green  old  age.  He  was  distinguished  as  a  scholar, 
was  open-hearted  and  of  a  manly  character, 
highly  esteemed  and  useful.  Dr.  Sprague  preached 
a  sermon  on  his  death. 

He  published  Reminiscences  of  Rev.  John  Cod- 
man,  making  a  volume  with  W.  Allen's  life  of 
J.  C.  ;  two  sermons  on  intemperance,  1813 ;  a 
volume  of  sermons  ;  on  the  death  of  T.  Prentiss, 
1814 ;  at  ordination  of  J.  Thompson,  1804  ;  R. 
Hurlburt  and  F.  Burt,  1817  ;  Ira  Ingraham,  1821; 
J.  Steel,  1828 ;  inaugural  address,  1818 ;  two 
sermons  to  missionary  societies. 

BATTELL,  SARAII,  the  widow  of  Joseph  B., 
died  at  Norfolk,  Conn.,  Sept.  23,  1854,  aged  75, 
the  daughter  of  Rev.  A.  Robbins.  She  was  one 
of  the  women  of  excellent  Christian  character 
and  well-known  benevolence,  who  by  their  virtues 
adorn  our  community. 

BAXTER,  JOSEPH,  minister  of  Medford,  Mass., 
was  the  son  of  Lieut.  John  Baxter,  of  Braintrce, 
who  died  in  1719,  aged  80,  and  grandson  of 
Gregory  Baxter,  a  settler  of  B.  in  1632,  who  was 
a,  relative  of  Richard  Baxter,  of  England.  lie 
was  born  in  1676,  graduated  in  1693,  and  or 
dained  April  21,  1697.  When  Gov.  Shute  had  a 
conference  with  the  Indians  at  Georgetown,  on 
Arrousic  Island,  in  Aug.,  1717,  he  presented  to 
them  a  Mr.  Baxter  as  a  protestant  missionary, 
who  was  probably  Mr.  Joseph  B.  ;  but  through 
the  influence  of  the  Jesuit  Halle  he  was  rejected. 
He  had  a  correspondence  in  Latin  with  Ralle,  and 
the  Jesuit  accused  him  of  the  want  of  scholarship. 
Gov.  Shute  in  his  letter  replied,  that  the  main 
qualification  in  a  missionary  to  the  barbarous  In 
dians  was  not  "  to  be  an  exact  scholar  as  to  the 
Latin  tongue,"  but  to  bring  them  from  darkness 
to  the  light  of  the  gospel,  and,  "  under  the  influ 
ence  of  the  divine  Spirit  to  translate  them  from 
the  power  of  Satan,  who  has  had  an  usurped  pos 
session  of  these  parts  of  the  world  for  so  many 



ages,  to  the  kingdom  of  the  Son  of  God."  Mr. 
Baxter  died  May  2,  1745.  His  son,  Joseph,  a 
physician,  died  of  the  small  pox.  He  published 
the  election  sermon,  1727  ;  sermons  to  two  socie 
ties  of  young  men ;  and  sermons  on  the  danger 
of  security,  1729.  —  Mass.  Hist.  Coll.  v.  115; 
Coll.  N.  II.  Hist.  Soc.  II.  245  ;  Farmer. 

BAXTER,  GEORGE  A.,  1).  I).,  died  in  Vir 
ginia  March  16,  1841,  aged  77;  professor  of  the 
ology  in  Union  theological  seminary,  Prince 
Edward  county.  He  was  previously  president  of 
Washington  college,  Lexington.  He  was  one  of 
the  most  eminent  and  respected  of  the  Presbyte 
rian  ministers  of  Virginia. 

BAY,  ELIHU  H.,  died  at  Charleston  in  1839, 
aged  85.  He  published  law  reports. 

BAYARD,  JOHN,  a  friend  to  his  country,  and 
an  eminent  Christian,  was  born  Aug.  11,  1738,  on 
Bohemia  manor  in  Cecil  county,  Maryland.  His 
father  died  without  a  will,  and  being  the  eldest 
son,  he  became  entitled  by  the  laws  of  Maryland 
to  the  whole  real  estate.  Such,  however,  was  his 
affection  for  his  twin  brother,  younger  than  him 
self,  that  no  sooner  had  he  reached  the  age  of 
manhood,  than  he  conveyed  to  him  half  the  estate. 
After  receiving  an  academical  education  under  Dr. 
Fin  ley,  he  was  put  into  the  counting-house  of 
Mr.  John  Rhea,  a  merchant  of  Philadelphia.  It 
was  here,  that  the  seeds  of  grace  began  first  to 
take  root,  and  to  give  promise  of  those  fruits  of 
righteousness,  which  afterwards  abounded.  He 
early  became  a  communicant  of  the  Presbyterian 
church  under  the  charge  of  Gilbert  Tennent. 
Some  years  after  his  marriage  he  was  chosen  a 
ruling  elder,  and  he  filled  this  place  with  zeal  and 
reputation.  Mr.  Whitfield,  while  on  his  visits 
to  America,  became  intimately  acquainted  with 
Mr.  Bayard,  and  was  much  attached  to  him. 
They  made  several  tours  together.  In  1770,  Mr. 
Bayard  lost  his  only  brother,  Dr.  James  A.  Bay 
ard,  a  man  of  promising  talents,  of  prudence  and 
skill,  of  a  most  amiable  disposition  and  growing 
reputation.  The  violence  of  his  sorrow  at  first 
produced  an  illness,  which  confined  him  to  his  bed 
for  several  days.  By  degrees  it  subsided  into  a 
tender  melancholy,  which  for  years  after  would 
steal  across  his  mind,  and  tinge  his  hours  of  do 
mestic  intercourse  and  solitary  devotion  with 
pensive  sadness.  When  his  brother's  widow  died, 
he  adopted  the  children,  and  educated  them  as  his 
own.  One  of  them  was  an  eminent  statesman. 

At  the  commencement  of  the  Revolutionary 
war  he  took  a  decided  part  in  favor  of  his  country. 
At  the  head  of  the  second  battalion  of  the  Phila 
delphia  militia  he  marched  to  the  assistance  of 
Washington,  and  was  present  at  the  battle  of 
Trenton.  He  was  a  member  of  the  council  of 
safety,  and  for  many  years  speaker  of  the  legisla 
ture.  In  1777,  when  there  was  a  report  that 


Col.  Bayard's  house  had  been  destroyed  by  the 
British  army,  and  that  his  servant,  who  had  been 
intrusted  with  his  personal  property,  had  gone  off 
with  it  to  the  enemy,  Mr.  William  Bell,  who  had 
served  his  apprenticeship  with  Col.  Bayard,  and 
accumulated  several  thousand  pounds,  insisted 
that  his  patron  should  receive  one  half  of  his 
estate.  This  generous  offer  was  not  accepted,  as 
the  report  was  without  foundation.  Reiterated 
afflictions  induced  a  deep  depression  of  mind, 
and  for  some  time  he  was  no  longer  relieved  by 
the  avocations  of  business.  In  1785,  however,  he 
was  appointed  a  member  of  the  old  congress,  then 
sitting  in  New  York,  but  in  the  following  year  he 
was  left  out  of  the  delegation.  In  1788  he  re 
moved  to  New  Brunswick,  where  he  was  mayor 
of  the  city,  judge  of  the  court  of  common  pleas, 
and  a  ruling  elder  of  the  church.  Here  he  died 
Jan.  7,  1807,  aged  68. 

At  his  last  hour  he  was  not  left  in  darkness. 
That  Redeemer,  whom  he  had  served  with  zeal, 
was  with  him  to  support  him  and  give  him  the 
victory.  During  his  last  illness  he  spoke  much 
of  his  brother,  and  one  night,  awaking  from  sleep, 
exclaimed,  "My  dear  brother,  I  shall  soon  be 
with  you."  He  addressed  his  two  sons,  "  My  dear 
children,  you  see  me  just  at  the  close  of  life. 
Death  has  no  terrors  to  me.  What  now  is  all 
the  world  to  me  ?  I  would  not  exchange  my  hope 
in  Christ  for  ten  thousand  worlds.  I  once  enter 
tained  some  doubts  of  his  Divinity  ;  but,  blessed 
be  God,  these  doubts  were  soon  removed  by  in 
quiry  and  reflection.  From  that  time  my  hope 
of  acceptance  with  God  has  rested  on  his  merits 
and  atonement.  Out  of  Christ,  God  is  a  consum 
ing  fire."  As  he  approached  nearer  the  grave, 
he  said,  "  I  shall  soon  be  at  rest ;  I  shall  soon  be 
with  my  God.  O  glorious  hope  !  Blessed  rest ! 
HOAV  precious  are  the  promises  of  the  gospel !  It 
is  the  support  of  my  soul  in  my  last  moments." 
While  sitting  up,  supported  by  his  two  daughters, 
holding  one  of  his  sons  by  the  hand,  and  looking 
intently  in  his  face,  he  said,  "  My  Christian  brother !'' 
Then  turning  to  his  daughters  he  continued,  "  You 
are  my  Christian  sisters.  Soon  will  our  present 

ties  be  dissolved,  but  more  glorious  bonds 

lie  could  say  no  more,  but  his  looks  and  arms, 
directed  towards  heaven,  expressed  everything. 
He  frequently  commended  himself  to  the  blessed 
Redeemer,  confident  of  his  love;  and  the  last 
words,  which  escaped  from  his  dying  lips,  were, 
"  Lord  Jesus,  Lord  Jesus,  Lord  Jesus ! "  —  Evang. 
Litclliyencer,  I.  1-7,  49-57. 

BAYARD,  JAMES  A.,  a  distinguished  states 
man,  died  Aug.  6,  1815,  aged  48.  lie  was  the 
son  of  Dr.  J.  A.  Bayard,  and  was  born  in  Phila 
delphia  in  1767.  On  the  death  of  his  father  he 
was  received  into  the  family  of  his  uncle,  John 
Bayard,  and  was  graduated  at  Princeton  college 




in  1784.  After  studying  law  at  Philadelphia  with 
Gen.  Reed  and  Mr.  Ingcrsoll,  he  commenced  the 
practice  in  Delaware.  In  Oct.,  1796,  he  was 
elected  a  member,  of  Congress.  In  the  party  con 
tests  of  the  day  he  was  a  distinguished  supporter 
of  the  federal  administration.  In  the  memorable 
contest  in  the  house  concerning  the  election  of 
president  in  1801,  Jefferson  and  Burr  having  an 
equal  number  of  the  electoral  votes,  he  directed 
the  course,  which  issued  in  the  election  of  Mr. 
Jefferson.  Among  the  debaters  on  the  repeal  of 
the  judiciary  bill  in  March,  1802,  he  was  the 
ablest  advocate  of  the  system,  which  was  over 
thrown.  From  the  house  he  was  transferred  to 
the  senate  in  1804,  and  was  again  elected  for  six 
years  from  March,  1805,  and  also  from  March, 

1811.  He  opposed  the   declaration  of  war  in 

1812.  After  the  commencement  of  the  war,  the 
mediation  of  Russia  being  offered,  he  was  selected 
by  Mr.  Madison  as  a  commissioner  with  Mr.  Gal- 
latin  to  negotiate  a  peace  with  Great  Britain,  and 
sailed  from  Philadelphia  for   St.  Petersburg  May 
9,  1813.     The  absence  of  the  emperor  preventing 
the  transaction  of  any  business,  he  proceeded  to 
Holland  by  land  in  Jan.,  1814.     He  lent  his  able 
assistance  in  the   negotiation   of   the   peace   at 
Ghent  in  this  year,  and  afterwards  made  a  jour 
ney  to  Paris,  where  he  was  apprized  of  his  ap 
pointment  as  envoy  to  the  court  of  St.  Petersburg. 
This  he  declined,  stating,  "  that  he  had  no  wish 
to  serve  the  administration,  except  when  his  ser 
vices  were  necessary  for  the  good  of  his  country." 
Yet  he  proposed  to  co-operate  in  forming  a  com 
mercial  treaty  with  Great  Britain.     An  alarming 
illness,  however,  constrained  him  to  return  to  the 
United  States.     He  arrived  in  June  and  died  at 
Wilmington.     His   wife,  the   daughter   of    Gov. 
Basset,  and  several  children,  survived  him.     Mr. 
Bavard  was  an  ingenious  reasoner  and  an  accom 
plished  orator.     His  fine  countenance  and  manly 
person  recommended  his  eloquent  words.     There 
were  few  of  his  contemporaries  of  higher  political 
distinction.     But  his   race    of  worldly  eminence 
was  soon  run. — His  speech  on  the  foreign  inter 
course  bill  was  published  1798;  and  his  speech 
on  the  repeal  of  the  judiciary  in  a  vol.  of  the 
speeches,  1802. — Biog' Amer.  50;  Encyc.Amer. 

BAYARD,  SAMUEL,  judge,  died  at  Princeton 
N.  J.,  May  12,  1840,  aged  75.  He  was  a  judge 
of  the  common  pleas,  a  most  upright,  respected, 
and  esteemed  man. 

BAYLEY,  MATTHIAS,  died  about  the  year  1789 
at  Jones'  creek,  a  branch  of  the  Pedee,  in  North 
Carolina,  aged  136  years.  He  was  baptized  at 
the  age  of  134.  His  eyesight  remained  good, 
and  his  strength  was  very  remarkable,  till  his 
death. — American  Museum,  vil.  206. 

BAYLEY,  RICHARD,  an  eminent  physician  of 
New  York,  died  Aug.  17,  1801,  aged  56.  He 
was  bom  at  Fairfield,  Conn.,  in  the  year  1745. 


From  his  mother's  being  of  French  descent  and 
his  parents'  residence  among  the  French  Protes 
tant  emigrants  at  New  Rochclle,  N.  Y.,  he  became 
early  familiar  with  the  French  language.  He 
studied  physic  with  Dr.  Charlton,  whose  sister  he 
married.  In  1769  or  1770  he  attended  the  Lon 
don  lectures  and  hospitals.  Returning  in  1772 
he  commenced  practice  with  Dr.  Charlton  in  New 
York.  His  attention  in  1774  was  drawn  to  the 
croup,  which  prevailed,  and  which  men  of  high 
character,  as  Dr.  Bard,  had  fatally  treated  as  the 
putrid  sore  throat.  He  had  seen  a  child  perish 
in  thirty-six  hours  under  the  use  of  stimulants  and 
antiseptics.  His  dissections  confirmed  him  in  his 
views ;  and  they  were  adopted  afterwards  by  his 
friend,  Michaelis,  the  chief  of  the  Hessian  medical 
staff  in  New  York,  the  author  of  a  treatise  "  De 
angina  polyposa." 

In  the  autumn  of  1775  he  revisited  England  in 
order  to  make  further  improvement  under  Hunter, 
and  spent  the  winter  in  dissections  and  study.  In 
the  spring  of  1776  he  returned  in  the  capacity  of 
surgeon  in  the  English  army  under  Howe.  This 
was  a  measure  of  mistaken  prudence,  in  order  to 
provide  for  his  wife  and  children.  In  the  fall  he 
proceeded  with  the  fleet  to  Newport ;  but  incapable 
of  enduring  this  separation  from  his  wife,  he 
resigned  and  returned  to  New  York  in  the  spring 
of  1777  just  before  her  death.  His  influence  was 
now  beneficially  exerted  in  saving  the  property  of 
Ms  absent  fellow-citizens.  In  1781  his  letter  to 
Hunter  on  the  croup  was  published,  in  which  he 
recommended  bleeding,  blisters  to  the  throat, 
antimony,  calomel,  and  enemata.  He  said,  there 
was  no  fear  of  putresccncy,  unless  there  were 
ulcers.  To  Baylcy  the  public  is  indebted  for  the 
present  active  treatment  of  the  croup.  In  1787 
he  delivered  lectures  on  surgery,  and  his  son-in-law, 
Dr.  Wright  Post,  lectured  on  anatomy,  in  the 
edifice  since  converted  into  the  New  York  hospital. 
In  1788  "  the  doctors'  mob,"  in  consequence  of 
the  imprudence  of  some  students,  broke  into  the 
building  and  destroyed  Bayley's  valuable  anatomi- 
"cal  cabinet.  In  1792  he  was  elected  professor  of 
anatomy  at  Columbia  college;  but  in  1793  he 
took  the  department  of  surgery,  in  which  he  was 
very  skilful.  About  1795  he  was  appointed  health 
officer  to  the  port.  During  the  prevalence  of  the 
yellow  fever  he  fearlessly  attended  upon  the  sick 
and  investigated  the  disease.  In  1797  he  pub 
lished  his  essay  on  that  fever,  maintaining  that  it 
had  a  local  origin  and  was  not  contagious,  lie 
also  published  in  1798  a  series  of  letters  on  the 
subject.  By  contagion  he  meant  a  specific  poison, 
as  in  small  pox.  He  allowed,  that  the  fever  in 
certain  circumstances  was  infectious.  No  nurse 
or  attendant  in  the  hospitals  had  t alien  the 
disease,  yet  it  might  be  conveyed  in  clothing  and 
in  other  ways.  Hence  the  importance  of  cleanli 
ness  and  ventilation.  The  state  quarantine  laws 



originated  with  him;  the  total  interdiction  of 
commerce  with  the  West  Indies  had  by  some  been 
contemplated.  In  Aug.,  1821,  an  Irish  emigrant 
ship,  with  ship  fever,  arrived.  lie  found  the  crew 
and  passengers  and  baggage  huddled  in  one  un- 
ventilated  apartment,  contrary  to  his  orders. 
Entering  it  only  a  moment,  a  deadly  sickness  at 
the  stomach  and  intense  pain  in  the  head  seized 
him,  and  on  the  seventh  day  he  expired.  He  is 
represented  as  in  temper  fiery,  invincible  in  his 
dislikes,  inflexible  in  attachment,  of  perfect  integ 
rity,  gentlemanly,  and  chivalrously  honorable. 
He  married  in  1778  Charlotte  Amelia,  daughter 
of  Andrew  Barclay,  a  merchant  of  New  York. 
His  writings  have  been  mentioned :  on  the  croup, 
1781;  essay  on  the  yellow  fever,  1797;  letters  on 
the  same,  1798. —  Thacher's  Med.  Biog.,  156- 

BAYLIES,  WILLIAM,  M.  D.,  died  at  Dighton, 
Mass.,  June  17,  1826,  aged  82.  lie  was  gradu 
ated  at  Harvard  college  in  1760,  and  was  a  member 
of  the  provincial  congress  in  1775,  and  often  a 
member  of  the  council  of  the  State. 

BAYLIES,  HODIJAII,  judge,  died  at  Dighton 
April  26,  1843,  aged  86.  A  graduate  of  Harvard 
in  1777,  he  was  aid  to  Gen.  Lincoln,  also  to 
Washington.  He  was  collector  of  customs,  and 
judge  of  probate  from  1810  until  he  was  81.  He 
possessed  a  Christian  character,  and  shared  largely 
in  the  public  confidence. 

BAYLIES,  FREDERIC,  died  in  Edgartown  Oct., 
1836,  for  twenty  years  a  useful  teacher  of  the 
Ladians  on  Martha's  Vineyard  and  in  11.  I. ;  an 
exemplary,  worthy  man,  doing  much  for  Sunday 
schools  and  the  cause  of  temperance. 

BAYLIES,  NICHOLAS,  judge,  died  at  Lyndon, 
Vt,  Aug.  17,  1847,  aged  75.  He  was  a  graduate 
of  Dartmouth  in  1794,  and  practised  law  in 
Woodstock  and  Montpelier.  His  wife  was  Mary 
Itipley,  daughter  of  Prof.  Riplcy  and  grand 
daughter  of  President  E.  Whcclock.  He  pub 
lished  some  law  books. 

BAYLIES,  FRANCIS,  died  at  Taunton,  Oct.  28, 
1852,  aged  68.  For  several  terms  he  was  a  mem 
ber  of  congress.  The  only  electoral  vote  for  Jack 
son  as  president,  from  New  England,  Avas  given 
by  him.  Soon  afterwards  he  was  appointed  min 
ister  to  Brazil,  but  was  quickly  recalled.  He 
published  a  history  of  the  old  colony  of  Plymouth 
in  2  vols.,  1828. 

BAYNAM,  WILLIAM,  a  surgeon,  the  son  of 
Dr.  John  Baynham  of  Caroline  county,  Va.,  was 
born  in  1749,  and  after  studying  with  Dr.  Walker 
was  sent  to  London  in  1769,  where  he  made  great 
proficiency  in  anatomy  and  surgery.  He  was  for 
years  an  assistant  demonstrator  to  Mr.  Else, 
professor  in  St.  Thomas'  hospital.  After  residing 
sixteen  years  in  England,  he  returned  to  this  coun 
try,  and  settled  in  Essex  about  1785.  He  died 
Dec.  8,  1814,  aged  66  years.  He  performed 


many  remarkable  surgical  operations.  As  an 
anatomist  he  had  no  superior.  The  best  prepara 
tions  in  the  museum  of  Clinc  and  Cooper  at  Lon 
don  were  made  by  him.  Various  papers  by  Mr. 
B.  were  published  in  the  medical  journals.  — 
TJiacJier's  Mcd.  Biog.,  168-173;  JV.  Y.  Med. 
Journal,  I.;  Phil.  Journal,  IV. 

BEACH,  JOHN,  an  Episcopal  clergyman  and 
writer,  was  probably  a  descendant  of  Ilichard 
Beach,  who  lived  in  New  Haven  and  had  a  son, 
John,  born  in  1639.  He  was  graduated  at  Yale 
college  in  1721,  and  was  for  several  years  a  Con 
gregational  minister  at  Newtown.  Through  his 
acquaintance  with  Dr.  Johnson,  he  was  induced  to 
embrace  the  Episcopal  form  of  worship.  In  1732 
he  went  to  England  for  orders,  and  on  his  return 
was  employed  as  an  Episcopalian  missionary  at 
Heading  and  Newtown.  After  the  Declaration  of 
Independence,  Congress  ordered  the  ministers  to 
pray  for  the  commonwealth  and  not  for  the  king. 
Mr.  Beach,  who  retained  his  loyalty,  chose  to  pray 
as  usual  for  his  majesty,  and  was  in  consequence 
handled  roughly  by  the  wliigs.  He  died  March 
19,  1782. 

He  published  an  appeal  to  the  unprejudiced,  in 
answer  to  a  sermon  of  Dickinson,  1737 ;  also, 
about  the  year  1745,  a  sermon  on  Itomans  6 :  23, 
entitled,  a  sermon  shewing  that  eternal  life  is 
God's  free  gift,  bestowed  upon  men  according  to 
their  moral  behavior.  In  this  he  opposed  with 
much  zeal  some  of  the  Calvinistic  doctrines, 
contained  in  the  articles  of  the  church  which  he 
had  joined.  Jonathan  Dickinson  wrote  remarks 
upon  it  the  following  year,  in  his  vindication  of 
God's  sovereignty  and  His  universal  love  to  the 
souls  of  men  reconciled,  in  the  form  of  a  dialogue, 
1747.  He  wrote  also  a  reply  to  Dickinson's 
second  vindication.  Mr.  Beach  was  a  bold  and 
distinguished  advocate  of  those  doctrines,  which 
are  denominated  Arminian.  Whatever  may  be 
said  of  his  argument  in  his  dispute  with  Dickinson, 
he  evidently  yields  to  his  antagonist  in  gentleness 
and  civility  of  manner.  Another  controversy,  in 
which  he  engaged,  had  respect  to  Episcopacy. 
He  published  in  17-19,  in  answer  to  Hobart's  first 
address,  a  calm  and  dispassionate  vindication  of 
the  professors  of  the  church  of  England,  to  which 
Dr.  Johnson  wrote  a  preface  and  Mr.  Caner  an 
appendix.  He  seems  to  have  had  high  notions 
of  the  necessity  of  Episcopal  ordination.  His 
other  publications  are,  the  duty  of  loving  our 
enemies,  1738;  an  inquiry  into  the  state  of  the 
dead,  1755;  a  continuation  of  the  vindication  of 
the  professors,  &c.,  1756 ;  the  inquiry  of  the  young 
man  in  the  gospel ;  a  sermon  on  the  death  of 
Dr.  Johnson,  1772.  —  Chandler's  Life  of  John 
son,  62,  126. 

BEACH,  ABRAHAM,  D.  D.,  an  Episcopal  min 
ister,  was  born  at  Cheshire,  Conn.,  Sept.  9,  1740, 
and  graduated  at  Yale  college  in  1757.  The 


bishop  of  London  ordained  him  in  June,  1767,  as 
a  priest  for  New  Jersey.  During  seventeen  years, 
including  the  period  of  the  Revolution,  he  tran 
quilly  discharged  the  duties  of  his  office  at  Xe\v 
Brunswick.  Alter  the  peace,  he  was  called  to 
New  York  as  an  assistant  minister  of  Trinity 
church,  where  he  remained  about  thirty  years, 
and  then  retired  in  1813  to  his  farm  on  the  Rari- 
tan  to  pass  the  evening  of  his  life.  He  died  Sept. 
11,  1828,  aged  88  years.  His  daughter,  Maria, 
and  his  son-in-law,  Abiel  Carter,  an  Episcopal 
minister,  died  at  Savannah,  Oct.  28,  and  Nov.  1, 
1827.  His  dignified  person,  expressive  counte 
nance,  and  lively  feelings  rendered  his  old  age 
interesting  to  his  acquaintance.  He  was  respected 
and  honored  in  his  failing  years.  A  sermon  of 
his,  on  the  hearing  of  the  word,  is  in  American 
Preacher,  in.  He  published  a  funeral  sermon  on 
Dr.  Chandler,  1790. — Episcopal  Watchman. 

BEACH,  EBEXEZER  S.,  died  at  Rochester,  N.  Y., 
March  14,  1850,  aged  65.  He  was  educated  and 
very  successful  in  business.  In  furnishing  stores 
for  the  army  he  made  much  money  ;  for  his  flour 
milling  operations  he  was  extensively  known. 

BEACH,  SAMUEL,  M.  D.,  of  Bridgeport,  died, 
killed  by  the  railroad  disaster  at  Norwalk  bridge 
May  6,  1853.  He  was  among  the  forty-five  per 
sons  killed.  He  received  his  medical  degree  at 
Yale  in  1826; — besides  being  an  eminent  physi 
cian  he  was  an  excellent  Christian. 

BEADLE,  WILLIAM,  a  deist,  was  born  near 
London,  and  came  to  this  country  with  a  small 
quantity  of  goods.  After  residing  at  New  York, 
Stratford,  and  Derby,  he  removed  to  Fairfield, 
where  he  married  a  Miss  Lathrop  of  Plymouth, 
Mass.  In  1772  he  transplanted  himself  to 
Wethersfield,  where  he  sustained  the  character  of 
a  fair  dealer.  In  the  depreciation  of  the  paper 
currency,  he,  through  some  error  of  judgment, 
thought  he  was  still  bound  to  sell  his  goods  at 
the  old  prices,  as  though  the  continental  money 
had  retained  its  nominal  value.  In  the  decay  of 
his  property  he  became  melancholy.  For  years 
he  meditated  the  destruction  of  his  family.  At 
last,  Dec.  11,  1782,  he  murdered  with  an  axe  and 
a  knife  his  wife  and  children  and  then  shot  him 
self  with  a  pistol.  He  was  aged  52  ;  his  wife  32  ; 
and  the  eldest  child  15  years.  The  jury  of  in 
quest  pronounced  him  to  be  of  a  sound  mind ; 
and  the  indignant  inhabitants  dragged  his  body, 
uncollined,  with  the  bloody  knife  tied  to  it,  on  a 
sled  to  the  river,  and  "  buried  it,  as  they  would 
have  buried  the  carcase  of  a  beast,"  and  as  the 
masonic  oaths  speak  of  burying  a  mason,  mur 
dered  for  his  faithlessness  to  masonry,  "  between 
high  and  low  water  mark."  He  was  a  man  of 
good  sense,  of  gentlemanly  conduct,  and  a  hospi 
table  disposition.  His  wife  was  very  pleasing  in 
person,  mind,  and  manners.  —  It  appears  from  his 
writings,  that  he  was  a  deist,  and  that  pride  was 



the  cause  of  his  crimes.  He  was  unwilling  to 
submit  to  the  evils  of  poverty  or  to  receive  aid 
from  others,  and  unwilling  to  leave  his  family 
without  the  means  of  distinction.  Yet  was  he 
worth  300  pounds  sterling.  He  endeavored  to 
convince  himself,  that  he  had  a  right  to  kill  his 
children,  because  they  were  his  ;  as  for  his  wife, 
he  relied  on  the  authority  of  a  dream  for  a  right 
to  murder  her.  His  wife,  in  consequence  of  his 
carrying  the  implements  of  death  into  his  bed 
chamber,  had  dreamed,  that  she  and  the  children 
were  exposed  in  cofiins  in  the  street.  This  solved 
his  doubts.  As  to  killing  himself  he  had  no 
qualms.  From  such  horrible  crimes  what  is  there 
to  restrain  that  class  of  men,  who  reject  the 
scriptures,  or  who,  while  professing  to  believe 
them,  deny  that  there  will  be  a  future  judgment, 
and  maintain,  that  death  will  translate  the  blood 
stained  wretch  to  heaven?  —  Dwiylifs  Travels, 
I.  229. 

BEAN,  JOSEPH,  minister  of  Wrentham,  died 
Dec.  12,  1784,  aged  66.  He  was  born  in  Boston 
March  7,  1718,  of  pious  parents,  who  devoted  him 
to  God.  Having  learned  a  trade,  he  commenced 
business  at  Cambridge ;  but  in  1741  the  preach 
ing  of  Whitefield  and  Tennent  and  of  his  own 
minister,  Appleton,  was  the  means  of  subduing 
his  love  of  the  world  and  of  rendering  him  wise 
unto  salvation.  He  now  made  a  profession  of 
religion  and  commenced  a  consistent  course  of 
piety  and  beneficence,  in  which  he  continued 
through  life.  He  joined  a  religious  society  of 
young  men,  who  met  once  a  week ;  and  seized 
every  opportunity  for  conversing  with  others,  es 
pecially  with  the  young  on  their  spiritual  concerns. 
In  1742  he  deemed  it  his  duty  to  abandon  his 
trade  and  to  seek  an  education,  that  he  might 
preach  the  gospel.  The  study  of  the  languages 
was  wearisome ;  but  he  persevered,  and  was 
gi'aduated  at  Harvard  College  in  1748,  and  or 
dained  the  third  minister  of  Wrentham  Nov.  24, 
1750.  Mr.  Bean  was  an  eminently  pious  and 
faithful  minister,  and  is  worthy  of  honorable  re 
membrance.  From  his  diary  it  appears,  that  he 
usually  spent  one  or  two  hours,  morning  and 
evening,  in  reading  the  Bible  and  secret  devotion ; 
also  the  afternoons  of  Saturday,  when  his  dis 
courses  were  prepared  for  the  Sabbath  ;  and  the 
days  of  the  birth  of  himself  and  children,  as  well 
as  other  days.  He  was  truly  humble,  and  watch 
ful  against  all  the  excitements  of  pride.  His 
conscience  was  peculiarly  susceptible.  His  heart 
wras  tender  and  benevolent.  Such  was  his  con 
stant  intercourse  with  heaven,  that  hundreds  of 
times,  when  riding  in  the  performance  of  paro 
chial  duty,  he  had  dismounted  in  a  retired  place 
to  pour  out  his  heart  to  God.  When  he  had  pre 
pared  a  sermon,  he  would  take  it  in  his  hand  and 
kneel  down  to  implore  a  blessing  on  it.  Nothing 
was  permitted  to  divert  him  from  preaching  faith- 




fully  the  solemn  truths  of  the  gospel.  He  loved 
his  work  and  his  people,  and  they  loved  and 
honored  him.  Such  a  life  will  doubtless  obtain 
the  honor,  which  cometh  from  God ;  and  in  the 
day  of  judgment  many  such  obscure  men,  whom 
the  world  knew  not,  will  be  exalted  far  above  a 
multitude  of  learned  doctors  in  divinity,  and  cele 
brated  orators,  and  lofty  dignitaries,  whose  names 
once  resounded  through  the  earth.  He  published 
a  century  sermon  Oct.  26,  1773. — Panoplist,  v. 

BEASLEY,  NATHANIEL,  general,  died  in  Knox 
co.,  Ohio,  in  1835,  aged  84.  He  was  an  early 
settler,  intelligent  and  useful. 

BEASLEY,  FREDERICK,  D.  D.,  died  in  Eliza- 
bethtown,  N.  J.,  Nov.  2,  1845,  aged  68,  formerly 
provost  of  the  university  of  Pennsylvania.  lie 
wrote  on  Episcopacy  and  on  moral  and  meta 
physical  subjects. 

BEATTY,  CHARLES,  a  missionary  for  many 
years  at  Neshaminy,  Penns.,  was  appointed  about 
1761  an  agent  to  procure  contributions  to  a  fund 
for  the  benefit  of  the  Presbyterian  clergy,  their 
widows,  and  children.  He  died  at  Barbadoes, 
whither  he  had  gone  to  obtain  benefactions  for 
the  college  of  New  Jersey,  Aug.  13,  1772.  He 
was  highly  respected  for  his  private  virtues  and 
for  his  public  toils  in  the  cause  of  learning,  charity, 
and  religion.  He  was  a  missionary  from  the 
Presbvterian  church  to  the  Indians,  from  about 
1740  to  1765.  In  one  of  his  tours  Mr.  Duffield 
accompanied  him.  He  published  a  journal  of  a 
tour  of  two  months  to  promote  religion  among 
the  frontier  inhabitants  of  Pennsylvania,  8vo. 
London,  1768.  —  Jennison ;  Brainerd's  Life, 

BEATTY,  JOHN,  M.  D.,  general,  the  son  of 
the  preceding,  was  a  native  of  Bucks  county, 
Penn.,  and  was  graduated  at  Princeton  in  1769. 
After  studying  medicine  with  Dr.  Rush,  he  en 
tered  the  army  as  a  soldier.  Reaching  the  rank 
of  Lieut.-Col.  he  in  1776  fell  into  the  hands  of 
the  enemy  at  the  capture  of  fort  Washington,  and 
suffered  a  long  and  rigorous  imprisonment.  In 
1779  he  succeeded  Elias  Boudinot  as  commissary 
general  of  prisoners.  After  the  war  he  settled  at 
Princeton  as  a  physician,  and  was  also  a  member 
of  the  State  legislature,  and  in  1793  of  congress. 
For  ten  years  he  was  secretary  of  the  state  of 
New  Jersey,  succeeding  in  1795  Samuel  W.  Stock 
ton.  For  eleven  years  he  was  president  of  the 
bank  of  Trenton,  where  he  died  April  30,  1826, 
aged  77.  For  many  years  he  was  a  ruling  elder 
in  the  church.  —  Thacher's  Med.  Biog.  173,174. 

BEAUMONT,  WILLIAM,  doctor,  died  in  St. 
Louis  April  25,  1853,  aged  57.  His  account  of 
experiments  with  St.  Martin,  the  Canadian,  were 
published  in  1833  and  1847. 

BECK,  GEORGE,  a  painter,  was  a  native  of  Eng 
land,  and  appointed  professor  of  mathematics  hi 

the  royal  academy  at  Woolwich  in  1776,  but 
missed  the  office  by  his  neglect.  After  coming 
to  this  country  in  1795,  he  was  employed  in  paint 
ing  by  Mr.  Hamilton  of  the  Woodlands,  near 
Philadelphia.  His  last  days  were  spent  in  Lex 
ington,  Ky.,  where  he  died  Dec.  14,  1812,  aged 
63.  Besides  his  skill  in  mathematics  and  paint 
ing,  he  had  a  taste  for  poetry,  and  wrote  original 
pieces,  besides  translating  Anacrcon,  and  much 
of  Homer,  Virgil,  and  Horace.  He  published 
observations  on  the  comet,  1812.  —  Jennison. 

BECK,  JOHN  BRODHEAD,  M.  D.,  died  at 
Rhinebeck,  April  9,  1851,  aged  57.  He  was  em 
inent  as  a  physician  in  New  York  ;  professor  of 
materia  medica  and  botany  in  1826,  and  then  of 
medical  jurisprudence. 

BECK,  T.  ROMEYN,  M.  D.,  died  at  Albany 
Nov.,  1855,  aged  64.  He  was  born  at  Schenec- 
tady  Aug.  11,  1791,  the  grandson  of  Rev.  Derick 
Romeyn,  a  professor  of  theology  in  the  Dutch 
church  ;  graduated  at  Union  in  1807,  and  received 
the  degree  of  M.  D.  from  the  New  York  college 
of  physicians  in  1811,  delivering  a  dissertation  on 
insanity,  which  was  published.  He  practised 
physic  in  Albany;  in  1815  he  was  professor  of 
the  institutes  and  lecturer  on  medical  jurispru 
dence  in  the  western  district.  In  1817  he  was 
appointed  principal  of  the  Albany  academy  ;  in 
1829  president  of  the  medical  society,  his  ad 
dresses  in  which  station  were  published  in  the 
society's  transactions.  In  1854  he  was  president 
of  the  lunatic  asylum.  For  many  years  he 
edited  the  American  journal  of  insanity.  He 
published  in  1853  his  medical  jurisprudence,  a 
work  unequalled  in  that  branch. 

BECK,  LEWIS  C.,  professor,  died  in  Albany 
April  21,  1853,  aged  53.  lie  was  born  and  edu 
cated  at  Schencctady.  For  many  years  he  was 
the  professor  of  chemistry  and  natural  science  at 
Rutgers  college,  and  subsequently  professor  of 
chemistry  in  the  Albany  medical  college.  He 
published  an  account  of  the  salt  springs  at  Salina, 
1826;  manual  of  chemistry,  1831. 

BEDELL,  GREGORY  T.,  D.  D.,  an  Episcopal 
minister,  died  at  Philadelphia  Aug.  30,  1834;  a 
man  of  learning.  He  published  Cause  of  the 
Greeks,  1827. 

BEDFORD,  GUNNING,  governor  of  Delaware, 
was  a  patriot  of  the  Revolution.  He  was  chosen 
governor  in  1796.  He  was  afterwards  appointed 
the  district  judge  of  the  court  of  the  United 
States;  and  died  at  Wilmington,  in  March,  1812. 

BEECIIER,  PHILEMON,  general,  an  early  set 
tler  of  Ohio,  emigrated  from  Litchficld,  Conn., 
and  died  at  Lancaster,  Ohio,  Nov.  30,  1839,  aged 
63.  He  was  a  member  of  congress  in  1817-1821 
and  in  1823-1829;  in  his  politics  a  federalist. 
He  was  an  able  lawyer  and  advocate,  respected 
for  his  talents  and  his  exemplary  Christian  virtues. 

BEECIIER,  GEORGE,  died  July  1,  1843,  aged 


about  3~),  a  graduate  of  Yale  in  1828.  He  was  a 
son  of  Dr.  L.  Beecher,  and  a  minister,  first  at 
Batavia,  and  then  three  years  at  Chillicothe.  He 
went  into  his  garden  with  a  double-barrelled  gun 
to  shoot  birds  :  after  one  shot  he  put  his  mouth 
to  the  barrel,  to  blow  into  it,  as  was  supposed, 
and  the  gun  went  off  and  killed  him. 

BEEKMAN,  CORNELIA,  an  admirable  woman, 
a  patriot  of  the  Ilcvolution,  died  in  Christian  peace 
near  Tarrytown  March  14,  1847,  aged  94 :  her 
husband,  Gerard  G.  B.,  died  in  1822,  aged  7G. 
She  was  the  daughter  of  Pierre  Van  Cortlandt 
and  Joanna  Livingston.  Married  at  17,  she  lived 
in  Bcekman  street,  N.  Y. ;  then,  during  the  war, 
at  Peekskill ;  afterwards  at  the  manor  house  of 
Philipsburgh,  or  castle  Philipse,  near  Tarrytown, 
watered  by  the  Pocanteco  or  Mill  river.  Her 
brother,  Gen.  P.  Van  Cortlandt,  and  her  sister, 
Mrs.  Van  llensselaer,  survived  her ;  also  her 
daughter,  Mrs.  De  Peyster,  and  her  son,  Dr.  S.  D. 

BEERS,  NATHAN,  died  at  New  Haven  Feb.  10, 
1849,  aged  96.  After  serving  in  the  Ilevolutionary 
war,  he  engaged  in  mercantile  business,  and  was 
long  the  steward  of  Yale  college.  He  was  a 
deacon  of  the  north  church,  distinguished  for 
courtesy,  integrity,  and  piety. 

BELCHER,  SAMUEL,  first  minister  of  that 
parish  in  Xcwbury,  Mass.,  which  is  called  New- 
bury  Xewtown,  was  graduated  at  Harvard  college 
in  16.39.  After  preaching  some  time  at  the  Isle 
of  Shoals,  he  was  ordained  at  Ncwbury  Nov.  30, 
1698;  and  died  at  Ipswich,  in  1714,  aged  74. 
He  was  a  good  scholar,  a  judicious  divine,  and  a 
holy  and  humble  man.  lie  published  an  election 
sermon,  1707. —  Coll.  Hist.  Soc.  x.  168  ;  Farmer. 

BELCHER,  JONATHAN,  governor  of  Massachu 
setts  and  New  Jersey,  was  the  son  of  Andrew 
Belcher  of  Cambridge,  one  of  the  council  of  the 
province,  and  a  gentleman  of  large  estate,  who 
died  in  1717,  and  grandson  of  Andrew  B.,  who 
lived  in  Cambridge  in  1646,  and  who  received  in 
1652  a  license  for  an  inn,  granting  him  liberty 
"  to  sell  beer  and  bread  for  entertainment  of 
strangers  and  the  good  of  the  town."  He  was 
born  in  Jan.,  1681.  As  the  hopes  of  the  family 
rested  on  him,  his  father  carefully  superintended 
his  education.  He  was  graduated  at  Harvard 
college  in  1699.  While  a  member  of  this  insti 
tution  his  open  and  pleasant  conversation,  joined 
with  his  manly  and  generous  conduct,  conciliated 
the  esteem  of  all  his  acquaintance.  Not  long 
after  the  termination  of  his  collegiate  course  he 
visited  Europe,  that  he  might  enrich  his  mind 
by  his  observations  upon  the  various  manners  and 
characters  of  men,  and  might  return,  furnished 
with  that  useful  knowledge,  which  is  gained  by 
intercourse  with  the  world. 

During  an  absence  of  six  years  from  his  native 
country,  he  was  preserved  from  those  follies  into 



which  inexperienced  youth  are  frequently  drawn, 
and  he  even  maintained  a  constant  regard  to  that 
holy  religion,  of  which  he  had  early  made  a  pro 
fession.  He  was  every  where  treated  with  the 
greatest  respect.  The  acquaintance,  which  he 
formed  with  the  princess  Sophia  and  her  son,  af 
terwards  king  George  II.,  laid  the  foundation  of 
his  future  honors.  After  his  return  from  his 
travels,  he  lived  in  Boston  as  a  merchant  with 
great  reputation.  He  was  chosen  a  member  of 
the  council,  and  the  general  assembly  sent  him  as 
an  agent  of  the  province  to  the  British  court  in 
the  year  1729.  Hutchinson  relates,  that  just  be 
fore  he  obtained  tlu's  appointment,  he  suddenly 
abandoned  the  party  of  Gov.  Shute  and  his  meas 
ures,  to  which  he  had  been  attached,  and  went 
over  to  the  other  side.  This  sudden  change  of 
sides  is  no  rare  occurrence  among  politicians. 

After  the  death  of  Gov.  Burnet,  he  was  ap 
pointed  by  his  majesty  to  the  government  of  Mas 
sachusetts  and  New  Hampshire,  in  1730.  In  this 
station  he  continued  eleven  years.  His  style  of 
living  was  elegant  and  splendid,  and  he  was  dis 
tinguished  for  hospitality.  By  the  depreciation  of 
the  currency  his  salary  was  much  diminished  in 
value,  but  he  disdained  any  unwarrantable  means 
of  enriching  himself,  though  apparently  just  and 
sanctioned  by  his  predecessors  in  office.  He  had 
been  one  of  the  principal  merchants  of  New  Eng 
land  ;  but  he  quitted  his  business  on  his  accession 
to  the  chair  of  the  first  magistrate.  Having  a 
high  sense  of  the  digniiy  of  his  commission,  he 
was  determined  to  support  it  even  at  the  expense 
of  his  private  fortune.  Frank  and  sincere,  he 
was  extremely  liberal  in  his  censures,  both  in  con 
versation  and  letters.  This  imprudence  in  a  pub 
lic  officer  gained  him  enemies,  who  were  deter 
mined  on  revenge.  He  also  assumed  some 
authority,  which  had  not  been  exercised  before, 
though  he  did  not  exceed  his  commission.  These 
causes  of  complaint,  together  with  a  controversy 
respecting  a  fixed  salary,  which  had  been  trans 
mitted  to  him  from  his  predecessors,  and  his 
opposition  to  the  land  bank  company,  finally  occa 
sioned  his  removal.  His  enemies  were  so  inveter 
ate,  and  so  regardless  of  justice  and  truth,  that, 
as  they  were  unable  to  find  real  grounds  for  im 
peaching  his  integrity,  they  forged  letters  for  the 
purpose  of  his  ruin.  They  accused  him  of  being 
a  friend  of  the  land  bank,  when  he  was  its  deter 
mined  enemy.  The  leading  men  of  New  Hamp 
shire,  who  wished  for  a  distinct  government,  were 
hostile  to  him  ;  and  his  resistance  to  a  proposed 
new  emission  of  paper  bills  also  created  him  ene 
mies.  On  being  superseded,  he  repaired  to  court, 
where  he  vindicated  his  character  and  conduct, 
and  exposed  the  base  designs  of  his  enemies.  He 
was  restored  to  the  royal  favor,  and  was  prom 
ised  the  first  vacant  government  in  America. 
This  vacancy  occurred  in  the  province  of  New 




Jersey,  where  he  arrived  in  1747,  and  where  he 
spent  the  remaining  years  of  his  life.  In  this 
province  his  memory  has  been  held  in  deserved 

When  he  first  arrived  in  this  province,  he  found 
it  in  the  utmost  confusion  by  tumults  and  riotous 
disorders,  which  had  for  some  time  prevailed. 
This  circumstance,  joined  to  the  unhappy  contro 
versy  between  the  two  branches  of  the  legislature, 
rendered  the  first  part  of  his  administration  pe 
culiarly  difficult ;  but  l;y  bis  firm  and  prudent  j 
measures  he  surmounted  the  difficulties  of  his  sit 
uation,  lie  steadily  pursued  the  interest  of  the 
province,  endeavoring  to  distinguish  and  promote 
men  of  worth  without  partiality.  lie  enlarged 
the  charter  of  Princeton  college,  and  was  its 
chief  patron  and  benefactor.  Even  under  the 
growing  infirmities  of  age,  he  applied  himself 
with  his  accustomed  assiduity  and  diligence  to  the 
high  duties  of  his  office.  lie  died  at  Elizabeth- 
town,  Aug.  31,  1757,  aged  70  years;  His  body 
was  brought  to  Cambridge,  Mass.,  where  it  was 
entombed.  His  eldest  son,  Andrew,  a  member  of 
the  council,  died  at  Milton  before  the  Revolution. 
In  the  opinion  of  Dr.  Elliot  he  did  not  inherit  the 
spirit  of  his  father. 

Gov.  Belcher  possessed  uncommon  gracefulness 
of  person  and  dignity  of  deportment.  He  obeyed 
the  royal  instructions  on  the  one  hand  and  exhib 
ited  a  real  regard  to  the  liberties  and  happiness 
of  the  people  on  the  other.  He  was  distin 
guished  by  his  unshaken,  integrity,  by  his  zeal  for 
justice,  and  care  to  have  it  equally  distributed. 
Neither  the  claims  of  interest  nor  the  solicitations 
of  friends  could  move  him  from  what  appeared  to 
be  lu's  duty.  He  seems  to  have  possessed,  in  ad 
dition  to  his  other  accomplishments,  that  piety, 
whose  lustre  is  eternal.  His  religion  was  not  a 
mere  formal  thing,  which  he  received  from  tra 
dition,  or  professed  in  conformity  to  the  custom 
of  the  country,  in  which  he  lived;  but  it  im 
pressed  his  heart,  and  governed  his  life.  He  had 
such  views  of  the  majesty  and  holiness  of  God, 
of  the  strictness  and  purity  of  the  divine  law,  and 
of  his  own  unworthiness  and  iniquity,  as  made 
him  disclaim  all  dependence  on  his  own  right 
eousness,  and  led  him  to  place  his  whole  hope  for 
salvation  on  the  merits  of  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ, 
who  appeared  to  liim  an  all-sufficient  and  glori 
ous  Saviour.  He  expressed  the  humblest  sense 
of  his  own  character  and  the  most  exalted  views 
of  the  rich,  free,  and  glorious  grace  offered  in  the 
gospel  to  sinners.  His  faith  worked  by  love,  and 
produced  the  genuine  fruits  of  obedience.  It  ex 
hibited  itself  in  a  life  of  piety  and  devotion,  of 
meekness  and  humility,  of  justice,  '.ruth,  and  be 
nevolence.  He  searched  the  holy  scriptures  with 
the  greatest  diligence  and  delight.  In  his  family 
he  maintained  the  worship  of  God,  liimself  read 

ing  the  volume  of  truth,  and  addressing  in  prayer 
the  Majesty  of  heaven  and  of  earth,  as  long  as 
his  health  and  strength  would  possibly  admit. 
In  the  hours  of  retirement  he  held  intercourse 
with  heaven,  carefully  redeeming  time  from  the 
business  of  this  world  to  attend  to  the  more  im 
portant  concerns  of  another.  Though  there  was 
nothing  ostentatious  in  his  religion,  yet  he  was 
not  ashamed  to  avow  his  attachment  to  the  gospel 
of  Christ,  even  when  he  exposed  himself  to 
ridicule  and  censure.  When  Mr.  Whitfield  was 
at  Boston  in  the  year  1740,  he  treated  that  elo 
quent  itinerant  with  the  greatest  respect.  He 
even  followed  him  as  far  as  Worcester,  and  re 
quested  him  to  continue  his  faithful  instructions 
and  pungent  addresses  to  the  conscience,  desiring 
him  to  spare  neither  ministers  nor  rulers.  He 
was  indeed  deeply  interested  in  the  progress  of 
holiness  and  religion.  As  he  approached  the 
termination  of  his  life,  he  often  expressed  his 
desire  to  depart  and  to  enter  the  world  of  glory. 
— Burr's  Funeral  Sermon;  Hutchinson,  II.  367- 
397;  Holmes,  II.  78;  Smith's  N.  J.,  437-438; 
Belknap's  N.  H.;  Whitfield's  Jour,  for  1743; 
Marshall,  I.  299;  Minot,  I.  61;  Elliot. 

BELCIIER,  JONATHAN,  chief  justice  of  Xova 
Scotia,  was  the  second  son  of  the  preceding,  and 
was  graduated  at  Harvard  college  in  1728.  He 
studied  law  at  the  temple  in  London  and  gained 
some  distinction  at  the  bar  in  England.  At  the 
settlement  of  Chebucto,  afterwards  called  Hali 
fax,  in  honor  of  one  of  the  king's  ministers,  he 
proceeded  to  that  place,  and  being  in  1760  senior 
councillor,  on  the  death  of  Gov.  Lawrence  he 
was  appointed  lieutenant-governor,  in  which  office 
he  was  succeeded  by  Col.  Wilmot  in  1763.  In 
1761  he  received  his  appointment  of  chief  justice  ; 
in  the  same  year,  as  commander  in  chief,  he  made 
a  treaty  with  the  Mirhnichi,  Jcdiuk,  and  I'ogi- 
nouch,  Mickmack  tribes  of  Indians.  He  died  at 
Halifax  March,  1776,  aged  60.  He  was  a  man 
of  prudence  and  integrity,  and  a  friend  of  New 
England.  In  17^6  he  married  at  Boston  the  sis 
ter  of  Jcrem.  Allen,  sheriff  of  Suffolk  ;  on  her 
death  in  1771  Mr.  Secomb  published  a  discourse, 
and  her  kinsman,  Dr.  Byles,  a  monody.  Andrew 
Belcher,  his  son,  was  a  distinguished  citizen  of 
Halifax  and  a  member  of  the  council  in  1801. 
A  daughter  married  Dr.  Timothy  L.  Jennison  of 
Cambridge,  Mass.  —  Mass.  Hist.  Coll.  V.  102  ; 
Jennison  ;  Eliot. 

BELDEX,  JOSHUA,  physician  of  Weathersfield, 
was  the  son  of  Rev.  Joshua  Belden  of  that  town, 
who  reached  the  age  of  90  years.  After  graduating 
at  Yale  college  in  1787,  he  studied  physic  with 
Dr.  L.  Hopkins.  Besides  his  useful  toils  as  a 
physician,  he  was  employed  in  various  offices  of 
public  trust.  He  was  a  zealous  supporter  of  all 
charitable  and  religious  institutions.  At  the  acre 


of  50  lie  fell  a  victim  suddenly  to  the  spotted 
fever,  June  6,1818.  —  Thacher's  Medical  Bioy- 

BELKXAP,  JEREMY,  1).  D.,  minister  in  Bos 
ton,  and  eminent  as  a  writer,  died  June  20,  1798, 
aired  54.  He  was  born  June  4,  1744,  and  was  a 
descendant  of  Joseph  Belknap,  who  lived  in  Bos 
ton  in  10,38.  He  received  the  rudiments  of  learn 
ing  in  the  grammar  school  of  the  celebrated  Mr. 
Lovel,  and  was  graduated  at  Harvard  college  in 
1762.  He  exhibited,  at  this  early  period,  such 
marks  of  genius  and  taste,  and  such  talents  in 
•writing  and  conversation,  as  to  excite  the  most 
pleasing  hopes  of  his  future  usefulness  and  dis 
tinction.  Having  upon  his  mind  deep  impressions 
of  the  truths  of  religion,  he  now  applied  himself 
to  the  study  of  theology,  and  he  was  ordained 
pastor  of  the  church  in  Dover,  N.  H.,  Feb.  18. 
1707.  Here  he  passed  near  twenty  years  of  his 
life,  with  the  esteem  and  affection  of  his  flock,  and 
respected  by  the  first  characters  of  the  state.  He 
was  persuaded  by  them  to  compile  his  history  of 
New  Hampshire,  which  gained  liim  a  high  repu 
tation.  In  1786  he  Avas  dismissed  from  his  peo 
ple.  The  Presbyterian  church  in  Boston  becom 
ing  vacant  by  the  removal  of  Mr.  Annan,  and 
having  changed  its  establishment  from  the  Pres- 
bvterian  to  the  Congregational  form,  soon  invited 
him  to  become  its  pastor.  He  was  accordingly 
installed  April  4,  1787.  Here  he  passed  the  re 
mainder  of  his  days,  discharging  the  duties  of 
his  pastoral  office,  exploring  various  fields  of  liter 
ature,  and  giving  his  efficient  support  to  every 
useful  and  benevolent  institution.  After  being 
subject  to  frequent  returns  of  ill  health  he  was 
suddenly  seized  by  a  fatal  paralytic  affection. 

Dr.  Belknap  in  his  preaching  did  not  possess 
the  graces  of  elocution,  nor  did  he  aim  at  splen 
did  diction ;  but  presented  his  thoughts  in  plain 
and  perspicuous  language,  that  all  might  under 
stand  him.  While  he  lived  in  Boston,  he  avoided 
controversial  subjects,  dwelling  chiefly  upon  the 
practical  views  of  the  gospel.  His  sermons  were 
filled  with  a  rich  variety  of  observations  on  human 
life  and  manners,  lie  was  peculiarly  careful  in 
giving  religious  instruction  to  young  children,  that 
their  feet  might  be  early  guided  in  the  way  of 
Hie.  In  the  afternoon  preceding  his  death,  he 
was  engaged  in  catechizing  the  youth  of  his  soci 
ety.  In  the  various  relations  of  life  his  conduct 
was  exemplary.  He  was  a  member  of  many  lit 
erary  and  humane  societies,  whose  interests  he 
essentially  promoted.  Wherever  he  could  be  of 
any  service,  he  freely  devoted  his  time  and  talents. 
He  was  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Massachusetts 
historical  society.  He  had  been  taught  the  value 
of  an  association,  whose  duty  it  should  be  to  col 
lect  and  preserve  manuscripts  and  bring  together 
the  materials  for  illustrating  the  history  of  our 



country;  and  he  had  the  happiness  of  seeing 
such  an  institution  incorporated  in  1794. 

Dr.  Belknap  gained  a  high  reputation  as  a  wri 
ter  ;  but  he  is  more  remarkable  for  the  patience 
and  accuracy  of  his  historical  researches,  than  for 
elegance  of  style.  His  deficiency  in  natural  sci 
ence,  as  manifested  in  his  history  of  New  Hamp 
shire,  is  rendered  more  prominent  by  the  rapid 
progress  of  natural  history  since  his  death.  His 
Foresters  is  not  only  a  description  of  American 
manners,  but  a  work  of  humor  and  wit,  which 
went  into  a  second  edition.  Before  the  llevolu- 
tion  he  wrote  much  in  lavor  of  freedom  and  his 
country,  and  he  afterwards  gave  to  the  public 
many  fruits  of  his  labors  and  researches.  His 
last  and  most  interesting  work,  his  American  Biog 
raphy,  he  did  not  live  to  complete.  He  was  a 
decided  advocate  of  our  republican  forms  of  gov 
ernment,  and  ever  was  a  warm  friend  of  the  con 
stitution  of  the  United  States,  which  he  consid 
ered  the  bulwark  of  our  national  security  and 
happiness.  He  was  earnest  in  his  wishes  and 
prayers  for  the  government  of  his  country,  and  in 
critical  periods  took  an  open  and  unequivocal, 
and,  as  far  as  professional  and  private  duties  al 
lowed,  an  active  part. 

The  following  extract  from  some  lines,  found 
among  his  papers,  expresses  his  choice  with  regard 
to  the  manner  of  his  death ;  and  the  event  corre 
sponded  with  his  wishes. 

When  faith  and  patience,  hope  and  love 
Have  made  us  meet  for  heaveu  above, 
How  blest  the  privilege  to  rise, 
Snatched  in  a  moment  to  the  skies  ! 
Unconscious,  to  resign  our  breath. 
Nor  taste  the  bitterness  of  death. 

Dr.  Belknap  published  a  sermon  on  military 
duty,  1772 ;  a  serious  address  to  a  parishioner 
upon  the  neglect  of  public  worship ;  a  sermon  on 
Jesus  Christ,  the  only  foundation  ;  election  ser 
mon,  1784;  history  of  New  Hampshire,  the  first 
volume  in  1784,  the  second  in  1791,  and  the  third 
in  1792  ;  a  sermon  at  the  ordination  of  Jedediah 
Morse,  1789;  a  discourse  in  1792,  on  the  com 
pletion  of  the  third  century  from  Columbus'  dis 
covery  of  America ;  dissertations  upon  the  char 
acter  and  resurrection  of  Christ,  12mo. ;  collec 
tion  of  psalms  and  hymns,  1795;  convention 
sermon,  1796 ;  a  sermon  on  the  national  fast, 
May  9,  1793 ;  American  biography,  first  volume 
in  1794,  the  second  in  1798;  the  foresters,  an 
American  tale,  being  a  sequel  to  the  history  of 
John  Bull,  the  clothier,  12mo.  He  published 
also  several  essays  upon  the  African  trade,  upon 
civil  and  religious  liberty,  upon  the  state  and  set 
tlement  of  this  country,  in  periodical  papers ;  in 
the  Columbian  magazine  printed  in  Philadelphia ; 
in  the  Boston  magazine,  1784;  in  the  historical 
collections;  and  in  newspapers.  Two  of  his 




sermons  on  the  institution  and  observation  of  the 
Sabbath  were  published  in  1801.  —  Mass.  Hist. 
Coll.  VI.  X.-XVlll. ;  Columbian  Cent.,  June  25, 
1798;  Polyantlws,l.  1-13. 

BELKNAP,  EZEKIEL,  died  in  Atkinson,  N.  II., 
Jan.  5,  1836,  aged  100  years  and  40  days;  an 
officer  in  the  Revolutionary  army.  He  was  the 
son  of  Moses,  who  died  in  1813,  aged  99,  and 
grandson  of  Hannah  B.,  who  died  aged  107. 

BELL,  JOHN,  a  distinguished  citizen  of  New 
Hampshire,  of  great  judgment,  decision,  and  in 
tegrity,  died  at  Londonderry,  Nov.  30,  1825,  aged 
95  years.  His  father,  John,  was  an  early  settler 
of  that  town.  During  the  llevolutionary  war  he 
was  a  leading  member  of  the  senate.  From  an 
early  age  he  was  a  professor  of  religion.  Two  of 
his  sons,  Samuel  and  John,  were  governors  of 
New  Hampshire ;  the  former  was  a  senator  of 
the  United  States.  His  grandson,  John  Bell,  son 
of  Samuel,  a  physician  of  great  promise,  died  at 
Grand  Caillon,  La.,  Nov.  27,  1830  aged  30. 

BELL,  SAMUEL,  governor,  died  in  Chester, 
N.  II.,  Dec.  23,  1850,  aged  81 ;  a  graduate  of  Dart 
mouth,  a  judge  of  the  superior  court  from  1816 
to  1819,  governor  from  1819  to  1823,  and  a  sen 
ator  in  congress  from  1823  to  1835. 

BELL,  JOHN,  governor  of  N.  II.  in  1828,  died 
at  Chester,  March  22,  1836. 

BELLAMONT,  RICHARD,  earl  of,  governor 
of  New  York,  Massachusetts,  and  New  Hamp 
shire,  was  appointed  to  these  offices  early  in  May, 
1095,  but  did  not  arrive  at  New  York  until  May, 
1698.  He  had  to  struggle  with  many  difficulties, 
for  the  people  were  divided,  the  treasury  was  un- 
supplicd,  and  the  fortifications  were  out  of  repair. 
Notwithstanding  the  care  of  government,  the 
pirates,  who  in  time  of  peace  made  great  depre 
dations  upon  Spanish  ships  and  settlements  in 
America,  were  frequently  in  the  sound,  and  were 
supplied  with  provisions  by  the  inhabitants  of 
Long  Island.  The  belief,  that  large  quantities  of 
money  were  hid  by  these  pirates  along  the  coast, 
led  to  many  a  fruitless  search  ;  and  thus  the  nat 
ural  credulity  of  the  human  mind  and  the  desire 
of  sudden  wealth  were  suitably  punished.  The 
Earl  of  Bellamont  remained  in  the  province  of 
New  York  about  a  year.  He  arrived  at  Boston 
May  26,  1699,  and  in  Massachusetts  he  was  re 
ceived  with  the  greatest  respect,  as  it  was  a  new 
thing  to  sec  a  nobleman  at  the  head  of  the  gov 
ernment.  Twenty  companies  of  soldiers  and  a 
vast  concourse  of  people  met  "  his  lordship  and 
countess  "  on  his  arrival.  "  There  were  all  man 
ner  of  expressions  of  joy,  and,  to  end  all,  firework 
and  good  drink  at  night."  He  in  return  took  ev 
ery  method  to  ingratiate  himself  with  the  people. 
He  was  condescending,  affable,  and  courteous 
upon  all  occasions.  Though  a  churchman,  he  at 
tended  the  weekly  lecUre  in  Boston  with  the  gen 
eral  court,  who  always  adjourned  for  the  purpose. 

For  the  preachers  he  professed  the  greatest 
regard.  By  his  wise  conduct  he  obtained  a  lar 
ger  sum  as  a  salary  and  as  a  gratuity,  than  any  of 
his  predecessors  or  successors.  Though  he  re 
mained  but  fourteen  months,  the  grants  made  to 
him  were  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  sev 
enty-five  pounds  sterling.  His  time  was  much 
taken  up  in  securing  the  pirates  and  their  effects, 
to  accomplish  which  was  a  principal  reason  of  his 
appointment.  During  his  administration  Capt. 
Kidd  was  seized,  and  sent  to  England  for  trial. 
Soon  after  the  session  of  the  general  court  in 
May,  1700,  he  returned  to  New  York,  where  he 
died  March  5,  1701.  He  had  made  himself  very 
popular  in  his  governments.  He  was  a  nobleman 
of  polite  manners,  a  friend  to  the  revolution, 
which  excited  so  much  joy  in  New  England,  and 
a  favorite  of  king  William.  Hutchinson,  who 
was  himself  not  unskilled  in  the  arts  of  popu 
larity,  seems  to  consider  his  regard  to  religion  as 
pretended,  and  represents  him  as  preferring  for 
his  associates  in  private  the  less  precise  part  of 
the  country.  As  the  earl  was  once  going  from 
the  lecture  to  his  house  with  a  great  crowd  around 
him,  he  passed  by  one  Bullivant,  an  apothecary, 
and  a  man  of  the  liberal  cast,  who  was  standing 
at  his  shop-door  loitering.  "  Doctor,"  said  the 
earl  with  an  audible  voice,  "  you  have  lost  a  pre 
cious  sermon  to-day."  Bullivant  whispered  to  one 
of  his  companions,  who  stood  by  him,  "  if  I  could 
have  got  as  much  by  being  there,  as  his  lordship 
will,  I  would  have  been  there  too."  However, 
there  seems  to  be  no  reason  to  distrust  the  sin 
cerity  of  Bellamont.  The  dissipation  of  his  early 
years  caused  afterwards  a  deep  regret.  It  is  said, 
that  while  residing  at  fort  George,  N.  Y.,  he 
once  a  week  retired  privately  to  the  chapel  to 
meditate  humbly  upon  his  juvenile  folly.  Such 
a  man  might  deem  a  sermon  on  the  method  of 
salvation  "  precious,"  without  meriting  from  the 
scoffer  the  charge  of  hypocrisy.  —  Hutchinson,  II. 
87,  108,  112-16,  121.  ' 

BELLAMY,  JOSEPH,  D.  D.,  an  eminent  min 
ister,  died  March  6,  1790,  aged  71,  in  the  fiftieth 
year  of  his  ministry.  lie  was  born  at  New  Che 
shire  in  1719,  and  was  graduated  at  Yale  college 
in  1735.  It  was  not  long  after  his  removal  from 
New  Haven,  that  he  became  the  subject  of  those 
serious  impressions,  which,  it  is  believed,  issued 
in  renovation  of  heart.  From  this  period  he 
consecrated  his  talents  to  the  evangelical  ministry. 
At  the  age  of  eighteen  he  began  to  preach  with 
acceptance  and  success.  An  uncommon  blessing 
attended  his  ministry  at  Bethlem  in  the  town  of 
Woodbury  ;  a  large  proportion  of  the  society  ap 
peared  to  be  awakened  to  a  sense  of  religion,  and 
they  were  unwilling  to  part  with  the  man,  by 
whose  ministry  they  had  been  conducted  to  a 
knowledge  of  the  truth.  He  was  ordained  to  the 
pastoral  office  over  this  church  in  1740.  In  this 




retirement  he  devoted  himself  with  uncommon 
ardor  to  his  studies  and  the  duties  of  his  office 
till  the  memorable  revival,  which  was  most  con 
spicuous  in  1742.  His  spirit  of  piety  was  then 
blown  into  a  flame  ;  he  could  not  be  contented  to 
confine  his  labors  to  his  small  society.  Taking 
care  that  his  own  pulpit  should  be  vacant  as  little 
as  possible,  he  devoted  a  considerable  part  of  his 
time  for  several  years  to  itinerating  in  different 
parts  of  Connecticut  and  the  neighboring  colonies, 
preaching  the  gospel  daily  to  multitudes,  who 
flocked  to  hear  him.  He  was  instrumental  in  the 
conversion  of  many.  When  the  awakening  de 
clined,  he  returned  to  a  more  constant  attention 
to  his  own  charge.  He  now  began  the  task  of 
writing  an  excellent  treatise,  entitled  true  religion 
delineated,  which  was  published  in  1750.  His 
abilities,  his  ardent  piety,  his  theological  knowl 
edge,  his  acquaintance  with  persons  under  all 
kinds  of  religious  impressions  qualified  him  pecu 
liarly  for  a  work  of  this  kind.  From  this  time 
he  became  more  conspicuous,  and  young  men, 
who  were  preparing  for  the  gospel  ministry,  ap 
plied  to  him  as  a  teacher.  In  tliis  branch  of  his 
work  he  was  eminently  useful  till  the  decline  of 
life,  when  he  relinquished  it.  His  method  of  in 
struction  was  the  following.  After  ascertaining  the 
abilities  and  genius  of  those,  who  applied  to  him, 
he  gave  them  a  number  of  questions  on  the  lead 
ing  and  most  essential  subjects  of  religion,  in  the 
form  of  a  system.  He  then  directed  them  to 
such  books  as  treat  these  subjects  with  the  great 
est  perspicuity  and  force  of  argument,  and  usually 
spent  his  evenings  in  inquiring  into  their  improve 
ments  and  solving  difficulties,  till  they  had  ob 
tained  a  good  degree  of  understanding  in  the 
general  system.  After  this,  he  directed  them  to 
write  on  each  of  the  questions  before  given 
them,  reviewing  those  parts  of  the  authors  which 
treated  on  the  subject  proposed.  These  disserta 
tions  were  submitted  to  his  examination.  As  they 
advanced  in  ability  to  make  proper  distinctions,  he 
led  them  to  read  the  most  learned  and  acute  op- 
posers  of  the  truth,  the  deistical,  arian,  and  socin- 
ian  writers,  and  laid  open  the  fallacy  of  their 
most  specious  reasonings.  When  the  system 
was  completed,  he  directed  them  to  write  on  sev 
eral  of  the  most  important  points  systematicallv, 
in  the  form  of  sermons.  He  next  led  them  to 
peruse  the  best  experimental  and  practical  dis 
courses,  and  to  compose  sermons  on  Hive  subjects. 
He  revised  and  corrected  their  compositions,  in 
culcating  the  necessity  of  a  heart  truly  devoted 
to  Christ,  and  a  life  of  watching  and  prayer  ;  dis 
coursing  occasionally  on  the  various  duties,  trials, 
comforts,  and  motives  of  the  evangelical  work ; 
that  his  pupils  might  be,  as  far  as  possible, 
"  scribes  well  instructed  in  the  kingdom  of  God." 
In  1786  Dr.  Bellamy  was  seized  by  a  paralytic 
affection,  from  which  he  never  recovered.  His 

first  wife,  Frances  Sherman  of  New  Haven,  whom 
he  married  about  1744,  died  in  1785,  the  mother 
of  seven  children.  Of  these  Jonathan  Bellamy, 
a  lawyer,  took  an  active  part  in  the  war,  and  died 
of  the  small  pox  in  1777  ;  and  Rebecca  married 
Rev.  Mr.  Hart.  His  eldest  son,  David,  died  at 
Bethlem  May,  1826,  aged  75.  His  second  wife 
was  the  relict  of  Rev.  Andrew  Storrs  of  Water- 

Dr.  Bellamy  "  was  a  large  and  well-built  man, 
of  a  commanding  appearance."  As  a  preacher, 
he  had  perhaps  no  superior,  and  very  few  equals. 
His  voice  was  manly,  his  manner  engaging  and 
most  impressive.  He  had  a  peculiar  faculty  of 
arresting  the  attention ;  he  was  master  of  his 
subject  and  could  adapt  himself  to  the  meanest 
capacity.  When  the  law  was  his  theme,  he  was 
awful  and  terrifying;  on  the  contrary,  in  the 
most  melting  strains  would  he  describe  the  suffer 
ings  of  Christ  and  his  love  to  sinners,  and  with 
most  persuasive  eloquence  invite  them  to  be  rec 
onciled  to  God. 

He  was  a  man  of  wit  and  humor.  He  and 
Mr.  Sanford  married  sisters.  B.  said  to  S.  in 
reference  to  their  different  manner  of  preaching, 
—  "  When  I  go  a  fishing,  I  have  a  suitable  pole, 
and  black  line,  and,  creeping  along,  keeping  my 
self  out  of  sight,  throw  my  hook  gently  into  the 
water ;  but  you,  with  a  white-peeled  pole,  and 
white  line,  march  up  boldly  to  the  bank,  and 
splash  in  your  hook  and  line,  crying  out,  '  Bite, 
you  dogs ! ' " 

In  his  declining  years  he  did  not  retain  his  pop 
ularity  as  a  preacher.  As  a  pastor  he  was  dili 
gent  and  faithful.  He  taught  not  only  publicly 
but  from  house  to  house.  He  was  particularly 
attentive  to  the  rising  generation.  Besides  the 
stated  labors  of  the  Lord's  day,  he  frequently 
spent  an  hour  in  the  intervals  of  public  worship 
in  catechising  the  children  of  the  congregation. 
In  a  variety  of  respects  Dr.  Bellamy  shone  with 
distinguished  lustre.  Extensive  science  and  ease 
of  communicating  his  ideas  rendered  him  one  of 
the  best  of  instructors.  His  writings  procured 
him  the  esteem  of  the  pious  and  learned  at  home 
and  abroad,  with  many  of  whom  he  maintained  an 
epistolary  correspondence.  In  his  preaching,  a 
mind  rich  in  thought,  a  great  command  of  lan 
guage,  and  a  powerful  voice  rendered  his  extem 
porary  discourses  peculiarly  acceptable.  He  was 
one  of  the  most  able  divines  of  this  country.  In 
his  sentiments  he  accorded  mainly  with  President 
Edwards,  with  whom  he  was  intimately  acquainted. 
From  comparing  the  first  chapter  of  John  with 
the  first  of  Genesis  he  was  led  to  believe,  and  he 
maintained,  that  the  God,  mentioned  in  the  latter 
as  the  Creator,  was  Jesus  Christ. 

He  published  a  sermon  entitled,  early  piety 
recommended;  true  religion  delineated,  1750; 
sermons  on  the  Divinity  of  Christ,  the  millennium, 




and  the  wisdom  of  God  in  the  permission  of  sin, 
1758 ;  letters  and  dialogues  on  the  nature  of  love 
to  God,  faith  in  Christ,  and  assurance,  1759 ;  essay 
on  the  glory  of  the  gospel ;  a  vindication  of  his 
sermon  on  the  wisdom  of  God  in  the  permission 
of  sin ;  the  law  a  schoolmaster ;  the  great  evil  of 
sin ;  election  sermon,  1762.  Besides  these,  he 
published  several  small  pieces  on  creeds  and  con 
fessions  ;  on  the  covenant  of  grace ;  on  church 
covenanting;  and  in  answer  to  objections  made 
against  his  writings.  The  following  are  the  titles 
of  some  of  these :  the  half-way  covenant,  1768 ; 
the  inconsistency  of  renouncing  the  half-way 
covenant  and  retaining  the  halt-way  practice ;  that 
there  is  but  one  covenant,  against  Moses  Mather. 
His  works,  in  2  vols.,  with  memoir  by  Dr.  T. 
Edwards,  were  published  by  Doct.  Tract.  Soc., 
Boston,  1830.  —  Brainerd's  Life,  22,  41,  43,  55; 
Trumbull,  II.  159;  Theol.  Mag.,  I.  5. 

BELLAMY,  SAMUEL,  a  noted  pirate,  in  his 
ship,  the  "VVhidah,  of  twenty-three  guns  and  one 
hundred  and  thirty  men,  captured  several  vessels 
on  the  coast  of  New  England;  but  in  April,  1717, 
he  was  wrecked  on  Cape  Cod.  The  inhabitants 
of  Wellfleet  still  point  out  the  place  of  the 
disaster.  More  than  one  hundred  bodies  were 
found  on  the  shore.  Only  one  Englishman  and 
one  Indian  escaped.  A  few  days  before,  the 
master  of  a  captured  vessel,  while  seven  pirates  on 
board  were  drunk,  ran  her  on  shore  on  the  back 
of  the  cape.  Six  of  the  pirates  were  executed  at 
Boston  in  November. 

BELLINGIIAM,  RICHARD,  governor  of  Massa 
chusetts,  was  a  native  of  England,  where  he  was 
bred  a  lawyer.  He  came  to  this  country  in  1634, 
and  August  3d  was  received  into  the  church,  with 
his  wife  Elizabeth,  and  in  the  following  year  was 
chosen  deputy  governor.  In  1641  he  was  elected 
governor,  in  opposition  to  Mr.  Winthrop,  by  a 
majority  of  six  votes;  but  the  election  did  not 
seem  to  be  agreeable  to  the  general  court.  He 
was  re-chosen  to  this  office  in  1654,  and  after  the 
death  of  Gov.  Endicot  was  again  elected  in  May, 
1665.  He  continued  chief  magistrate  of  Massa 
chusetts  during  the  remainder  of  his  life.  He 
was  deputy  governor  thirteen  years,  and  governor 
ten.  In  1664  he  was  chosen  major-general.  In 
this  year  the  king  scut  four  commissioners,  Nich 
ols,  Cartwright,  Carr,  and  Maverick,  to  regulate 
the  affairs  of  the  colonies.  A  long  account  of 
their  transactions  is  given  by  Hutchinson.  Bell- 
ingham  and  others,  obnoxious  to  the  king,  were 
required  to  go  to  England  to  answer  for  them 
selves  ;  but  the  general  court,  by  the  advice  of 
the  ministers,  refused  compliance  and  maintained 
the  charter  rights.  But  they  appeased  his  majesty 
by  sending  lu'm  "a  ship  load  of  masts."  He 
died  Dec.  7,  1672,  aged  80  years,  leaving  several 
children.  Of  his  singular  second  marriage  in 

1641  the  following  is  a  brief  history:  A  young 
gentlewoman  was  about  to  be  contracted  to  a 
friend  of  his,  with  his  consent,  "when  on  the 
sudden  the  governor  treated  with  her  and 
obtained  her  for  himself."  He  failed  to  publish 
the  contract  where  he  dwelt,  and  he  performed 
the  marriage  ceremony  himself.  The  great  in 
quest  presented  him  for  breach  of  the  order  of 
court;  but  at  the  appointed  time  of  trial,  not 
choosing  to  go  off  from  the  bench  and  answer  as 
an  offender,  and  but  few  magistrates  being  present, 
he  escaped  any  censure. 

His  excuse  for  this  marriage  was  "  the  strength 
of  his  affection."  In  his  last  will  he  gave  certain 
farms,  after  his  wife's  decease,  and  his  whole 
estate  at  Winisimet,  after  the  decease  of  his  son 
and  his  son's  daughter,  for  the  annual  encourage 
ment  of  "  godly  ministers  and  preachers,"  at 
tached  to  the  principles  of  the  first  church,  "  a 
main  o'ne  whereof  is,  that  all  ecclesiastical  juris 
diction  is  committed  by  Christ  to  each  particular 
organical  church,  from  which  there  is  no  appeal." 
The  general  court,  thinking  the  rights  of  his 
family  were  impaired,  set  aside  the  will.  His 
sister,  Anne  Hibbins,  widow  of  William  Hibbins, 
an  assistant,  was  executed  as  a  witch  in  June, 
1656.  Hubbard  speaks  of  Bellingham  as  "  a  very 
ancient  gentleman,  having  spun  a  long  thread  of 
above  eighty  years;"  "he  was  a  great  justiciary,  a 
notable  hater  of  bribes,  firm  and  fixed  in  any 
resolution  he  entertained,  of  larger  comprehension 
than  expression,  like  a  vessel,  whose  vent  holdeth 
no  good  proportion  with  its  capacity  to  contain,  a 
disadvantage  to  a  public  person."  He  did  not 
harmonize  with  the  other  assistants ;  yet  they 
respected  his  character  and  motives. 

Gov.  Bellingham  lived  to  be  the  only  surviving 
patentee  named  in  the  charter.  He  was  severe 
against  those  who  were  called  sectaries ;  but  he 
was  a  man  of  incorruptible  integrity,  and  of  ac 
knowledged  piety.  In  the  ecclesiastical  contro 
versy,  which  was  occasioned  in  Boston  by  the 
settlement  of  Mr.  Davenport,  he  was  an  advocate 
of  the  first  church.  —  Hutchinson,  I.  41,  43,  97, 
211,  269 ;  Neal's  Hist.,  I.  390 ;  Mather's  Mag.,  n. 
18;  Holmes,  I.  414;  Savaye's  Winthrop,  n.  43. 

BENEDICT,  NOAII,  minister  of  Woodbury, 
Conn.,  was  graduated  at  Princeton  college  in 
1757,  and  was  ordained  as  the  successor  of 
Anthony  Stoddard,  Oct.  22,  1760.  He  died  in 
Sept.,  1813,  aged  75.  He  published  a  sermon  on 
the  death  of  Dr.  Bellamy,  1790,  and  memoirs  of 
B.,  1811. 

BENEDICT,  JOEL,  D.  I).,  minister  of  Plain- 
field,  Conn.,  was  graduated  at  Princeton  college 
in  1765,  settled  at  Plainfield  in  1782,  and  died  in 
1816,  aged  71.  He  was  a  distinguished  Hebrew 
scholar;  and  for  his  excellent  character  he  was 
held  in  high  respect.  One  of  his  daughters 


married  Dr.  Nott,  president  of  Union  college. 
He  published  a  sermon  on  the  death  of  Dr.  Hart, 

BENEZET,  ANTHONT,  a  philanthropist  of 
Philadelphia,  died  May  3,  1784,  aged  71.  He 
was  born  at  St.  Quintals,  a  town  in  the  province 
of  Picardy,  France,  Jan.  31,  1713.  About  the 
time  of  lu's  birth  the  persecution  against  the 
Protestants  was  carried  on  with  relentless  se 
verity,  in  consequence  of  which  many  thousands 
found  it  necessary  to  leave  their  native  country, 
and  seek  a  shelter  in  a  foreign  land.  Among 
these  were  his  parents,  who  removed  to  London 
in  Feb.,  1715,  and,  after  remaining  there  upwards  of 
sixteen  years,  came  to  Philadelphia  in  Nov.,  1731. 
During  their  residence  in  Great  Britain  they  had 
imbibed  the  religious  opinions  of  the  Quakers, 
and  were  received  into  that  body  immediately 
after  their  arrival  in  this  country. 

In  the  early  part  of  his  life  Benezet  was  put  an 
apprentice  to  a  merchant ;  but  soon  after  his  mar 
riage  in  1722,  when  his  affairs  were  in  a  prosperous 
situation,  he  left  the  mercantile  business,  that  he 
might  engage  in  some  pursuit,  which  would  afford 
him  more  leisure  for  the  duties  of  religion  and  for 
the  exercise  of  that  benevolent  spirit,  for  which 
during  the  course  of  a  long  life  he  was  so  con 
spicuous.  But  no  employment,  which  accorded 
perfectly  with  his  inclination,  presented  itself  till 
the  year  1742,  when  he  accepted  the  appointment 
of  instructor  in  the  Friends'  English  school  of 
Philadelphia.  The  duties  of  the  honorable,  though 
not  very  lucrative,  office  of  a  teacher  of  youth  he 
from  this  period  continued  to  fulfil  with  unremit 
ting  assiduity  and  delight  and  with  very  little 
intermission  till  his  death.  During  the  two  last 
years  of  his  life  his  zeal  to  do  good  induced  him 
to  resign  the  school,  which  he  had  long  super 
intended,  and  to  engage  in  the  instruction  of  the 
blacks.  In  doing  this  he  did  not  consult  his 
worldly  interest,  but  was  influenced  by  a  regard 
to  the  welfare  of  men,  whose  minds  had  been 
debased  by  servitude.  He  wished  to  contribute 
something  towards  rendering  them  fit  for  the 
enjoyment  of  that  freedom,  to  which  many  of 
them  had  been  restored.  So  great  was  his 
sympathy  with  every  being  capable  of  feeling 
pain,  that  he  resolved  towards  the  close  of  his  life 
to  eat  no  animal  food.  His  active  mind  did  not 
yield  to  the  debility  of  his  body.  He  persevered 
in  his  attendance  upon  his  school  till  within  a  few 
days  of  his  decease. 

Such  was  the  general  esteem  in  which  he  was 
held,  that  his  funeral  was  attended  by  persons  of 
all  religious  denominations.  Many  hundred  ne 
groes  followed  their  friend  and  benefactor  to  the 
grave,  and  by  their  tears  they  proved  that  they 
possessed  the  sensibilities  of  men.  An  officer, 
who  had  served  in  the  army  during  the  war  with 
Britain,  observed  at  this  time,  "  I  would  rather 



be  Anthony  Benezet  in  that  coffin,  than  George 
Washington  with  all  his  fame."  He  exhibited 
uncommon  activity  and  industry  in  every  thing 
which  he  undertook.  He  used  to  say,  that  the 
highest  act  of  charity  was  to  bear  with  the  un 
reasonableness  of  mankind.  He  generally  wore 
plush  clothes,  and  gave  as  a  reason  for  it,  that, 
after  he  had  worn  them  for  two  or  three  years, 
they  made  comfortable  and  decent  garments  for 
the  poor.  So  disposed  was  he  to  malic  himself 
contented  in  every  situation,  that  when  his  mem 
ory  began  to  fail  him,  instead  of  lamenting  the 
decay  of  his  powers,  he  said  to  a  young  friend, 
"This  gives  me  one  great  advantage  over  you,  for 
you  can  find  entertainment  in  reading  a  good 
book  only  once ;  but  I  enjoy  that  pleasure  as  often 
as  I  read  it,  for  it  is  always  new  to  me."  Few 
men,  since  the  days  of  the  apostles,  ever  lived  a 
more  disinterested  life ;  yet  upon  his  death-bed 
he  expressed  a  desire  to  live  a  little  longer,  "  that 
he  might  bring  down  self."  The  last  time  he  ever 
walked  across  his  room  was  to  take  from  his  desk 
six  dollars,  which  he  gave  to  a  poor  widow,  whom 
he  had  long  assisted  to  maintain.  In  his  conver 
sation  he  was  affable  and  unreserved ;  in  his 
manners  gentle  and  conciliating.  For  the  acqui 
sition  of  wealth  he  wanted  neither  abilities  nor 
opportunity;  but  he  made  himself  contented  with 
a  little ;  and  with  a  competency  he  was  liberal  be 
yond  most  of  those,  whom  a  bountiful  Providence 
had  encumbered  with  riches.  By  his  will  he  de 
vised  lu's  estate,  after  the  decease  of  his  wife,  to 
certain  trustees  for  the  use  of  the  African  school. 
While  the  British  army  was  in  possession  of  Phila 
delphia,  he  was  indefatigable  in  his  endeavors  to 
render  the  situation  of  the  persons  who  suffered 
from  captivity,  as  easy  as  possible.  He  knew  no 
fear  in  the  presence  of  a  fellow  man,  however 
dignified  by  titles  or  station ;  and  such  was  the 
propriety  and  gentleness  of  his  manners  in  his 
intercourse  with  the  gentlemen,  who  commanded 
the  British  and  German  troops,  that,  when  he 
could  not  obtain  the  object  of  his  requests,  he 
•never  failed  to  secure  their  civilities  and  esteem. 
Although  the  life  of  Mr.  Benezet  was  passed  in 
the  instruction  of  youth,  yet  his  expansive  benevo 
lence  extended  itself  to  a  wider  sphere  of  useful 
ness.  Giving  but  a  small  portion  of  his  time  to 
sleep,  he  employed  his  pen  both  day  and  night  in 
writing  books  on  religious  subjects,  composed 
chiefly  with  a  view  to  inculcate  the  peaceable 
temper  and  doctrines  of  the  gospel,  in  opposition 
to  the  spirit  of  war,  and  to  expose  the  flagrant 
injustice  of  slavery,  and  fix  the  stamp  of  infamy 
on  the  traffic  in  human  blood.  His  writings  con 
tributed  much  towards  meliorating  the  condition 
of  slaves,  and  undoubtedly  had  influence  on  the 
public  mind  in  effecting  the  complete  prohibition 
of  that  trade,  which  until  the  year  1808  was  a 
blot  on  the  American  national  character.  In  order 




to  disseminate  his  publications  and  increase  his 
usefulness,  he  held  a  correspondence  with  such 
persons  in  various  parts  of  Europe  and  America, 
as  united  with  him  in  the  same  benevolent  design, 
or  would  be  likely  to  promote  the  objects,  which 
he  was  pursuing.  No  ambitious  or  covetous  views 
impelled  liim  to  his  exertions.  Regarding  all 
mankind  as  children  of  one  common  Father  and 
members  of  one  great  family,  he  was  anxious,  that 
oppression  and  tyranny  should  cease,  and  that 
men  should  live  together  in  mutual  kindness  and 
affection,  lie  himself  respected  and  he  wished 
others  to  respect  the  sacred  injunction  of  doing 
unto  others  as  they  would  that  others  should  do 
unto  them.  On  the  return  of  peace  in  1783,  ap 
prehending  that  the  revival  of  commerce  would  be 
likely  to  renew  the  African  slave  trade,  which 
during  the  war  had  been  in  some  measure  ob 
structed,  he  addressed  a  letter  to  the  queen  of 
Great  Britain,  to  solicit  her  influence  on  the  side 
of  humanity.  At  the  close  of  this  letter  he  says, 
"  I  hope  thou  wilt  kindly  excuse  the  freedom  used 
on  this  occasion  by  an  ancient  man,  whose  mind 
for  more  than  forty  years  past  has  been  much 
separated  from  the  common  course  of  the  world, 
long  painfully  exercised  in  the  consideration  of 
the  miseries  under  which  so  large  a  part  of  man 
kind,  equally  with  us  the  objects  of  redeeming 
love,  are  suffering  the  most  unjust  and  grievous 
oppression,  and  who  sincerely  desires  the  tem 
poral  and  eternal  felicity  of  the  queen  and  her 
royal  consort."  lie  published,  among  other  tracts, 
an  account  of  that  part  of  Africa  inhabited  by 
negroes,  1762 ;  a  caution  to  Great  Britain  and 
her  colonies,  in  a  short  representation  of  the  ca 
lamitous  state  of  the  enslaved  negroes  in  the 
British  dominions,  1707  ;  some  historical  account 
of  Guinea,  with  an  inquiry  into  the  slave  trade, 
1771;  a  short  account  of  the  society  of  Friends, 
1780;  a  dissertation  on  the  Christian  religion, 
1782;  tracts  against  the  use  of  ardent  spirits; 
observations  on  the  Indian  natives,  1784.  —  Rusk's 
Essays,  311-314;  Vaux's  Memoir;  New  and 
Gen.  Biog.  Diet. ;  Am.  Museum,  ix.  192-194. 

BENJAMIN,  NATHAN,  missionary,  died  at  Con 
stantinople  Jan.  27,  1855,  aged  43 ;  one  month 
after  the  death  of  Mrs.  Grant.  Born  in  Catskill, 
he  lived  in  Williamstown,  where  he  graduated  in 
1831,  and  at  Andover  in  1834.  He  married  Mary 
G.  Wheeler  of  New  York,  and  proceeded  to 
Argos  in  1836,  and  to  Athens  in  1838,  where  he 
labored  six  years,  chiefly  in  connection  with  the 
press.  In  1844  he  entered  upon  the  Armenian 
mission  at  Trebizond ;  but  the  ill  health  of  his 
wife  brought  him  to  America  in  1845. 

Being  summoned  to  a  new  mission,  he  arrived 
at  Smyrna  Dec.  7,  1847 ;  and  there  he  toiled  in 
the  printing  of  the  Bible  and  tracts  in  the  Arme 
nian.  The  printing  operations  were  transferred 

to  Constantinople  in  1852 ;  and  there  he  also 
preached  statedly  in  Greek  and  English.  Living 
at  Pera,  and  being  the  treasurer  of  the  mission, 
a  great  amount  of  business  fell  upon  him.  He 
died  of  the  typhus  fever ;  his  last  words  were, 
"Come,  Lord  Jesus;  come  quickly." — Mr.  B. 
had  a  large  share  of  common  sense,  a  sound 
judgment,  a  knowledge  of  books  and  of  men. 
By  printed  truth  he  will  preach  for  ages  to  thou 
sands  of  Armenians. 

BENNET,  DAVID,  a  physician,  was  born  in 
England  Dec.  1,  1615,  and  died  at  Rowley,  Mass., 
Feb.  4,  1719,  aged  103  years.  He  never  lost  a 
tooth.  His  senses  were  good  to  the  last.  His 
wife  was  the  sister  of  William  Phipps.  His  son, 
Spencer,  who  took  the  name  of  Phipps,  was 
graduated  in  1703,  was  lieut.  governor  of  Mass., 
and  died  April  4,  1757,  aged  72. — Farmer. 

BENNETT,  BARTLETT,  a  Baptist  minister,  died 
at  Cincinnati  Oct.  12,  1842,  aged  99.  He  was 
born  in  Albemarle  county,  Va.,  in  1743 ;  was  a 
preacher  at  the  age  of  25,  a  pioneer  of  Kentucky. 

BENSON,  EGBERT,  LL.  I).,  judge,  died  at 
Jamaica,  N.  Y.,  in  Aug.,  1833,  aged  86 ;  a  man 
of  learning  and  eminent  virtues.  He  was  a  grad 
uate  of  Columbia  college  in  1765,  a  member  of 
congress,  a  judge  of  the  supreme  court  of  New 
York,  and  of  the  circuit  court  of  the  United  States. 
He  wrote  remarks  on  "  The  Wife  "  of  Irving. 

BENTLEY,  WILLIAM,  D.  D.,  born  in  Bos 
ton,  graduated  at  Harvard  in  1777,  and  was 
ordained  over  the  second  church  of  Salem  Sept., 
1783.  He  died  suddenly  Dec.  29,  1819,  aged 
61.  In  his  theological  notions  he  was  regarded 
as  a  Socinian.  Some  of  his  sermons  were  re 
markably  deficient  in  perspicuity  of  style.  For 
nearly  twenty  years  he  edited  the  Essex  Register, 
a  newspaper,  which  espoused  the  democratic  side 
in  politics.  He  was  a  great  collector  of  books, 
and  much  conversant  with  ancient  branches  of 
learning,  admitting  of  little  practical  application. 
His  valuable  library  and  cabinet  he  bequeathed 
cliiefly  to  the  college  at  Meadville,  Pennsylvania, 
and  to  the  American  Antiquarian  society  at  Wor 
cester.  An  eulogy  was  pronounced  by  Prof.  E. 
Everett.  —  He  published  a  sermon  on  Matt.  7: 
21,  1790;  on  the  death  of  J.  Gardiner,  1791 ;  of 
Gen.  Fiske,  1797  ;  of  B.  Hodges,  1804 ;  collec 
tion  of  psalms  and  hymns,  1795 ;  three  masonic 
addresses  and  a  masonic  charge,  1797-1799;  at 
the  artillery  election,  1796 ;  at  ordination  of  J. 
Richardson,  1806 ;  before  the  female  charitable 
society  ;  at  the  election,  1807  ;  a  history  of  Salem 
in  Historical  Collections,  vol.  vn. 

BENTLEY,  WILLIAM,  an  eminent  Baptist 
minister,  died  at  Weathersfield  in  Jan.,  1856,  aged 

BERKELEY,  CARTER,  M.  D.,  died  in  Hano 
ver,  Va.,  Nov.  3,  1739,  aged  71,  —  while  feeling 




the  pulse  of  a  dying  patient.  He  was  a  descend 
ant  of  Sir  William  B. ;  a  distinguished  physician, 
a  benevolent  man  and  a  Christian. 

BERKELEY,  AVlLLlAM,  governor  of  Virginia, 
was  born  of  an  ancient  family  near  London  and 
was  educated  at  Merton  college,  in  Oxford,  of 
which  he  was  afterwards  a  fellow.  He  was  ad 
mitted  master  of  arts  in  1629.  In  1630  he 
travelled  in  different  parts  of  Europe.  He  is 
described  as  being  in  early  life  the  perfect  model 
of  an  elegant  courtier  and  a  high-minded  cavalier. 
He  succeeded  Sir  Francis  Wyatt  in  the  govern 
ment  of  Virginia  in  1641.  Some  years  after  his 
arrival  the  Indians,  irritated  by  encroachments 
on  their  territory,  massacred  about  five  hundred 
of  the  colonists.  This  massacre  occurred  about 
April  18,  1644,  soon  after,  as  Winthrop  says,  an 
act  of  persecution.  Sir  William  with  a  company 
of  horse  surprised  the  aged  Oppecancanough,  and 
brought  him  prisoner  to  Jamestown.  The  Indian 
emperor  was  a  man  of  dignified  sentiments.  One 
day,  when  there  was  a  large  crowd  in  his  room 
gazing  at  him,  he  called  for  the  governor,  and 
said  to  him,  "  If  it  had  been  my  fortune  to  have 
taken  Sir  William  Berkeley  prisoner,  I  should 
have  disdained  to  have  made  a  show  of  him  to 
my  people."  About  a  fortnight  after  he  was  taken, 
a  brutal  soldier  shot  him  through  the  back,  of 
which  wound  the  old  man  soon  died.  A  firm 
peace  was  soon  afterwards  made  with  the  Indians. 

During  the  civil  Avar  in  England  Gov.  Berkeley 
took  the  side  of  the  king,  and  Virginia  was  the 
last  of  the  possessions  of  England,  which  ac 
knowledged  the  authority  of  Cromwell.  Severe 
laws  were  made  against  the  Puritans,  though  there 
were  none  in  the  colony;  commerce  was  inter 
rupted;  and  the  people  were  unable  to  supply 
themselves  even  with  tools  for  agriculture.  It 
was  not  till  1651,  that  Virginia  was  subdued. 
The  parliament  had  sent  a  fleet  to  reduce  Barba- 
does,  and  from  this  place  a  small  squadron  was 
detached  under  the  command  of  Capt.  Denm's. 
The  Virginians,  by  the  help  of  some  Dutch  vessels 
which  were  then  in  the  port,  made  such  resistance, 
that  he  was  obliged  to  have  recourse  to  other 
means  besides  force.  He  sent  word  to  two  of  the 
members  of  the  council,  that  he  had  on  board  a 
valuable  cargo  belonging  to  them,  which  they  must 
lose,  if  the  protector's  authority  was  not  imme 
diately  acknowledged.  Such  dissensions  now 
took  place  in  the  colony,  that  Sir  William  and  his 
friends  were  obliged  to  submit  on  the  terms  of  a 
general  pardon.  He  however  remained  in  the 
country,  passing  his  time  in  retirement  at  his  own 
plantation,  and  observing  with  satisfaction,  that  the 
parliament  made  a  moderate  use  of  its  success, 
and  that  none  of  the  Virginia  royalists  were  per 
secuted  for  their  resistance. 

After  the  death  of  Gov.  Matthews,  who  was 
appointed  by  Cromwell,  the  people  applied  to  Sir 

William  to  resume  the  government ;  but  he  de 
clined  complying  with  their  request,  unless  they 
would  submit  themselves  again  to  the  authority 
of  the  king.  Upon  their  consenting  to  do  this, 
he  resumed  his  former  authority  in  January,  1659 ; 
i  and  King  Charles  II.  was  proclaimed  in  Virginia 
before  his  restoration  to  the  throne  of  England. 
I  The  death  of  Cromwell,  in  the  mean  time, 
dissipated  from  the  minds  of  the  colonists  the  fear 
of  the  consequences  of  their  boldness.  After  the 
restoration  Gov.  Berkeley  received  a  new  com 
mission  and  was  permitted  to  go  to  England  to 
pay  his  respects  to  his  majesty.  During  his 
absence  the  deputy  governor,  whom  he  had  ap 
pointed,  in  obedience  to  his  orders  collected  the 
laws  into  one  body.  The  church  of  England  was 
made  the  established  religion,  parishes  were  regu 
lated,  and,  besides  a  parsonage  house  and  glebe,  a 
,  yearly  stipend  in  tobacco,  to  the  value  of  eighty 
I  pounds,  was  settled  on  the  minister.  In  1662 
!  Gov.  Berkeley  returned  to  Virginia,  and  in  the 
following  year  the  laws  were  enforced  against  the 
dissenters  from  the  establishment,  by  which  a 
number  of  them  were  driven  from  the  colony. 
In  1667,  in  consequence  of  his  attempt  to  extend 
the  influence  of  the  council  over  certain  measures 
of  the  assembly,  he  awakened  the  fears  and  in 
dignation  of  the  latter  body.  From  this  period 
the  governor's  popularity  declined.  A  change 
also  was  observed  in  his  deportment,  which  lost 
its  accustomed  urbanity.  His  faithlessness  and 
obstinacy  may  be  regarded  as  the  causes  of 
Bacon's  rebellion  in  1076.  The  people  earnestly 
desired,  that  Bacon  might  be  appointed  general  in 
the  Indian  war ;  and  the  governor  promised  to 
give  him  a  commission,  but  broke  his  promise, 
and  thus  occasioned  the  rebellion.  As  his  obsti 
nacy  caused  the  rebellion,  so  his  revengeful  spirit, 
after  it  was  suppressed,  aggravated  the  evils  of  it 
by  the  severity  of  the  punishments  inflicted  on 
Bacon's  adherents.  Though  he  had  promised 
pardon  and  indemnity,  "  nothing  was  heard  of 
but  fines,  executions,  and  confiscations."  When 
the  juries  refused  to  aid  his  projects  of  vengeance, 
he  resorted  to  the  summary  proceedings  of 
martial  law.  The  assembly  at  length  restrained 
him  by  their  remonstrances.  Charles  II.  is  said 
to  have  remarked  concerning  him,  "The  old  fool 
has  taken  away  more  lives  in  that  naked  country, 
than  I  have  taken  for  the  murder  of  my  father." 
After  the  rebellion,  peace  was  preserved  not  so 
much  by  the  removal  of  the  grievances,  which 
i  awakened  discontent,  as  by  the  arrival  of  a  regi 
ment  from  England,  which  remained  a  long  time 
in  the  country. 

In  1677  Sir  William  was  induced,  on  account 
of  his  ill  state  of  health,  to  return  to  England, 
leaving  Col.  Jeffreys  deputy  governor.  He  died 
soon  after  his  arrival,  and  before  he  had  seen  the 
lung,  after  an  administration  of  nearly  forty 




years.  He  was  buried  at  Twickenham  July  13, 
1677.  The  following  extract  from  his  answer  in 
June,  1671,  to  inquiries  of  the  committee  for  the 
colonies,  is  a  curious  specimen  of  his  loyalty  : 
"  We  have  forty-eight  parishes  and  our  ministers 
are  well  paid,  and  by  my  consent  should  be 
better,  if  they  would  pray  oftener  and  preach  less ; 
but,  as  of  all  other  commodities,  so  of  this,  the 
worst  are  sent  us,  and  we  have  few,  that  we  can 
boast  of,  since  the  persecution  in  Cromwell's 
tyranny  drove  divers  worthy  men  hither.  Yet  I 
thank  God,  there  are  no  free  schools,  nor  printing ; 
and  I  hope  we  shall  not  have  these  hundred 
years.  For  learning  has  brought  disobedience, 
and  heresy,  and  sects  into  the  world,  and  printing 
has  divulged  them  and  libels  against  the  best 
government."  Thus  Sir  William,  of  a  very  differ 
ent  spirit  from  the  early  governors  of  New  Eng 
land,  seems  to  have  had  much  the  same  notion  of 
education  as  the  African  governor,  mentioned  by 
Robert  Southey  in  his  colloquies.  The  black 
prince  said,  he  would  send  his  son  to  England, 
that  he  might  learn  "  to  read  book  and  be  rogue.'' 
More  recently  Mr.  Giles  of  Virginia  expressed 
his  belief,  that  learning  was  become  too  general. 

He  published  the  lost  lady,  a  tragi-comedy, 
1639;  a  discourse  and  view  of  Virginia,  pp.  12. 
1663.  —  Keith's  Hist.  Virginia,  144-162 ;  Wynne, 
II.  216-224;  Holmes,  I.  293,  311;  Chalmers,  I. 
336,  337;  Wood's  Athence  Oxonienses,  II.  5865 
Sav.  Wintlirop,  n.  159,  165. 

BERKELEY,  GEOIIGE,  bishop  of  Cloyne  in 
Ireland,  and  a  distinguished  benefactor  of  Yale 
College,  was  born  March  12,  1684,  at  Kilcrin  in 
the  county  of  Kilkenny,  and  was  educated  at 
Trinity  college,  Dublin.  After  publishing  a  num 
ber  of  his  works,  which  gained  him  a  high  reputa 
tion,  particularly  liis  theory  of  vision,  he  travelled 
four  or  five  years  upon  the  continent.  He  re 
turned  in  1721,  and  a  fortune  was  soon  bequeathed 
him  by  Mrs.  Vanhomrigh,  a  lady  of  Dublin,  the 
"Vanessa"  of  Swift.  In  1724  he  was  promoted 
to  the  deanery  of  Derry,  worth  1 100  pounds  per 
annum.  Having  for  some  time  conceived  the 
benevolent  project  of  converting  the  savages  of 
America  to  Christianity  by  means  of  a  college  to 
be  erected  in  one  of  the  isles  of  Bermuda,  he 
published  a  proposal  for  this  purpose  at  London 
in  1725.  and  offered  to  resign  his  own  opulent 
preferment,  and  to  dedicate  the  remainder  of  his 
life  to  the  instruction  of  youth  in  America  on  the 
subsistence  of  100  pounds  a  year.  He  obtained 
a  grant  of  10,000  pounds  from  the  government 
of  Great  Britain,  and  immediately  set  sail  for  the 
field  of  his  labors.  He  arrived  at  Newport,  R.  I., 
in  Feb.,  1729,  with  a  view  of  settling  a  correspon 
dence  there  for  supplying  his  college  with  such 
provisions  as  might  be  wanted  from  the  northern 
colonies.  Here  he  purchased  a  country  seat  and 
farm  in  the  neighborhood  of  Newport,  and 

resided  about  two  years  and  a  half.  His  house, 
which  he  called  Whitehall,  still  remains,  situated 
half  a  mile  north-east  from  the  state  house.  To 
the  Episcopal  church  he  gave  an  organ  and  a 
small  library.  His  usual  place  of  study  was  a 
cliff  or  crag  near  his  dwelling.  His  residence  in 
this  country  had  some  influence  on  the  progress 
of  Literature,  particularly  in  Rhode  Island  and 
Connecticut.  The  presence  and  conversation  of  a 
man  so  illustrious  for  talents,  learning,  virtue, 
and  social  attractions  could  not  fail  of  giving  a 
spring  to  the  literary  diligence  and  ambition  of 
many,  who  enjoyed  his  acquaintance.  Finding, 
at  length,  that  the  promised  aid  of  the  ministry 
towards  his  new  college  would  fail  him,  Dean 
Berkeley  returned  to  England.  At  his  departure 
he  distributed  the  books,  which  he  had  brought 
with  him,  among  the  clergy  of  Rhode  Island. 
He  embarked  at  Boston  in  Sept.,  1731.  In  the 
following  year  he  published  his  minute  philosopher, 
a  work  of  great  ingenuity  and  merit,  which  he 
wrote  while  at  Newport.  It  was  not  long  before 
he  sent,  as  a  gift  to  Yale  college,  a  deed  of  the 
farm,  which  he  held  in  Rhode  Island ;  the  rents 
of  which  he  directed  to  be  appropriated  to  the 
maintenance  of  the  three  best  classical  scholars, 
who  should  reside  at  college  at  least  nine  months 
in  a  year  in  each  of  three  years  between  their 
first  and  second  degrees.  All  surplusages  of 
money,  arising  from  accidental  vacancies,  were  to 
be  distributed  in  Greek  and  Latin  books  to  such 
undergraduates,  as  should  make  the  best  compo 
sition  in  the  Latin  tongue  upon  such  a  moral 
theme  as  should  be  given  them.  lie  also  made 
a  present  to  the  library  of  Yale  college  of  nearly 
one  thousand  volumes.  AVhcn  it  is  considered, 
that  he  was  warmly  attached  to  the  Episcopal 
church,  and  that  he  came  to  America  for  the 
express  purpose  of  founding  an  Episcopal  college, 
his  munificence  to  an  institution,  under  the  exclu 
sive  direction  of  a  different  denomination,  must 
be  thought  worthy  of  high  praise.  It  was  in  the 
year  1733  that  he  was  made  bishop  of  Cloyne ; 
and  from  this  period  he  discharged  with  exemplary 
faithfulness  the  episcopal  duties,  and  prosecuted 
his  studies  with  unabating  diligence.  On  the 
14th  of  January,  1753,  he  was  suddenly  seized  at 
Oxford,  whither  he  had  removed  in  1752,  by  a 
disorder  called  the  palsy  of  the  heart,  and 
instantly  expired,  being  nearly  sixty-nine  years  of 
age.  Pope  ascribes 

"  To  Berkeley  every  virtue  under  heaven." 

His  fine  portrait  by  Smibert,  with  his  family  and 
the  artist  himself,  will  be  contemplated  with  de 
light  by  all,  who  visit  Yale  college.  Bishop 
Berkeley,  while  at  Cloyne,  constantly  rose  between 
three  and  four  in  the  morning.  His  favorite 
author  was  Plato.  His  character,  though  marked 
by  enthusiasm,  was  singularly  excellent  and  amia- 


ble.  lie  was  held  by  his  acquaintance  in  the 
highest  estimation.  Bishop  Atterbury,  after  be 
ing  introduced  to  him,  exclaimed,  "  so  much  un 
derstanding,  so  much  knowledge,  so  much  inno 
cence,  and  such  humility  I  did  not  think  had  been 
the  portion  of  any  but  angels,  till  I  saw  this  gen 
tleman."  It  is  well  known,  that  Bishop  Berkeley 
rejected  the  commonly  received  notion  of  the  ex 
istence  of  matter,  and  contended,  that  what  arc 
called  sensible  material  objects  are  not  external 
but  exist  in  the  mind,  and  are  merely  impressions 
made  upon  our  mind  by  the  immediate  act  of 
God.  These  peculiar  sentiments  he  supported  in 
his  work,  entitled,  the  principles  of  human  knowl 
edge,  1710,  and  in  the  dialogues  between  Ily- 
las  and  Philonous,  1713.  Besides  these  works, 
and  the  minute  philosopher,  in  which  he  attacks 
the  free  thinker  with  great  ingenuity  and  effect, 
he  published,  also,  arithmetica  absque  algebra 
aut  Euclide  demonstrata,  1707;  theory  of  vision, 
1709;  de  motu,  1721;  an  essay  towards  prevent 
ing  the  ruin  of  Great  Britain,  1721 ;  the  analyst, 
1734 ;  a  defence  of  free  thinking  in  mathematics, 
1735  ;  the  querist,  1735  ;  discourse  addressed  to 
magistrates,  1736;  on  the  virtues  of  tar  water, 
1741;  maxims  concerning  patriotism,  1750. — 
Chandler's  Life  of  Johnson,  47-60 ;  Miller,  II. 
349  ;  fiees'  Cycl. ;  Holmes,  n.  53. 

BERKLEY,  ALEXANDER,  died  at  Lynchburg, 
Va.,  Oct.  25,  1825,  aged  114:  his  wife  died  Jan. 
9,  1825,  aged  111. 

BERKLEY,  NORBORNE,  baron  de  Botetourt, 
one  of  the  last  governors  of  Virginia  while  a 
British  colony,  obtained  the  peerage  of  Botetourt 
in  1764.  In  July,  1768,  he  was  appointed  gov 
ernor  of  Virginia  in  the  place  of  Gen.  Amherst. 
He  died  at  Williamsburg  Oct  15,  1770,  aged  52. 
At  his  death  the  government,  in  consequence  of 
tire  resignation  of  John  Blair,  devolved  upon 
William  Nelson,  until  the  appointment  in  Decem 
ber  of  Lord  Dunmore,  then  governor  of  New 
York.  Lord  Botetourt  seems  to  have  been  highly 
respected  in  Virginia.  His  exertions  to  promote 
the  interests  of  William  and  Mary  college  were 
zealous  and  unremittcd.  He  instituted  an  annual 
contest  among  the  students  for  two  golden  med-  \ 
als  of  the  value  of  five  guineas ;  one  for  the  best 
Latin  oration  on  a  given  subject,  and  the  other  for 
superiority  in  mathematical  science.  For  a  long 
time  he  sanctioned  by  his  presence  morning  and 
evening  prayers  in  the  college.  No  company 
nor  avocation  prevented  his  attendance  on  this 
service.  He  was  extremely  fond  of  literary  char 
acters.  No  one  of  this  class,  who  had  the  least 
claims  to  respect,  was  ever  presented  to  him 
without  receiving  his  encouragement.  —  Miller, 
II.  378;  Boston  Gazette,  Nov.  12,  1770;  Mar 
shall,  IT.  130. 

BERNARD,  FRANCIS,  governor  of  Massachu 
setts,  was  the  governor  of  New  Jersey,  after  Gov. 



Belcher,  in  1758.  He  succeeded  Gov.  Fownall 
of  Massachusetts,  in  1760.  Arriving  at  Boston 
Aug.  2d,  he  continued  at  the  head  of  the  govern 
ment  nine  years.  His  administration  was  during 
one  of  the  most  interesting  periods  in  American 
history.  He  had  governed  New  Jersey  two  years 
in  a  manner  very  acceptable  to  that  province,  and 
the  first  part  of  his  administration  in  Massachu 
setts  was  very  agreeable  to  the  general  court. 
Soon  after  his  arrival  Canada  was  surrendered  to 
Amherst.  Besides  voting  a  salary  of  1300  pounds, 
they  made  to  him  at  the  first  session  a  grant  of  Mt. 
Desert  Island,  which  was  confirmed  by  the  king. 
Much  harmony  prevailed  for  two  or  three  years  ; 
but  this  prosperous  and  happy  commencement 
did  not  continue.  There  had  long  been  two  par 
ties  in  the  State,  the  advocates  for  the  crown,  and 
the  defenders  of  the  rights  of  the  people.  Gov. 
Bernard  was  soon  classed  with  those,  who  were 
desirous  of  strengthening  the  royal  authority  in 
America ;  the  sons  of  liberty  therefore  stood 
forth  uniformly  in  opposition  to  him.  His  indis 
cretion  in  appointing  Mr.  Ilutchinson  chief  jus 
tice,  instead  of  giving  that  office  to  Col.  Otis  of 
Barnstable,  to  whom  it  had  been  promised  by 
Shirley,  proved  very  injurious  to  his  cause.  In 
consequence  of  this  appointment  he  lost  the  influ 
ence  of  Col.  Otis,  and  by  yielding  himself  to  Mr. 
Ilutchinson  he  drew  upon  him  the  hostility  of 
James  Otis,  the  son,  a  man  of  great  talents,  who 
soon  became  the  leader  on  the  popular  side.  The 
laws  for  the  regulation  of  trade  and  the  severities 
of  the  officers  of  customs  were  the  first  things 
which  greatly  agitated  the  public  mind ;  and  af 
terwards  the  stamp  act  increased  the  energy  of 
resistance  to  the  schemes  of  tyranny.  Gov.  Ber 
nard  possessed  no  talent  for  conciliating ;  he  was 
for  accomplishing  ministerial  purposes  by  force  ; 
and  the  spirit  of  freedom  gathered  strength  from 
the  open  manner  in  which  he  attempted  to  crush 
it.  His  speech  to  the  general  court  after  the  re 
peal  of  the  stamp  act  was  by  no  means  calculated 
to  assuage  the  angry  passions  which  had  lately 
been  excited.  He  was  the  principal  means  of 
bringing  the  troops  to  Boston,  that  he  might 
overawe  the  people ;  and  it  was  owing  to  him, 
that  they  were  continued  in  the  town.  This 
measure  had  been  proposed  by  him  and  Mr. 
Ilutchinson  long  before  it  was  executed.  While 
he  professed  himself  a  friend  to  the  province,  he 
was  endeavoring  to  undermine  its  constitution, 
and  to  obtain  an  essential  alteration  in  the  char 
ter,  by  transferring  from  the  general  court  to  the 
crown  the  right  of  electing  the  council.  His 
conduct,  though  it  drew  upon  him  the  indigna 
tion  of  the  province,  was  so  pleasing  to  the  min 
istry,  that  he  was  created  a  baronet  March  20, 
1769.  Sir  Francis  had  too  little  command  of  his 
temper.  He  could  not  conceal  his  resentments, 
and  he  could  not  restrain  his  censures.  One  of 




his  last  public  measures  was  to  prorogue  the  gen 
eral  court  in  July,  in  consequence  of  their  refusing 
to  make  provision  for  the  support  of  the  troops. 
The  general  court,  however,  before  they  were  pro 
rogued,  embraced  the  opportunity  of  drawing  up 
a  petition  to  his  majesty  for  the  removal  of  the 
governor.  It  was  found  necessary  to  recall  him, 
and  he  embarked  Aug.  1,  1769,  leaving  Mr. 
Hutchinson,  the  lieutenant-governor,  commander 
in  chief.  There  were  few  who  lamented  his  de 
parture.  He  died  in  England  in  June,  1779. 
His  second  son,  Sir  John  B.,  who  held  public  offi 
ces  in  Barbadoes  and  St.  Vincent's,  died  in  1809; 
his  third  son,  Sir  Thomas  B.,  was  graduated  at 
Harvard  college  in  1767,  and  marrying  in  Eng 
land  a  lady  of  fortune,  the  daughter  of  Patrick 
Adair,  devoted  much  of  his  time  to  various  benev 
olent  institutions  in  London,  so  as  to  gain  the 
reputation  of  a  philanthropist ;  he  died  July  1, 
1818  :  his  publications,  chiefly  designed  to  im 
prove  the  common  people,  were  numerous. 

The  newspapers  were  very  free  in  the  ridicule 
of  the  parsimony  and  domestic  habits  of  Bernard. 
But  he  was  temperate,  a  friend  to  literature,  and 
a  benefactor  of  Harvard  college,  exerting  himself 
for  its  relief  after  the  destruction  of  the  library 
by  fire.  He  was  himself  a  man  of  erudition,  be 
ing  conversant  with  books,  and  retaining  the 
striking  passages  in  his  strong  memory.  He 
said,  that  he  could  repeat  the  whole  of  Shak- 
speare.  Believing  the  Christian  religion,  he 
attended  habitually  public  worship.  Though 
attached  to  the  English  church,  when  he  resided 
at  Roxbury,  he  often  repaired  to  the  nearest  Con 
gregational  meeting,  that  of  Brookline. 

If  a  man  of  great  address  and  wisdom  had 
occupied  the  place  of  Sir  Francis,  it  is  very  prob 
able,  that  the  American  Revolution  would  not 
have  occurred  so  soon.  But  his  arbitrary  princi 
ples  and  his  zeal  for  the  authority  of  the  crown 
enkindled  the  spirit  of  the  people,  while  his  rep 
resentations  to  the  ministry  excited  them  to  those 
measures,  which  hastened  the  separation  of  the 
colonies  from  the  mother  country. 

From  the  letters  of  Gov.  Bernard,  which  were 
obtained  and  transmitted  to  this  country  by  Mr. 
Bollan,  it  appears,  that  he  had  very  little  regard 
to  the  interests  of  liberty.  His  select  letters  on 
the  trade  and  government  of  America,  written  in 
Boston  from  1763  to  1768,  were  published  in 
London  in  1774.  His  other  letters,  written  home 
in  confidence,  were  published  in  1768  and  1769. 
He  wrote  several  pieces  in  Greek  and  Latin  in 
the  collection  made  at  Cambridge,  styled,  "  Pietas 
et  Gratulatio,"  1761.  — Minofs  Hist.  Mass.  i.  73- 
222;  Gordon,  I.  139,  272-274;  Marshall,  II. 
96,  114;  Eliot. 

BERRIEN,  JOHN  MACTHERSON,  attorney-gen 
eral  of  U.  S.,  died  at  Savannah  Jan.  1,  1856  :  he 

had  been  a  senator.     A  speech  of  his  is  in  Willis- 
ton's  "  Eloquence." 

BERRY,  JOHN,  died  on  Peterson's  Creek,  Va., 
in  1845,  aged  101  :  he  was  a  soldier  in  various 

BETHUXE,  DIVIE,  an  eminent  philanthropist 
and  Christian,  was  born  at  Dingwall,  Rosshire, 
Scotland,  in  1771.  In  early  life  he  resided  at 
Tobago,  where  his  only  brother  was  a  physician. 
At  the  command  of  his  pious  mother  he  left  the 
irreligious  island  and  removed  to  the  United 
States  in  1792,  and  settled  as  a  merchant  in  New 
York.  He  soon  joined  the  church  of  Dr.'  Mason  ; 
in  1802  became  one  of  its  elders.  He  died  Sept. 
18,  1824.  His  wife  was  the  daughter  of  Isabella 
Graham.  Before  a  tract  society  was  formed  in 
this  country  Mr.  Bethune  printed  ten  thousand 
tracts  at  his  own  expense,  and  himself  distributed 
many  of  them.  He  also  imported  Bibles  for  dis 
tribution.  From  1803  to  1816  he  was  at  the  sole 
expense  of  one  or  more  Sunday  schools.  The 
tenth  of  his  gains  he  devoted  to  the  service  of 
his  heavenly  Master.  In  his  last  sickness  he  said  : 
"  I  wish  my  friends  to  help  me  through  the  val 
ley  by  reading  to  me  the  word  of  God.  I  have 
not  read  much  lately  but  the  Bible :  the  Bible  ! 
the  Bible  !  I  want  nothing  but  the  Bible  !  O, 
the  light,  that  has  shined  into  my  soul  through 
the  Bible  !"  His  end  was  peace.  Such  a  bene 
factor  of  the  human  family  is  incomparably  more 
worthy  of  remembrance,  than  the  selfish  philoso 
phers  and  the  great  warriors  of  the  earth.  — 
N.  Y.  Observer ;  Boston  Recorder,  Oct.  16. 

BETTS,  THADDEUS,  died  at  Norwalk,  Conn., 
April  7,  1840.  He  was  a  graduate  of  Yale  of 
1807,  a  lawyer  of  eminence,  lieutenant-governor, 
and  senator  of  the  U.  S. 

BEVERIDGE,  JOHN,  a  poet,  was  a  native  of 
Scotland.  In  1758  he  was  appointed  professor  of 
languages  in  the  college  and  academy  of  Phila 
delphia.  He  published  in  1765  a  volume  of 
Latin  poems,  entitled,  "  Epistokc  familiares  et 
alia  quaedam  miscellanea."  In  an  address  to  John 
Pcnn  he  suggests,  that  a  conveyance  to  him  of 
some  few  acres  of  good  land  would  be  a  proper 
return  for  the  poetic  mention  of  the  Pcnn  family. 
The  Latin  hint  was  lost  upon  the  Englishman. 
The  unrewarded  poet  continued  to  ply  the  birch 
in  the  vain  attempt  to  govern  seventy  or  eighty 
ungovernable  boys.  —  Mem.  Hist.  Soc.  of  Penn., 
I.  145. 

BEVERLY,  ROBERT,  a  native  of  Virginia, 
died  in  1716.  He  was  clerk  of  the  council  about 
1697,  when  Andros  was  governor,  with  a  salary  of 
50  pounds  and  perquisites.  Intimately  associated 
with  the  government,  his  views  of  public  measures 
were  influenced  by  his  situation.  His  book  was 
written  by  a  man  in  office.  Peter  Beverly  was  at 
the  same  time  clerk  of  the  house  of  burgesses. 




Mr.  Beverly  published  a  history  of  that  colony, 
London,  1705,  in  .four  parts,  embracing  the  first 
settlement  of  Virginia  and  the  government  there 
of  to  the  time  when  it  was  written ;  the  natural 
productions  and  conveniences  of  the  country, 
suited  to  trade  and  improvement ;  the  native  In 
dians,  their  religion,  laws,  and  customs ;  and  the 
state  of  the  country  as  to  the  policy  of  the  gov 
ernment  and  the  improvements  of  the  land. 
Another  edition  was  published  with  Gnbelin'a 
cuts,  Svo.  1722 ;  and  a  French  translation,  with 
plates,  Amsterd.,  1707.  This  work  in  the  histor 
ical  narration  is  as  concise  and  unsatisfactory,  as 
the  history  of  Stith  is  prolix  and  tedious. 

BEVERLY,  CARTER,  a  distinguished  Virgin 
ian,  died  at  Fredericksburg  Feb.  10,  1844,  aged 

BIART,  PIERRE,  a  Jesuit  missionary,  came 
from  France  to  Port  1  loyal  in  June,  1611.  Of 
his  voyage  and  events  at  Acadia  he  made  a  rela 
tion,  in  which  Charlcvoix  confides  more  than  in 
the  memoirs  used  by  De  Laet  to  decry  the 
Jesuits.  Biart  gave  the  name  of  Souriquois  to 
the  Indians  afterwards  called  Micmacks.  In  1G12 
he  ascended  the  Kim'bequi  or  Kennebec,  and  was 
well  received  by  the  Canibas,  formerly  called  the 
Canibequi,  a  nation  of  the  Abenaquis,  from  whom 
the  name  of  the  river  is  derived.  This  visit  was 
soon  after  the  attempted  establishment  of  the 
English  under  Popham  at  the  mouth  of  the  Ken 
nebec.  He  was  followed  by  Dreuillettes  in  1640. 
Biart  obtained  provisions  for  Port  Royal.  In 
1613  he  repaired  to  the  Penobscot,  to  the  settle 
ment  called  S.  Sauveur.  According  to  Charlcvoix 
he  performed  a  miracle  in  healing  by  baptism  a 
sick  Malecite  Indian  child.  But  the  miraculous 
powers  of  the  Jesuit  failed  him  on  the  arrival  of 
Argall,  who  took  him  prisoner  and  carried  him 
to  Virginia  and  England. —  Ckarlec.  l.  131; 
Maine  Hist.  Coll.,  I.  325. 

BIBB,  WILLIAM  W.,  governor  of  Alabama, 
was  a  representative  from  Georgia  from  1813  to 
1815.  He  was  appointed  in  1817  governor  of 
the  territory  of  Alabama,  and  under  the  consti 
tution  of  the  State  was  elected  the  first  governor 
in  1819.  He  died  at  his  residence  near  fort 
Jackson  July  9,  1820,  aged  39  years,  and  was  suc 
ceeded  by  Israel  Pickens.  He  was  highly  re 
spected  for  his  talents  and  dignity  as  a  states 
man  ;  and  in  private  life  was  condescending,  affa 
ble  and  kind. 

BIDDLE,  NICHOLAS,  a  naval  commander,  was 
born  in  Philadelphia  Sept.  10,  1750.  In  sailing 
to  the  West  Indies  in  1765  he  was  cast  away. 
The  long  boat  being  lost  and  the  yawl  not  being 
large  enough  to  carry  away  all  the  crew,  he  and 
three  others  were  left  by  lot  two  months  in  mis 
ery  on  an  island,  which  was  uninhabited.  His 
many  voyages  made  him  a  thorough  seaman.  In 
1770  he  went  to  London  and  entered  the  British 

navy.  When  Capt.  Phipps,  afterwards  Lord  Mul- 
grave,  was  about  to  sail  on  his  exploring  expedi 
tion,  Biddle,  then  a  midshipman,  absconded  from 
his  own  ship  and  entered  on  board  the  Carcass 
before  the  mast.  Horatio  Nelson  was  on  board 
the  same  vessel.  After  the  commencement  of  the 
Revolution  he  returned  to  Philadelphia.  Being 
appointed  commander  of  the  Andrew  Doria,  a 
brig  of  14  guns  and  130  men,  he  sailed  under 
Com.  Hopkins  in  the  successful  expedition  against 
Xew  Providence.  After  refitting  at  New  London, 
he  was  ordered  to  proceed  off  the  banks  of  New 
foundland.  He  captured  in  1776,  among  other 
prizes,  two  ships  from  Scotland  with  four  hundred 
Highland  troops.  Being  appointed  to  the  com 
mand  of  the  Randolph,  a  frigate  of  thirty-two 
guns,  he  sailed  from  Philadelphia  in  Feb.,  1777. 
lie  soon  carried  into  Charleston  four  valuable  pri 
zes,  one  of  them  the  True  Briton  of  twenty  guns. 
A  little  fleet  was  now  fitted  out  under  his  com 
mand,  with  which  he  cruised  in  the  West  Indies. 
In  an  action  with  the  British  ship  Yarmouth  of 
sixty-four  guns  March  7,  1778,  Capt.  Biddle  was 
wounded,  and  a  few  minutes  afterwards,  while  he 
was  under  the  hands  of  the  surgeon,  the  Ran 
dolph  with  a  crew  of  three  hundred  and  fifteen 
blew  up,  and  he  and  all  his  men,  but  four,  per 
ished.  The  four  men  were  tossed  about  four 
days  on  a  piece  of  the  wreck,  before  they  were 
taken  up.  The  other  vessels  escaped,  from  the 
disabled  condition  of  the  Yarmouth.  Capt.  Bid- 
die  was  but  27  years  of  age.  He  had  displayed  the 
qualities  requisite  for  a  naval  commander, — 
skill,  coolness,  self-possession,  courage,  together 
with  humanity  and  magnanimity.  His  temper 
was  cheerful.  Believing  the  gospel,  his  religious 
impressions  had  a  powerful  influence  upon  his  con 
duct.  He  was  a  brother  of  the  late  Judge  Biddle. 
—  Rogers  ;  Biog.  Americana. 

BIDDLE,  THOMAS,  was  a  captain  of  artillery 
in  the  campaigns  on  the  Niagara  in  1813  and  1814. 
He  served  under  Gen.  Scott  at  the  capture  of 
Fort  George.  In  the  battle  of  Lundy's  lane  he 
brought  off  a  piece  of  the  enemy's  artillery. 
After  the  Avar,  with  the  brevet  rank  of  major,  he 
removed  to  St.  Louis,  Missouri,  and  was  paymas 
ter  in  the  army.  He  was  shot  in  a  duel  with 
Spencer  Pettis,  a  member  of  congress,  and  died 
Aug.  29,  1831,  at  the  age  of  41.  The  history  of 
this  affair  is  the  history  of  consummate  folly,  dis 
creditable  pusillanimity,  and  hardened  depravity. 
Political  controversy  was  the  origin  of  the  duel. 
Biddle  had  anonymously  abused  Pettis  in  the 
newspapers ;  tin's  led  to  a  retort  of  hard  words. 
Next,  Biddle  assaulted  Pettis  when  he  was  asleep, 
with  a  cowskiii.  Bonds  were  imposed  on  Biddle 
for  the  preservation  of  the  peace.  At  last  the 
friends  of  Mr.  Pettis  urged  him  and  constrained 
him  to  challenge  his  chastiser  and  to  hazard  his 
life  and  soul  in  the  attempt  of  mutual  murder. 



The  distance  chosen  by  Biddle,  who  was  near 
sighted,  was  five  feet,  so  that  the  pistols  would 
overlap  each  other,  making  death  apparently  cer 
tain  to  both :  accordingly  both  fell,  Friday,  Aug. 
26th,  and  soon  their  spirits  went  into  eternity 
with  the  guilt  of  blood.  Pettis  died  on  Saturday 
and  Biddle  on  [Monday.  The  promoters  of  this 
duel  must  be  regarded  as  sharers  in  the  guilt. 
Dean  Swift  remarked,  "None  but  fools  fight 
duels,  and  the  sooner  the  world  is  rid  of  such 
folks,  the  better."  It  will  be  well  for  those,  who 
call  themselves  men  of  honor,  and  well  for  their 
miserable  families,  if  they  shall  learn  to  fear  the 
judgment  of  God  rather  than  the  sneers  of  un 
principled  men,  and  if  they  shall  learn  to  abstain 
from  calumny,  to  forgive  injuries,  and  to  love  a 
brother.  —  N.  Y.  Mercury,  iv.  9. 

BIDDLE,  NICHOLAS,  died  at  Andalusia,  near 
Philadelphia,  Feb.  27,  1844,  aged  58.  He  was 
the  son  of  Charles  Biddle  of  Philadelphia,  a  whig 
of  the  Revolution.  At  the  age  of  19  he  was 
secretary  to  Armstrong  in  his  mission  to  Paris. 
On  his  return  he  studied  law  and  devoted  himself 
much  to  literature,  for  a  time  editing  the  Port- 
Folio.  In  1819  he  was  one  of  the  directors  of 
the  bank  of  the  United  States,  and  in  1823  suc 
ceeded  Mr.  Cheves  as  president, — a  post  which 
he  filled  sixteen  years.  Under  his  management 
and  the  hostility  of  Gen.  Jackson  the  bank  broke 
down.  He  wrote  the  commercial  digest. 

BIDDLE,  WILLIAM  P.,  died  at  Newbern, 
N.  C.,  Aug.  8,  1853,  after  a  ministry  cf  nearly 
hah0  a  century.  Born  in  Virginia,  he  was  a  pion 
eer  of  the  Baptists  in  North  Carolina. 

BIDDLE,  JAMES,  commodore,  died  at  Phila 
delphia  Oct.  1,  1848,  aged  65.  Educated  at  the 
Pennsylvania  university,  he  entered  the  navy  in 
1800,  and  was  engaged  in  various  actions.  He 
captured  the  Penguin.  He  signed  the  commer 
cial  treaty  with  Turkey  in  1832,  and  commanded 
a  squadron  in  China  in  1847. 

BIENVILLE,  LE  MOYNE  De,  governor  of  Lou 
isiana  and  founder  of  New  Orleans,  took  the  name 
of  his  brother,  who  was  killed  by  the  Iroquois  in 
1691.  While  in  command  at  Mobile,  he  mani 
fested  his  humanity  by  liberating  the  prisoners, 
which  were  brought  from  Carolina  by  the  Indians, 
in  the  Indian  war  of  1715.  In  17 14  he  constructed 
a  fort  at  Natchez,  and  in  1717,  on  a  visit  to  the 
governor  of  Mobile,  he  obtained  permission  to 
lay  the  foundation  of  the  city  of  New  Orleans. 
In  1726,  M.  Perrier  being  nominated  commandant 
of  Louisiana  in  his  place,  he  went  to  France; 
but  in  1733  he  returned  with  a  new  commission 
as  governor.  In  1740,  with  a  large  army  of 
French,  Indians,  and  negroes,  he  made  a  second 
expedition  against  the  Chickasaws ;  proceeding 
up  the  Mississippi,  he  encamped  near  their  towns, 
and  brought  them  to  terms  of  peace.  —  Ckarle- 
voix ;  Holmes,  I.  513;  II.  16. 


BIGELOW,  TIMOTHY,  colonel,  died  at  Wor 
cester  March  31,  1790,  aged  50.  He  was  the  son 
of  Daniel ;  and  he  had  an  eminent  son  of  his  own 
name.  A  blacksmith,  he  was  the  associate  of  the 
leading  patriots  of  his  day.  On  hearing  of  the 
battle  of  Lexington  he  marched  at  the  head  of 
minute-men  ;  he  marched  up  the  Kennebcc  against 
Quebec,  and  was  taken  prisoner  ;  at  the  head  of 
the  fifteenth  Mass,  regiment  he  was  at  Saratoga, 
Rhode  Island,  Valley  Forge,  and  West  Point. 
He  was  an  original  grantor  of  Montpclier.  As 
a  benefactor  of  Leicester  academy  he  is  honored 
by  its  friends.  With  an  ardent  temperament  he 
was  dignified  and  graceful.  —  Lincoln's  Hist. 

BIGELOW,  TIMOTHY,  a  lawyer,  was  born  at 
Worcester,  Ms.,  April  30,  1767,  the  son  of  Col. 
Timothy  B.,  who  served  in  Arnold's  expedition  to 
Quebec,  and  commanded  the  16th  regiment  in 
the  Revolutionary  Avar,  and  probably  a  descendant 
of  John  Bigelow,  who  lived  in  Watertown  in 
1642.  After  graduating  at  Harvard  college  in 
1786,  he  studied  law,  and  in  1789  commenced 
the  practice  at  Groton.  For  more  than  twenty 
years  from  1790  he  was  a  distinguished  member 
of  the  legislature ;  for  eleven  years  he  was  the 
speaker  of  the  house  of  representatives.  In  his 
politics  he  was  ardently  attached  to  the  federal 
party.  Of  the  Hartford  convention  in  1814  he 
was  a  member ;  and  grand  master  of  masons.  In 
1807  he  removed  to  Mcdford  and  kept  an  office 
in  Boston.  He  died  May  18,  1821,  aged  54. 
His  wife  was  the  daughter  of  Oliver  Prescott ; 
one  of  his  daughters  married  Abbott  Lawrence. 
Mr.  Bigelow  was  a  learned,  eloquent,  and  popular 
lawyer.  It  has  been  computed,  that  during  a 
practice  of  thirty-two  years  he  argued  not  less 
than  fifteen  thousand  causes.  His  usual  antag 
onist  was  Samuel  Dana.  Over  the  multitudinous 
assembly  of  six  or  seven  hundred  legislators  of 
Massachusetts  he  presided  with  great  dignity  and 
energy.  Of  many  literary  and  benevolent  socie 
ties  he  was  an  active  member ;  and  in  private  Hie 
was  respected  and  beloved.  He  published  an 
oraiion  before  the  Phi  Beta  Kappa  society,  1797. 
An  extract  of  his  eulogy  on  S.  Dana  is  in  the 
historical  collections. — Jennison;  Maine  Hist. 
Coll.  I.  363,  388,  409 ;  Mass.  Hist.  Coll  S.  S.  II. 
235,  252. 

BIGELOW,  LEWIS,  died  in  Peoria,  Illinois, 
Oct.  3,  1838,  aged  53.  He  was  a  member  of 
congress  from  Massachusetts  in  1821,  and  the 
author  of  Digest  of  twelve  vols.  of  Massachusetts 

BIGELOW,  JONATHAN,  died  Jan.  26,  1854, 
aged  90.  Born  in  Boylston,  he  graduated  at 
Brown  university  in  1816,  and  was  successively  a 
minister  at  Lubec  in  1821;  at  Rochester,  Mass., 
for  twenty  years  from  1828 ;  at  Euclid,  Oliio,  in 
1850,  where  his  labors  were  greatly  blessed.  He 




was  regarded  as  a  scholar,  and  a  faithful  min 

BIGELOW,  WILLIAM,  died  in  Boston,  Jan. 
12,  1844,  aged  70,  a  graduate  of  Harvard  in 
1794.  He  was  a  teacher,  a  wit,  writer  of  po 
etry,  editor  of  several  periodicals,  and  author  of  a 
history  of  his  native  town,  Natick,  and  of  Sher- 
burne.  Unhappily  he  did  not  hold  the  mastery 
over  the  appetites,  which  lead  to  a  disregard  of 
the  laws  of  temperance. 

BIGOT,  VINCENT,  a  Jesuit  missionary,  was  em 
ployed  in  1697  by  Gen.  De  Denonville  to  collect 
a  village  of  the  Penobscot  Indians,  who  had  been 
dispersed,  in  order  to  counteract  the  designs  of 
Gov.  Andros.  It  would  seem,  that  he  had  been 
a  missionary  among  these  Indians  near  Penta- 
goet,  or  Penobscot,  for  some  years  before,  but 
had  been  driven  off  by  the  disputes  with  a  com 
pany  of  fishermen.  Bigot  returned,  says  Den 
onville,  "  at  my  request,  in  order  to  keep  the 
savages  in  our  interest,  which  they  had  aban 
doned."  Such  was  the  worldly  policy,  which 
produced  the  Jesuit  missions  in  Maine  ;  and  the 
Jesuits,  by  their  vows  of  obedience  being  subject 
to  their  superiors,  were  convenient  instruments 
of  politic  governors  and  adventurous  generals. 
Denonville,  in  a  memoir  which  he  prepared  after 
his  return  to  France,  ascribes  much  of  the  good 
understanding  which  had  been  preserved  with 
the  Abenaki  Indians,  to  the  influence  of  the  two 
father  Bigots  :  the  name  of  the  younger  was 
James.  Vincent  chiefly  resided  at  St.  Francois, 
among  the  Indians  there  assembled  by  the 
governor  of  Canada.  In  an  expedition  of  the 
Abenakis  against  New  England,  Bigot  accompa 
nied  them,  as  is  related  by  Charlevoix  under  the 
year  1721,  from  the  lips  of  the  missionary  him 
self,  and  witnessed  their  heroism  in  a  battle,  in 
which  at  the  odds  of  twenty  English  for  one  In 
dian  they  fought  a  whole  day,  and  without  the 
loss  of  a  man  strewed  the  field  of  battle  with  the 
dead  and  put  the  English  to  flight.  In  this 
story  there  is  as  much  truth,  as  in  father  Biart's 
miracle  on  the  Penobscot.  There  was  no  such 
battle  in  1721,  nor  in  any  other  year;  though  it 
is  true,  that  in  1724  many  Indians  with  father 
Rallc  fell  in  battle  at  Norridgewock,  Avithout  the 
loss  of  one  of  the  English.  Mr.  Southey  says : 
"  Let  any  person  compare  the  relations  of  our  Pro 
testant  missionaries  with  those  of  the  Jesuits,  Dom- 
incians,  Franciscans,  or  any  other  Ilomish  order, 
and  the  difference,  which  he  cannot  fail  to  per 
ceive,  between  the  plain  truth  of  the  one  and  the 
audacious  and  elaborate  mendacity  of  the  other, 
may  lead  him  to  a  just  inference  concerning  the 
two  churches."  —  Charlevoix,  I.  531,  559;  ill.  308; 
Southey's  Coll.  II.  374 ;  Maine  Hist.  Col.  I.  328. 

BIG  WARRIOR,  the  principal  chief  of  the 
Creek  nation,  died  Feb.  9,  1825.  With  a  colos 
sal  body,  he  had  a  mind  of  great  power.  In 

November,  1824,  he  and  Little  Prince  and  other 
chiefs,  signed  the  declaration  of  a  council  of  the 
tribe,  asserting  their  reluctance  to  sell  any  more 
land,  and  their  claims  to  justice,  and  describing 
the  progress  made  in  the  arts  of  civil  life.  They, 
who  think  the  Indians  incapable  of  civilization, 
may  be  surprised  to  learn,  that  the  upper  Creeks 
alone  had  manufactured  thirty  thousand  yards  of 
'  homespun.'  He  had  always  been  a  friend  of  the 
whites,  and  fought  for  them  in  many  a  battle. 

BILLINGS,  ASAIIEL,  died  at  Hardwick  July 
16,  1838,  aged  100 ;  an  officer  at  the  capture  of 

BILLINGS,  BENJAMIN,  M.  D.,  died  at  Mans 
field,  Mass.,  Oct.  9,  1842,  aged  82.  He  was  a 
surgeon  in  the  Revolutionary  army. 

BINGHAM,  WILLIAM,  a  senator  of  the  United 
States,  was  graduated  at  the  college  of  Philadel 
phia  in  1768 ;  he  was  agent  for  his  country  at 
Martinique  in  the  period  of  the  Revolution  ;  in 
1786  he  was  a  delegate  to  congress  from  Pennsyl 
vania;  in  1795  he  succeeded  Mr.  Morris  as  sena 
tor.  Of  the  measures  of  Mr.  Adams'  adminis 
tration,  he  was  a  decided  advocate.  He  died  at 
Bath,  England,  Feb.  7,  1804,  aged  52.  He  mar 
ried  in  1780  Miss  Willing  of  Philadelphia ;  his 
son,  William,  married  in  Montreal  in  1822 ;  a 
daughter  was  married  to  a  son  of  Sir  Francis 
Baring.  He  purchased  about  the  year  1793  more 
than  two  millions  of  acres  of  land  in  Maine,  at  an 
eighth  of  a  dollar  per  acre,  or  for  more  than 
$250,000.  In  1715  Mr.  Greenleaf  calculated  the 
cost  to  have  amounted  to  forty-nine  cents  per 
acre,  when  perhaps  the  average  value  might  not 
exceed  seventeen  cents.  Mr.  B.  published  "  a 
letter  from  an  American  on  the  subject  of  the  re 
straining  proclamation,"  with  strictures  on  Lord 
Sheffield's  pamphlets,  1784;  description  of  cer 
tain  tracts  of  land  in  the  district  of  Maine,  1793. 

BINGHAM,  CALEB,  a  bookseller  of  Boston, 
died  April  6,  1817,  aged  60.  A  native  of  Salis 
bury,  Conn.,  he  was  the  son  of  Daniel,  and  a  de 
scendant  of  Thomas  of  Norwich.  By  his  mother 
lie  descended  from  R.  Conant.  He  was  gradu 
ated  at  Dartmouth  in  1782.  He  was  the  preceptor 
of  Moor's  academy  and  afterwards  for  many  years 
a  teacher  in  one  of  the  principal  schools  of  Boston. 
Quitting  the  toils  of  instruction,  he  kept  a  large 
book  shop  in  Cornhill,  Boston,  and  compiled  for 
the  benefit  of  youth  various  books,  some  of  which 
went  through  many  editions.  For  several  years 
he  was  a  director  of  the  State  prison,  in  which 
capacity  he  made  great  efforts  for  the  mental  im 
provement  of  the  younger  criminals.  In  his  pol 
itics  he  belonged  to  the  school  of  Mr.  Jefferson. 
He  had  a  character  of  strict  integrity  and  up 
rightness,  and  he  was  an  exemplary  professor  of 
religion.  A  daughter,  Sophia,  married  Col.  Tow- 
son  of  the  army.  He  published  an  interesting 
narrative,  entitled,  "  the  hunters  ;  "  young  lady's 




accidence,  1789;  epistolary  correspondence;  the 
Columbian  Orator,  1797;  Atala,  a  translation  from 
Chateaubriand.  The  sale  of  his  school  books  in 
editions  and  copies  was  as  follows  :  young  lady's 
accidence,  20  eds.,  100,000 :  child's  companion, 
20  eds.,  180,000;  American  preceptor,  04  eds., 
640,000 ;  Geographical  catechism,  22  eds.,  100,000 ; 
Columbian  orator,  23  eds.,  190,000 ;  Juvenile  let 
ters,  7  eds.,  25,000. 

BIXGIIAM,  JEREMIAH,  died  in  Cornwall,  Vt, 
in  1842,  aged  94.  Born  in  Norwich,  Conn.,  he 
was  a  useful  schoolmaster  in  Mass,  and  X.  II.  lie 
was  the  first  settler  in  C. :  through  his  efforts  a 
church  of  eight  persons  was  formed  in  1785. 

BIXGIIAM,  SIBYL  M.,  wife  of  Rev.  Hiram 
Bingham,  died  at  Easthampton,  Mass.,  in  March, 
1848,  aged  55.  She  was  a  missionary  at  the 
Sandwich  Islands  twenty  years. 

BLXKLEY,  ADAM,  colonel,  died  in  David 
son  co.,  Tenn.,  Eeb.  28,  1837,  aged  136.  He 
served  during  the  Revolutionary  war ;  then  mar 
ried  and  had  eleven  children. 

BIXXEY,  AMOS,  colonel,  died  in  Boston  Jan. 
10,  1833,  aged  60.  Born  at  Hull,  he  never  went 
to  school  one  day ;  yet  was  intelligent  and  capa 
ble.  He  was  navy  agent  in  Boston ;  a  Methodist, 
and  a  man  of  charity. 

BIKDSEYE,  NATHAN,  died  Jan.  28,  1818, 
aged  103.  He  graduated  at  Yale  college  in  1736, 
and  was  ordained  the  fourth  pastor  of  West  Ha 
ven,  Oct.,  1742.  His  predecessors  were  Samuel 
Johnson,  Jonathan  Arnold,  and  Timothy  Allen ; 
his  successor  was  Xoah  "VVilliston.  After  being 
in  the  ministry  sixteen  years,  he  was  dismissed  in 
June,  1758,  and  retired  to  his  patrimonial  estate 
at  Oronoake  in  Stratford,  where  he  resided  sixty 
years,  till  his  death.  About  a  hundred  of  his  pos 
terity  were  present  at  his  funeral.  The  whole 
number  of  his  descendants  \vas  two  hundred  and 
fifty-eight,  of  whom  two  hundred  and  six  were 
living.  His  wife,  with  whom  he  had  lived  sixty- 
nine  years,  died  at  the  age  of  88.  By  her  he  had 
twelve  children,  alternately  a  boy  and  a  girl ;  he 
had  seventy-six  grandchildren  ;  one  hundred  and 
sixty-three  great-grandchildren ;  and  seven  of  the 
fifth  generation.  Of  all  the  branches  of  his  numer 
ous  family,  scattered  into  various  parts  of  the  United 
States,  not  one  of  them  had  been  reduced  to 
want.  Most  of  them  were  in  prosperous,  all  in 
comfortable  circumstances.  In  his  last  years  he 
occasionally  preached,  and  once  at  Stratford  to 
great  acceptance,  after  he  was  one  hundred  years 
old.  At  last  he  became  blind  and  deaf;  yet  his 
retentive  memory  and  sound  judgment  and  excel 
lent  temper  gave  an  interest  to  liis  conversation 
with  his  friends.  He  died  without  an  enemy,  in 
the  hope  of  a  happy  immortality.  According  to 
his  account  of  the  Indians  near  Stratford,  about 
the  year  1700  there  were  sixty  or  eighty  fighting 
men;  in  1761  but  three  or  four  men  were  left. 

However,  the  race  was  not  exterminated ;  for  of 
the  emigrants  there  lived  at  Kent  on  the  "  Ous- 
tonnoc  river"  one  hundred  and  twenty-seven  souls. 
—  Mass.  Hist.  Coll.  x.  111. 

BIRCH,  THOMAS,  died  in  Philadelphia  Jan. 
14,  1851,  aged  72 ;  an  artist.  He  was  distin 
guished  for  landscape  and  marine  painting,  de 
lighting  in  coast  and  river  scenes. 

BHICHARD,  SOLOMON,  M.  D.,  an  eminent 
physician,  died  at  Baltimore  Xov.  30,  1836,  aged 

BIRD,  ROBERT  M.,  M.  D.,  died  at  Philadel 
phia  Jan.  23,  1854,  aged  50.  He  was  one  of  the 
editors  and  proprietors  of  the  North  American  ; 
also  a  novel  writer,  author  of  Nick  of  the  Woods 
and  Peter  Pilgrim. 

BISHOP,  GEORGE,  a  Quaker,  published  "  New 
England  judged,  not  by  man's  but  by  the  Spirit 
of  the  Lord,  and  the  summe  sealed  up  of  New 
England's  persecutions,  being  a  brief  relation  of 
the  sufferings  of  the  Quakers  in  that  part  of 
America  from  the  beginning  of  the  5th  m.  1656, 
to  the  end  of  the  10th  m.  1660 :  wherein  the 
cruel  whippings  and  scourgings,  bonds  and  im 
prisonments,  &c.,  burning  in  the  hand  and  cutting 
off  of  ears,  banishment  upon  pain  of  death,  and 
putting  to  death,  &c.,  are  shortly  touched,  1661." 
He  gives  an  account  of  the  execution  of  Wm. 
Robinson,  Marmaduke  Stephcnson,  Mary  Dyer, 
and  William  Ledea,  for  returning  after  being 
banished  as  Quakers  ;  such  was  the  bloody  spirit 
of  persecution  in  men,  who  sought  liberty  of  con 
science  in  a  wilderness.  Among  the  banished 
was  Mary  Fisher,  who  travelled  as  far  as  Adrian- 
ople,  and  in  the  camp  of  the  grand  vizier  delivered 
her  message  "  from  the  great  God  to  the  great 
Turk."  Ilutchinson  remarks,  "  she  fared  better 
among  the  Turks,  than  among  the  Christians."  — 
Hutch,  i.  180. 

BISHOP,  ABRAHAM,  died  at  New  Haven  April 
28,  1844,  aged  81.  He  graduated  in  1778.  He 
was  a  zealous  political  writer  on  the  democratic  or 
republican  side,  and  for  twenty  years  collector  of 
the  port  of  New  Haven.  He  published  an  oration, 
1800  ;  proofs  of  a  conspiracy,  1802. 

BISHOP,  ROBERT  II.,  D.  D.,  died  at  College 
Hill,  Ohio,  April  29,  1855,  aged  78.  Boru  in 
Scotland,  he  graduated  at  Edinburgh  in  1794. 
Coming  to  this  country  in  1801,  he  was  a  teacher 
and  professor  in  various  seminaries,  and  president 
of  Miami  university.  At  his  death  he  was  a  pro 
fessor  in  Farmer's  college. 

BISSELL,  JOSIAII,  a  generous  philanthropist, 
died  in  April,  1831,  aged  40.  He  was  the  son  of 
Deacon  Josiah  Bissell.  About  the  year  1814  or 
1815  he  was  one  of  a  number  of  young  men,  who 
removed  from  Pittsfield,  Mass.,  to  the  new  town 
of  Rochester,  N.  Y.  The  increase  in  the  value  of 
the  land,  which  he  had  purchased,  made  him  rich  ; 
but  his  wealth  he  very  liberally  employed  in  pro- 




moting  the  various  benevolent  operations  of  the 
day.  He  expended  many  thousands  of  dollars. 
Were  his  example  followed  by  the  rich,  the  face 
of  the  world  would  soon  be  renewed.  At  great 
expense  he  was  the  principal  promoter  of  the 
"  Pioneer  "  line  of  stages,  so  called,  which  did  not 
run  on  Sunday,  and  which  was  established  for  the 
sole  purpose  of  preventing  the  desecration  of  the 
holy  day.  His  piety  was  ardent ;  his  courage  un 
shaken  by  the  calumnies  and  rcvilings  of  men 
•who  preferred  gain  to  godliness.  As  he  had  lived 
for  Christ,  he  died  in  the  triumphs  of  faith. 
When  told  that  he  would  soon  die,  he  said,  "  Why 
should  I  be  afraid  to  die  ?  The  Lord  knows  I 
have  loved  lu's  cause  more  than  all  things  eke ;  I 
have  wronged  no  man  ;  I  possess  no  man's  goods ; 
I  am  at  peace  with  all  men ;  I  have  peace,  and 
trust,  and  confidence  ;  I  am  ready,  willing,  yea 
anxious  to  depart."  When  told  the  next  day  that 
he  was  better,  he  said,  "  I  desire  to  go :  my  face 
is  set."  "  Tell  my  children  to  choose  the  Lord 
Jesus  Christ  for  their  portion,  and  to  serve  him 
better  than  I  have  done.  Say  to  the  church, — go 
on  gloriously.  Say  to  impenitent  sinners,  —  if 
they  wish  to  know  the  value  of  religion,  look  at  a 
dying  bed." 

BISSELL,  EMERY,  Dr.,  died  in  Xorwalk  in 
1849,  aged  GO  ;  a  highly  respectable  physician. 

BIXBY,  SUSAX,  the  wife  of  M.  II.  Bixby,  a 
Baptist  missionary  in  Maulmain,  Burmah,  died  at 
Burlington,  Vt,,  Aug.  18,  18,30,  aged  26.  She 
went  out  to  Burmah  in  1833.  She  believed,  that 
more  than  one  soul  was  won  by  her  to  God's  ser 

BLACK,  JOHN,  D.  D.,  died  in  Pittsburgh, 
Xov.,  1849,  aged  82 ;  one  of  the  early  settlers  of  P. 

BLACKBU11X,  SAMUEL,  general,  died  in  Bath 
county,  Va.,  March  2,  1835,  aged  77  ;  an  eminent 
lawyer  and  legislator.  By  his  Mill  he  liberated 
forty-six  slaves  and  provided  for  their  transporta 
tion  to  Liberia.  Did  he  misjudge  in  thinking  it 
an  act,  required  by  humanity  and  justice,  to  re 
store  freedom  to  his  slaves  ? 

BLACKBUHX,  GIDEOX,  D.  D.,  died  at  Car- 
linvllle,  111.,  Aug.  23,  1838,  an  eloquent  preacher 
for  forty  years.  He  organized  some  of  the  first 
churches  in  the  west.  From  1803  to  1809  he 
was  for  part  of  each  year  a  missionary  to  the 
Cherokces,  establishing  a  school  at  Ilywassee,  un 
der  the  general  assembly.  He  also  set  up  a 
school  in  Tennessee  in  1806. 

BLACK  DOG,  chief  of  the  Osages,died  March 
24,  1848. 

BLACK  HAWK,  an  Indian  chief,  died  Oct. 
3,  1838,  at  his  camp  on  the  river  DCS  Moincs, 
aged  73.  His  Indian  name  was  Muck-ker-ta-me- 

BLACK  HOOF,  a  chief  of  the  Shawanese 
tribe  of  Indians,  died  at  Wapaghkonnetta  in  Sept., 
1831,  aged  114  years.  In  war  he  had  been  a 

formidable  enemy,  though  the  latter  part  of  his 
warfaring  life  had  been  devoted  to  the  American 
cause.  He  was  at  St.  Clair's,  Harmer's,  and 
Crawford's  defeats,  and  perhaps  was  the  last  sur 
vivor  of  those  who  were  concerned  in  Braddock's 

BLACKMAX,  ADAM,  first  minister  of  Strat 
ford,  Conn.,  was  a  preacher  in  Liecestershire  and 
Derbyshire,  England.  Mr.  Goodwin  writes  the 
name  Blakeman.  After  he  came  to  this  country, 
he  preached  a  short  time  at  Scituate,  and  then  at 
Guilford ;  in  1640  he  was  settled  at  Stratford, 
where  he  died  in  1665.  His  successors  were 
Israel  Chauncey,  Timothy  Cutler,  Ilczekiah  Gould, 
Israliiah  Wetmore,  and  Mr.  Dutton,  afterwards 
professor  at  Yale.  Xotwithstanding  his  name, 
Mather  represents  him  as  for  his  holiness  "  purer 
than  snow,  whiter  than  milk."  With  almost  the 
same  name  as  Melancthon,  he  was  a  Melancthon 
among  the  reformers  of  Xew  Haven,  but  with  less 
occasion  than  the  German,  to  complain,  that  "  old 
Adam  was  too  hard  for  his  young  namesake." 
Mr.  Hooker  so  much  admired  the  plainness  and 
simplicity  of  his  preaching,  that  he  said,  if  he 
could  have  his  choice,  he  should  choose  to  live 
and  die  under  his  ministry.  His  son,  Benjamin, 
a  graduate  of  Harvard  college  in  1663,  preached 
for  a  time  at  Maiden,  but  left  that  place  in  1678; 
and  afterwards  at  Scarborough :  in  1683  he  was  a 
representative  of  Saco,  in  which  town  he  was  a 
large  landholder,  and  owner  of  all  the  mill  privi 
leges  on  the  east  side  of  the  river.  His  wife  died 
in  1715,  in  Boston.  —  Magnalia,  in.  94;  Fol- 
sorri's  Hist.  Saco,  164. 

BLACKMAX,  ELEAZER,  died  at  Hanover,  Pa., 
Xov.  4,  1845,  aged  85 ;  a  respected  citizen,  the 
last  survivor  of  the  massacre  of  Wyoming. 

BLACKSTOXE,  WILLIAM,  an  Episcopal  min 
ister,  and  the  first  inhabitant  of  Boston,  settled 
there  as  early  as  1625  or  1626 ;  and  there  he 
lived,  when  Gov.  Winthrop  arrived  in  the  summer 
of  1630  at  Charlestown,  the  records  of  which 
place  say :  "  Mr.  Blackstone,  dwelling  on  the 
other  side  of  Charles  river,  alone,  at  a  place  by 
the  Indians  called  Shawmut,  where  he  only  had 
a  cottage,  at  or  not  far  off  the  place,  called  Black- 
stone's  point,  he  came  and  acquainted  the  gover 
nor  of  an  excellent  spring  there,  withal  inviting 
him  and  soliciting  him  thither  ;  whereupon,  after 
the  death  of  Mr.  Johnson  and  divers  others,  the 
governor,  with  Mr.  Wilson,  and  the  greatest  part 
of  the  church,  removed  thither."  Though  Mr. 
Blackstone  had  first  occupied  the  peninsula,  or 
Trimountain ;  yet  all  the  right  of  soil,  which  the 
charter  could  give,  was  held  by  the  governor  and 
company.  In  their  regard  to  equity  they  at  a 
court,  April  1,  1633,  agreed  to  give  him  fifty  acres 
near  his  house  in  Boston  to  enjoy  forever.  In 
1634  he  sold  the  company  this  estate,  probably 
for  thirty  pounds,  which  was  raised  by  an  assess- 



ment  of  six  shillings  or  more  on  each  inhabitant. 
With  the  proceeds  he  purchased  cattle,  and  re 
moved,  probably  in  1635,  to  Pawtucket  river,  now 
bearing  his  name,  Blackstone  river,  a  few  miles 
north  of  Providence,  near  the  southern  part  of 
the  town  of  Cumberland.  He  was  married  July 
4,  1659,  to  widow  Sarah  Stephenson,  who  died 
June,  1673.  He  died  May  26,  1675,  having  lived 
in  New  England  fifty  years.  His  residence  was 
about  two  miles  north  of  Pawtucket,  on  the  east 
ern  bank  of  the  Blackstone  river,  and  within  a 
few  rods  of  Whipple's  bridge.  From  his  house 
a  long  extent  of  the  river  could  be  seen  to  the 
south.  The  cellar  and  well  are  at  this  day  recog 
nized.  A  small  round  eminence  west  of  his  house 
is  called  Study  Hill,  from  its  being  his  place  of  re 
tirement  for  study.  His  grave  near  his  house  was 
marked  by  a  large  round  white  stone.  —  Holmes, 
I.  377;  2  Coll.  Hist.  Soc.,  x.  171;  ix.  174; 
Savage's  Winthrop,  I.  44;  Everett's  Address, 
Second  Cent.,  29. 

BLAIR,  JAMES,  first  president  of  William  and 
Mary  college,  Virginia,  and  a  learned  divine,  died 
Aug.  1,  1743,  in  a  good  old  age.  He  was  born 
and  educated  in  Scotland,  where  he  obtained  a 
benefice  in  the  Episcopal  church.  On  account  of 
the  unsettled  state  of  religion,  which  then  existed 
in  that  kingdom,  he  quitted  his  preferments  and 
went  into  England  near  the  end  of  the  reign  of 
Charles  II.  The  bishop  of  London  prevailed  on 
him  to  go  to  Virginia,  as  a  missionary,  about  the 
year  1685 ;  and  in  that  colony  by  his  exemplary 
conduct  and  unwearied  labors  in  the  work  of  the 
ministry  he  much  promoted  religion,  and  gained 
to  himself  esteem  and  reputation.  In  1689  he 
was  appointed  by  the  bishop,  ecclesiastical  commis 
sary,  the  lu'ghest  office  in  the  church  which  could 
be  given  him  in  the  province.  This  appointment, 
however,  did  not  induce  him  to  relinquish  the  pas 
toral  office,  for  it  was  his  delight  to  preach  the 
gospel  of  salvation. 

Perceiving  that  the  want  of  schools  and  semi 
naries  for  literary  and  religious  instruction  would 
in  a  great  degree  defeat  the  exertions,  which  were 
making  in  order  to  propagate  the  gospel,  he 
formed  the  design  of  establishing  a  college  at 
Williamsburg.  For  this  purpose  he  solicited 
benefactions  in  tin's  country,  and  by  direction  of 
the  assembly  made  a  voyage  to  England  in  1691 
to  obtain  the  patronage  of  the  government.  A 
charter  was  procured  in  this  year  with  liberal  en 
dowments,  and  he  was  named  in  it  as  the  first 
president ;  but  it  does  not  appear  that  he  entered 
on  the  duties  of  his  office  before  the  year  1729, 
from  which  period  till  1742  he  discharged  them 
with  faithfulness.  The  college  however  did  not 
flourish  very  greatly  during  his  presidency,  nor 
for  many  years  afterwards.  The  wealthy  farmers 
were  in  the  habit  of  sending  their  sons  to  Europe 
for  their  education.  After  a  life  of  near  sixty 


years  in  the  ministry,  he  died,  and  went  to  enjoy 
;he  glory  for  which  he  was  destined.  Mr.  Blair 
was  for  some  time  president  of  the  council  of  the 
:olony,  and  rector  of  Wiiliamsburg.  He  was  a 
faithful  laborer  in  the  vineyard  of  his  Master,  and 
an  ornament  to  his  profession  and  to  the  several 
offices,  which  he  sustained.  He  published  :  our 
Saviour's  divine  sermon  on  the  mount,  in  divers 
sermons  and  discourses,  4  vol.  8vo.,  London, 
1742.  Tlu's  work  is  spoken  of  with  high  appro 
bation  by  Dr.  Doddridge,  and  by  Dr.  Williams  in 
his  Christian  preacher.  —  Introduction  to  the 
above  work ;  Miller's  Heir.,  II.  335,  336 ;  New 
and  Gen.  Biog.  Diet. ;  Burnefs  Hist,  own  limes, 
II.  129,  120. 

BLAIR,  SAMUEL,  a  learned  minister  in  Penn 
sylvania,  died  about  1751.  He  was  a  native  of 
Ireland.  He  came  to  America  very  early  in  life, 
and  was  one  of  Mr.  Tennent's  pupils  in  his  acad 
emy  at  Neshaminy.  About  the  year  1745  he 
himself  opened  an  academy  at  Fog's  manor, 
Chester  county,  with  particular  reference  to  the 
study  of  theology  as  a  science.  He  also  took 
the  pastoral  charge  of  the  church  in  that  place; 
but  such  was  his  zeal  to  do  good,  that  he  did  not 
confine  himself  to  his  own  society,  but  often  dis 
pensed  the  precious  truths  of  heaven  to  destitute 
congregations.  His  brother  succeeded  him  in  the 
care  of  the  church. 

Mr.  Blair  was  one  of  the  most  learned  and  able, 
as  well  as  pious,  excellent,  and  venerable  men  of 
his  day.  He  was  a  profound  divine  and  a  most 
solemn  and  impressive  preacher.  To  his  pupils 
he  was  himself  an  excellent  model  of  pulpit  elo 
quence.  In  his  life  he  gave  them  an  admirable 
example  of  Christian  meekness,  of  ministerial 
diligence,  of  candor,  and  Catholicism,  without  a 
dereliction  of  principle.  He  was  eminently  ser 
viceable  to  the  part  of  the  country  where  he  lived, 
not  only  as  a  minister  of  the  gospel,  but  as  a 
teacher  of  human  knowledge.  From  his  acad 
emy,  that  school  of  the  prophets,  as  it  was  fre 
quently  called,  there  issued  forth  many  excellent 
pupils,  who  did  honor  to  their  instructor,  both  as 
scholars  and  Christian  ministers.  Among  the 
distinguished  characters,  who  received  their  classi 
cal  and  theological  education  at  this  seminary, 
were  his  nephew,  Alexander  Gumming,  Samuel 
Davies,  Dr.  Rodgers  of '  New  York,  and  James 
Finley,  Hugh  Henry,  and  a  number  of  other  re 
spectable  clergymen.  Mr.  Davies,  after  being 
informed  of  his  sickness,  wrote  respecting  him 
to  a  friend  the  following  lines  : 

"  0,  had  you  not  the  mournful  news  divulg'd, 
My  mind  had  still  the  pleasing  drc;im  indulg'd, 
Still  fancied  Blair  with  health  and  vigor  biess'd, 
With  some  grand  purpose  lab'ring  in  his  breast, 
In  studious  thought  pursuing  truth  divine; 
Till  the  full  demonstration  round  him  shine; 
Or  from  the  sacred  desk  proclaiming  loud 
His  master's  message  to  the  attentive  crowd, 




While  heavenly  truth  with  bright  conviction  glares. 
And  coward  error  shrinks  and  disappears, 
While  quick  remorse  the  hardy  sinner  feels, 
And  Calvary's  balm  the  bleeding  conscience  heals.'' 

lie  published  animadversions  on  the  reasons  of 
A.  Creaghead  for  quitting  the  Presbyterian  church, 
1742;  a  narrative  of  a  revival  of  religion  in  sev 
eral  parts  of  Pennsylvania,  1744.  —  Miller's  Rctr. 
n.  343 ;  Mass.  Miss.  Magazine,  in.  363  ;  JJa- 
vics'  Life. 

BLAIR,  JOHN,  an  eminent  minister  in  Penn 
sylvania,  was  ordained  to  the  pastoral  charge  of 
three  congregations  in  Cumberland  county  as 
early  as  1742.  These  were  frontier  settlements 
and  exposed  to  depredations  in  the  Indian  wars, 
and  he  was  obliged  to  remove.  He  accepted  a 
call  from  Fog's  manor  in  Chester  county,  in  1757. 
This  congregation  had  been  favored  with  the 
ministry  of  his  brother,  Samuel  Blair ;  and  here 
he  continued  about  nine  years,  besides  discharging 
the  duties  of  the  ministry,  superintending  also  a 
flourishing  grammar  school,  and  preparing  many 
young  men  for  the  ministry.  "When  the  presi 
dency  of  New  Jersey  college  became  vacant,  he 
was  chosen  professor  of  divinity  and  had  for  some 
time  the  charge  of  that  seminary  before  the  arri 
val  of  Dr.  Witherspoon.  After  this  event  he  set 
tled  at  "Walkill  in  the  State  of  New  York.  Here 
he  labored  a  while  with  his  usual  faithfulness,  and 
finished  his  earthly  course  Dec.  8,  1771,  aged 
about  5 1  years. 

He  was  a  judicious  and  persuasive  preacher, 
and  through  his  exertions  sinners  were  converted 
and  the  children  of  God  edified.  Fully  convinced 
of  the  doctrines  of  grace,  he  addressed  immortal 
souls  with  that  warmth  and  power,  which  left  a 
witness  in  every  bosom.  Though  he  sometimes 
wrote  his  sermons  in  full,  yet  his  common  mode 
of  preaching  was  by  short  notes,  comprising  the 
general  outlines.  His  labors  were  too  abundant 
to  admit  of  more ;  and  no  more  was  necessary  to 
a  mind  so  richly  stored,  and  so  constantly  im 
pressed  with  the  great  truths  of  religion.  For 
his  large  family  he  had  amassed  no  fortune,  but 
he  left  them  what  was  infinitely  better,  a  religious 
education,  a  holy  example,  and  prayers,  which 
have  been  remarkably  answered.  —  His  disposition 
was  uncommonly  patient,  placid,  benevolent,  dis 
interested,  and  cheerful.  He  was  too  mild  to 
indulge  bitterness  or  severity,  and  he  thought  that 
truth  required  little  else  than  to  be  fairly  stated 
and  properly  understood.  Those,  who  could  not 
relish  the  savor  of  his  piety,  loved  lu'm  as  an 
amiable,  and  revered  him  as  a  great  man.  In  his 
last  sickness  he  imparted  his  advice  to  the  con 
gregation,  and  represented  to  his  family  the 
necessity  of  an  interest  in  Christ.  A  few  nights 
before  he  died  he  said,  "Directly  I  am  going 
to  glory.  My  Master  calls  me ;  I  must  be  gone." 
He  published  a  few  occasional  sermons  and  tracts 

in  defence  of  important,  truths.  —  Evang.  Intellig. 
I.  241-244. 

BLAIR,  SAMUEL,  minister  of  Boston,  the  son 
of  Rev.  Samuel  Blair,  died  Sept.  24,  1818,  aged 
77.  He  was  born  at  Fog's  manor  in  1741. 
After  being  graduated  at  the  college  of  New 
Jersey  in  1760,  he  was  a  tutor  in  that  seminary. 
He  was  settled  as  colleague  with  ]  )r.  Sewall  over 
the  old  south  church  in  Boston  Nov.  26,  1766. 
He  had  been  previously  ordained  as  a  Presbyte 
rian.  In  the  next  year  he  was  chosen  president 
of  the  college  in  New  Jersey,  as  successor  of 
Finlcy,  but  he  declined  the  appointment,  in  con 
sequence  of  the  ascertained  willingness  of  Dr. 
Withcrspoon  to  accept  the  place,  which  at  first 
he  had  rejected.  By  reason  of  ill  health  and 
some  difficulty  respecting  the  half-way  covenant, 
Mr.  Blair  was  dismissed  Oct.  10, 1769.  He  never 
resumed  a  pastoral  charge.  During  the  last 
years  of  his  life  he  resided  at  Germantown,  where 
he  died  suddenly.  lie  was  succeeded  by  Mr. 
Bacon  and  Mr.  Hunt.  Distinguished  for  talents 
and  learning,  he  was  in  preaching,  with  a  feeble 
voice,  a  master  of  the  touching  and  pathetic.  He 
married  in  1769  a  daughter  of  Dr.  Shippcn,  the 
elder,  of  Philadelphia :  his  daughter  married 
Charles  Pierce.  He  published  an  oration  on  the 
death  of  George  II.,  1761.—  Wisner's  Hist.  0.  S. 
CJntrcJi,  31  ;  Green's  Discourses,  392,  396. 

BLAIR,  JOHN,  one  of  the  associate  judges  of 
the  supreme  court  of  the  United  States,  died  at 
Williamsburg  in  Virginia  August  31,  1800,  aged 
68.  He  was  a  judge  of  the  court  of  appeals  in 
Virginia  in  1787,  at  which  time  the  legislature 
of  that  State,  finding  the  judiciary  system  incon 
venient,  established  circuit  courts,  the  duties  of 
which  they  directed  the  judges  of  the  court  of 
appeals  to  perform.  These  judges,  among  whose 
names  are  those  of  Blair,  Pendleton,  and  Wythe, 
remonstrated  and  declared  the  act  unconstitu 
tional.  In  the  same  year,  he  was  a  member  of 
the  general  convention,  which  formed  the  con 
stitution  of  the  United  States.  To  that  instrument 
the  names  of  Blair  and  Madison  arc  affixed  as 
the  deputies  from  Virginia.  In  September,  1789, 
when  the  government,  which  he  had  assisted  in 
establishing,  had  commenced  its  operation,  he 
was  appointed  by  Washington  an  associate  judge 
of  the  supreme  court,  of  which  John  Jay  was 
chief  justice.  He  was  an  amiable,  accomplished, 
and  truly  virtuous  man.  He  discharged  with 
ability  and  integrity  the  duties  of  a  number  of 
the  highest  and  most  important  public  trusts; 
and  in  these,  as  well  as  in  the  relations  of  private 
life,  his  conduct  was  upright,  and  so  blameless, 
that  he  seldom  or  never  lost  a  friend  or  made 
an  enemy.  Through  life  he  in  a  remarkable 
manner  experienced  the  truth  of  our  Saviour's 
declaration,  "Blessed  are  the  meek,  for  they  shall 
inherit  the  earth ; "  and  at  death  lie  illustrated 




the  force  of  the  exclamation,  "  Let  me  die  the !  Lexington  with  the  militia  from  Wrentham,  and 

death  of  the  righteous,  and  let  my  last  end  be  i  served  in  the  war. 

like  his."—  Claypoole's   Adv.,  Sept.    12,  1800;;      BLAKE,  JAMES,  died  at  Dorchester  May  22, 

MarshaU,\.  216. 

BLAKE,  JOSEPH,  governor  of  South  Carolina, 

1753,  aged  65 ;  the  author  of   annals  of   Dor 

BLAKE,  THOMAS  DAWES,  doctor,  died  in  Farm- 

was  a  proprietary  and  a  nephew  of  the  famous 
Admiral  Blake.  He  succeeded  Gov.  Thomas  Smith  ington,  Me.,  Nov.  20,  1849,  aged  81,  an  eminent 
in  1694,  and  Archdale  in  1696,  and  was  himself  physician.  He  was  a  native  of  Boston, 
succeeded  by  James  Moore  in  1700.  During  j  BLAKELEY,  JOHXSTOX,  a  captain  in  the  navy, 
Blake's  administration  a  set  of  forty-one  articles,  [  ^-as  born  in  Ireland  in  1781.  After  lu's  father's 
called  "  the  last  fundamental  constitutions,"  was  j  removal  to  Wilmington,  N.  C.,  he  passed  a  few 
sent  from  England  by  the  Earl  of  Bath,  the  pala-  j  years  in  the  university  of  that  State.  In  the  year 
tine,  and  other  patentees ;  but  the  change  in  the  j  igQO  he  obtained  a  midshipman's  warrant.  Ap- 
government  was  never  confirmed  by  the  Carolina  |  pointed  to  the  command  of  the  Wasp,  in  1814 
assembly.  Mr.  Blake  died  in  1700.  Although  j  he  captured  and  burnt  the  Reindeer,  after  an 
a  dissenter,  yet  with  a  highly  honorable  spirit  of  action  of  nineteen  minutes,  with  the  loss  of  twenty- 
liberality  he  prevailed  on  the  assembly  to  settle  one  men ;  the  enemy  lost  sixty-seven.  In  an 

on  the  Episcopal  minister  of  Charleston  150 
pounds  a  year,  and  to  furnish  him  with  a  house, 
glebe,  and  two  servants.  A  very  different,  an  in 
tolerant  and  persecuting  spirit  was  manifested 

action  Sept.  1,  1814,  the  Avon  struck  to  him, 
though  the  approach  of  other  vessels  prevented 
his  taking  possession  of  her.  The  last  account 
of  the  Wasp  is,  that  she  was  spoken  off  the  West- 

towards  the  dissenters  in  the  subsequent  admin-  ]  ern   Isles.     In  what    manner   Blakeley  died  is, 
istration  of  Johnson.  —  Univ.  Hist.  XL.  427.         j  therefore,   not  known.     His  Avife  and  an  infant 
BLAKE,    JAMKS,   a   preacher,   died  Nov.   17,  i  daughter    survived.     The    legislature  of   North 

1771,  aged  21.  He  was  a  native  of  Dorchester, 
and  was  graduated  at  Harvard  in  1769.  In  col 
lege  he  was  distinguished  by  the  sweetness  of 
his  temper  and  the  purity  of  his  morals.  He 
conciliated  the  love  of  his  fellow  students,  and 
the  high  approbation  of  his  instructors.  After 
pursuing  for  some  time  his  theological  studies 
under  the  care  of  Mr.  Smith  of  Weymouth,  he 
began  with  reluctance  at  a  very  early  period  the 

Carolina  passed  the  resolution  that  this  child  "  be 
educated  at  the  expense  of  the  State." 

BLAKEMAX,  ADAM,  first  minister  of  Strat 
ford,  died  in  1665.  His  son  Benjamin,  a  graduate 
of  Harvard  in  1663,  was  a  preacher  at  Maiden. 
The  catalogue  has  the  name  Blackman. 

BLANC,  VIXCEXT  LE,  a  traveller  in  Asia,  Af 
rica,  and  America,  from  the  age  of  twelve  to  sixty, 
gives  an  account  of  Canada  in  his  book,  entitled, 

important  work  of  the  ministry.  A  small  volume  «  Les  Voyages  fameux,  &c.,"  1648.  Though  his 
of  his  sermons,  which  was  published  by  his  friends  j  narrative  is  in  some  respects  valuable,  yet  it  is 
after  his  death,  displays  a  strength  of  mind  and  j  confused,  with  little  regard  to  dates,  and  tolerant 
a  knowledge  of  theoretical  and  practical  divinity  j  towards  fables.  The  author  speaks  of  the  giant 
very  uncommon  in  a  person  so  young.  His  ser-  j  stature  of  the  Indians.  —  Charlevoix,  I.  4. 
mons  also  indicate  a  warmth  of  pious  feeling,  j  BLANC,  JEAX  LE,  chief  of  the  Outaouais,  or 
honorable  to  his  character.  —  P>'ff-  to  his  Serm.  Ottaway  Indians,  —  called  Lc  Blanc,  because  his 

Coll.  Hist.  Soc.  ix.  189. 

mother  was   as  white  as  a  French  woman,  —  was 

BLAKE,  GEOUGE,  died  at  Boston  Oct.  6, 1841,  a  chief  of  talents,  and  difficult  to  be  won  by  the 
aged  73.  A  graduate  of  1789,  he  was  a  lawyer  !  governor.  He  rescued  the  Father  Constantin, 
of  eminence,  and  United  States  attorney  for  Mas-  -who  had  fallen  into  the  hands  of  the  Indians, 
sachusetts.  He  published  an  oration  at  Boston  |  In  1707  he  appeared  before  the  governor  at  Mont- 
July  4,  1795 ;  masonic  eulogy  on  Washington,  real  and  excused  his  tribe  for  some  disorders. 
1800.  j  This  chief,  whom  Charlevoix  denominates  a  bad 

BLAKE,  FRAXCIS,  brother  of  the  preceding,  I  Christian  and  a  great  drunkard,  was  asked  by 
a  graduate  of  1789,  died  at  Worcester  in  1817.  j  Frontenac,  of  what  he  supposed  the  water  of 
He  published  orations,  1796  and  1812,  and  exam-  j  life,  or  rum,  for  which  he  was  so  greedy,  was 

ination  of  embargo  laws,  1808. 

composed;    he   replied,  —  "It   is   an   extract  of 

BLAKE,  JOHN,  general,  died  in  Bangor  Jan.  tongues  and  hearts  ;  for  Avhen  I  have  been  drink- 
21,  1842,  aged  89;  —  a  soldier  of  the  Revolution.  •  ing  it,  I  fear  nothing  and  talk  marvellously." 

BLAKE,  CALEB,  minister  of  Westford  forty-  !  Hc  might  have  added,  —  "  It  is  the  essence  of  folly 
five  years,  died  May  11,  1847,  aged  85.  He  was  !  and  madness;  for  when  I  have  swallowed  it,  I 
a  graduate  of  Harvard  in  1784.  He  published  j  play  the  part  of  a  fool  and  a  madman."  Yet  the 

a  sermon  before  a  charitable  socictv,  1815. 

governor,  De  Callieres,  was  very  careful  never  to 

BLAKE,  ELEAZAR,  deacon,  died  in  Ilindgc  in  j  send  away  a  chief  until  after   "  regaling  "  him. 
Oct.,  1852,  aged  95.     He  was  in  the  battle  of  j  Thus,  from  policy  and  covetousness,  have  drunk- 




ards  had  the  poison  dealt  out  to  them  from  age 
to  age.  —  Charlei-oix,  II.  274,  311;  m.  30G. 

BLAND,  RICHARD,  a  political  writer,  died  in 
1778.  He  was  for  some  years  a  principal  mem 
ber  of  the  house  of  burgesses  in  Virginia.  In 
17G8  he  was  one  of  the  committee  to  remonstrate 
with  parliament  on  the  subject  of  taxation;  in 
177.3  one  of  the  committee  of  correspondence; 
in  1774  a  delegate  to  Congress.  He  was  again 
chosen  a  deputy  to  Congress  Aug.  12,  1775 ;  in 
returning  thanks  for  this  appointment  he  spoke 
of  himself  as  "  an  old  man,  almost  deprived  of 
sight,  whose  great  ambition  had  ever  been  to 
receive  the  plaudit  of  his  country,  whenever  he 
should  retire  from  the  public  stage  of  life."  The 
honor,  which  cometh  from  God,  would  have  been 
a  higher  aim.  Though  he  declined  the  appoint 
ment  from  old  age,  he  declared  he  should  ever 
be  animated  "  to  support  the  glorious  cause,  in 
which  America  was  engaged."  Francis  L.  Lee 
was  appointed  in  his  place.  Mr.  Wirt  speaks 
of  him  as  "  one  of  the  most  enlightened  men  in 
the  colony ;  a  man  of  finished  education  and  of 
the  most  unbending  habits  of  application.  His 
perfect  mastery  of  every  fact  connected  with  the 
settlement  and  progress  of  the  colony  had  given 
him  the  name  of  the  Virginia  antiquary.  He  was 
a  politician  of  the  first  class,  a  profound  logician, 
and  was  also  considered  as  the  first  writer  in  the 
colony."  He  published  in  1766  an  inquiry  into 
the  rights  of  the  British  colonies,  in  answer  to  a 
pamphlet  published  in  London  in  the  preceding 
year,  entitled,  regulations  lately  made  concerning 
the  colonies,  and  taxes  imposed  on  them,  consid 
ered.  This  was  one  of  the  three  productions  of 
Virginia  during  the  controversy  with  Great  Britain ; 
the  other  writers  were  Arthur  Lee  and  Jefferson. 
Rewrote  also  in  1758  on  the  controversy  between 
the  clergy  and  the  assembly  concerning  the  to 
bacco  tax  for  the  support  of  the  clergy.  —  Jeffer 
son's  Notes,  qu.  23  ;  Wirt's  Life  of  Henry,  46. 

BLAND,  THEODORIC,  a  worthy  patriot  and 
statesman,  died  at  New  York  while  attending  con 
gress,  June  1,  1790,  aged  48.  He  was  a  native 
of  Virginia,  and  descended  from  an  ancient  and 
respectable  family.  He  was  bred  to  the  science 
of  physic;  but  upon  the  commencement  of  the 
American  war  he  quitted  the  practice,  and  took 
an  active  part  in  the  cause  of  his  country.  He 
soon  rose  to  the  rank  of  colonel,  and  had  the 
command  of  a  regiment  of  dragoons.  While  in 
the  army  he  frequently  signalized  himself  by  bril 
liant  actions.  In  the  year  1780  he  was  elected 
to  a  seat  in  congress.  He  continued  in  that  body 
three  years,  .the  time  allowed  by  the  confedera 
tion.  After  the  expiration  of  this  term  he  again 
returned  to  Virginia,  and  was  chosen  a  member 
of  the  State  legislature.  He  opposed  the  adop 
tion  of  the  constitution,  believing  it  to  be  repugnant 
to  the  interests  of  his  country,  and  was  in  the 


minority  that  voted  against  its  ratification.  But, 
when  it  was  at  length  adopted,  he  submitted  to 
the  voice  of  the  majority.  He  was  chosen  to  rep 
resent  the  district  in  which  he  lived,  in  the  first 
congress  under  the  constitution.  When  the  sub 
ject  of  the  assumption  of  the  State  debts  was 
debated  in  March,  1790,  he  made  a  speech  in 
favor  of  the  assumption,  differing  in  respect  to 
this  measure  from  all  his  colleagues.  In  this 
speech  he  expressed  his  attachment  to  the  con 
stitution  as  amended,  though  he  wished  for  more 
amendments,  and  declared  his  dread  of  silent 
majorities  on  questions  of  great  and  general  con 
cern.  He  was  honest,  open,  candid;  and  his 
conduct  was  such  in  his  intercourse  with  mankind, 
as  to  secure  universal  respect.  Though  a  legis 
lator,  he  was  not  destitute  of  a  genius  for  poetry. 
—  Gazette  of  the  U.  S.,  April  17  and  June  5, 

BLAND,  THEODORIC,  died  at  Annapolis  Nov. 
16,  1846,  aged  69.  For  twenty-two  years  he  was 
chancellor  of  Maryland. 

BLATCHFORD,  SAMUEL,  D.  D.,  minister  of 
Lansingburg,  N.  Y.,  died  March  17,  1828,  aged 
60.  He  was  a  native  of  Plymouth,  England, 
wrhere  he  was  educated  and  became  a  dissenting 
minister.  In  1795  he  emigrated  to  the  United 
States :  after  a  residence  of  one  year  at  Bedford, 
Westchester  county,  he  succeeded  Dr.  Dwight 
at  Greenfield ;  subsequently  he  was  the  minister 
at  Bridgeport,  whence  he  was  invited  to  Lansing- 
burg  in  1804.  —  His  son,  Henry  Blatchford,  who 
had  been  pastor  of  the  Branch  church,  Salem, 
Mass.,  and  thence  removed  to  Lansingburg,  died 
in  Maryland  Sept.,  1822,  aged  34.  — Dr.  Blatch 
ford  was  a  sound  scholar  and  theologian,  and  as 
a  pastor  kind,  persuasive,  and  often  eloquent  in 
his  manner.  He  was  endeared  to  his  acquaint 
ance  by  his  estimable  virtues  and  his  Christian 

BLATCHFORD,  JOHN,  D.  D.,  the  son  of  the 
preceding,  died  at  the  house  of  his  son-in-law,  M. 
Collins,  in  St.  Louis,  April  8,  1855,  aged  56.  He 
was  for  some  years  the  minister  of  the  Presbyte 
rian  church  in  Chicago.  His  last  residence  was 
at  Quincy,  Illinois. 

BLAUVELT,  ISAAC,  a  minister,  died  in  New 
Rochelle  April,  1841,  aged  90,  in  the  peace  and 
hope  of  the  gospel. 

BLEDSOE,  JESSE,  died  in  Kentucky  June  30, 
1837.  He  may  be  held  up  as  a  beacon  and  a 
warning  to  others.  A  lawyer,  a  senator  of  the 
United  States  in  1813,  professor  of  law  in  the 
university,  chief  justice  of  the  supreme  court  of 
Kentucky ;  of  talents,  eloquence,  and  unequalled 
influence  for  a  time,  he  yet  in  consequence  of 
intemperance  became  a  miserable  outcast  and 

BLEECKER,  ANN  ELIZA,  a  lady  of  some  liter 
ary  celebrity  in  New  York,  died  Nov.  23,  1783, 




aged  31.  She  was  the  daughter  of  Mr.  Brandt 
Schuylcr,  and  was  born  in  October,  1 752.  From 
early  life  she  was  passionately  fond  of  books.  In 
1769  she  was  married  to  John  I.  Bleecker,  Esq., 
of  New  Ilochelle,  and  removed  to  Poughkeepsie, 
and  shortly  afterwards  to  Tomhanic,  a  beautiful, 
solitary  village,  eighteen  miles  above  Albany, 
where  she  lived  a  number  of  years  in  great  tran 
quillity  and  happiness.  But  the  approach  of  Bur- 
goync's  army  in  1777  drove  her  from  her  retreat 
in  circumstances  of  terror.  She  fled  on  foot  with 
her  two  little  daughters,  and  obtained  shelter  for 
the  night  at  Stone  Arabia.  In  a  few  days  she 
lost  the  youngest  of  her  children.  This  affliction 
cast  a  gloom  over  her  mind ;  and  possessing  an 
excessive  sensibility,  though  not  unacquainted 
with  religious  consolations,  she  was  unable  to  sup 
port  the  Aveight  of  her  troubles.  After  the  peace 
she  revisited  New  York  to  awaken  afresh  the 
scenes  of  her  childhood ;  but  the  dispersion  of 
her  friends,  and  the  desolation,  which  everywhere 
presented  itself  to  her  sight,  overwhelmed  her. 
She  returned  to  her  cottage,  where  she  died.  She 
was  the  friend  of  the  aged  and  infirm,  and  her 
kindness  and  benevolence  to  the  poor  of  the  vil 
lage,  where  she  lived,  caused  her  death  to  be  deeply 
lamented.  After  her  death,  some  of  her  writings 
were  collected  and  published,  in  1793,  under 
the  title  of  the  posthumous  works  of  Ann  Eliza 
Bleecker,  in  prose  and  verse.  To  this  work  are 
prefixed  memoirs  of  her  life,  written  by  her 
daughter,  Margaretta  V.  Faugeres.  There  is 
also  added  to  the  volume  a  collection  of  Mrs. 
Faugeres'  essays.  —  Hardies  Biog.  Diet. ;  Spec. 
Amer.  Poetry,  I.  211-220. 

BLEECKER,  ANTHONY,  a  poet,  was  born  about 
the  year  1778  and  educated  at  Columbia  college 
in  the  city  of  New  York.  The  circumstances  of 
his  family  constrained  him  to  study  law,  though 
he  never  succeeded  as  an  advocate  in  consequence 
of  an  unconquerable  diffidence,  a  somewhat  rare 
failing  in  a  lawyer.  Yet  was  he  respected  in  his 
profession  for  his  learning  and  integrity.  After 
a  short  illness  he  died  in  the  spring  of  1827, 
aged  49  years.  For  tlu'rty  years  the  periodical 
literature  of  New  York  and  Philadelphia  was 
constantly  indebted  to  his  fancy  and  good  taste. 
—  Spec.  Amer.  Poetry,  n.  381-386. 

BLEECKER,  HARMANUS,  died  in  Albany  in 
July,  1849,  aged  70.  lie  was  the  son  of  Jacob 
B.,  a  respected  merchant,  and  a  descendant  of 
John  Jansen  B.  As  a  lawyer  he  was  associated 
with  Theodore  Sedgwick.  As  a  member  of  con 
gress  he  opposed  the  war  of  1812.  Mr.  Van 
Buren  appointed  him  minister  to  Holland.  With 
the  Dutch  language  he  was  perfectly  acquainted ; 
in  Holland  he  married  a  Dutch  lady  of  beauty 
and  accomplishments.  He  was  himself  of  pleas 
ing  manners  and  great  dignity :  and  he  had  a 
deep  sense  of  justice  and  an  unfailing  regard  to  it. 

BLENNERHASSETT,  HARMAN,  died  in  the 
island  of  Guernsey,  in  1831,  aged  63.  His  widow, 
Margaret,  died  in  New  York  in  utter  poverty  in 
1842.  He  was  an  Englishman  of  wealth  and 
well  educated,  who  came  to  Marietta  in  1797. 
He  bought  a  plantation  of  one  hundred  and  seventy 
acres  on  a  beautiful  island  in.  the  Ohio,  fourteen 
miles  below  the  Muskingum,  in  Virginia,  now 
known  by  his  name.  His  mansion  and  improve 
ments  cost  40,000  dollars.  He  was  a  man  of 
science  and  taste,  and  his  wife  was  most  beautiful 
and  accomplished,  skilled  in  French  and  Italian. 
His  home  was  a  scene  of  enchantment.  But  now, 
in  1806,  came  the  destroyer,  Aaron  Burr,  and 
persuaded  him  to  engage  in  his  projects.  In  con 
sequence  he  fled  from  the  island;  was  tried  for 
treason;  and  had  heavy  debts  to  pay,  contracted 
for  Burr.  He  next  lived  ten  years  in  Mississippi, 
and  thence  removed  to  Montreal  and  England. 
Dr.  Hildreth  has  published  the  Deserted  Isle, 
being  verses  written  by  his  wife.  He  thinks  the 
unhappy  man  was  an  Infidel,  and  "  lacked  one  thing, 
without  which  no  man  can  be  happy  :  a  firm  be 
lief  in  the  overruling  providence  of  God."  — 
Hildreth's  Biog.  Memoirs. 

BLINMAN,  RICHARD,  first  minister  of  New 
London,  Connecticut,  was  a  native  of  Great  Britain, 
and  was  minister  at  Chepstow  in  Monmouthshire. 
On  his  arrival  in  this  country  in  1642  it  was  his 
intention  to  settle  with  his  friends,  who  accom 
panied  him,  at  Green's  harbor,  or  Marshfield,  near 
Plymouth.  But  some  difficulty  arising  in  that 
place,  he  removed  to  Cape  Ann,  which  the  general 
court  in  the  year  above  mentioned  established  a 
plantation  and  called  Gloucester.  He  removed 
to  New  London  in  1648.  Here  he  continued  in 
the  ministry  about  ten  years,  and  was  then  suc 
ceeded  by  GershomBulklcy.  In  1658  he  removed 
to  New  Haven,  and  after  a  short  stay  in  that 
town  returned  to  England.  On  his  way  he  stop 
ped  in  1659  at  Newfoundland,  where  he  declined 
to  settle.  Johnson  wrote  his  name  Blindman; 
Trumbull,  Blynman.  —  Having  lived  to  a  good 
old  age,  he  happily  concluded  at  the  city  of  Bris 
tol  a  life  spent  in  doing  good.  A  short  time  be 
fore  his  death  he  published  in  answer  to  Mr. 
Danvers  a  book  entitled,  an  essay  tending  to  issue 
the  controversy  about  infant  baptism,  18mo.,  1674. 
—  Nonconform.  Memor.  in.  177;  Coll.  Hist.  Soc. 
ix.  39 ;  Savage's  Wintlirop,  II.  64 ;  TrumbulVs 
Conn.  I.  293/310,  314,  522. 

BLISS,  JAMES  C.,  M.  D.,  died  in  New  York 
July  31,  1855,  aged  64.  Born  in  Bennington,  he 
graduated  at  the  college  of  physicians  in  New 
York  in  1815,  and  then  commenced  his  practice 
of  forty  years.  As  a  physician  and  Christian  he 
was  eminent ;  in  the  families  of  ministers  and  of 
the  poor  his  services  were  gratuitous.  He  was  a 
member  of  the  south  Dutch  church,  then  an  elder 
in  the  Bleecker  street  church.  He  joined  the 


young  men's  missionary  society ;  was  correspond 
ing  secretary  of  the  New  York  religious  tract 
society,  for  which  he  prepared  in  one  year  seventy- 
five  religious  tracts  ;  and  was  one  of  the  founders 
of  the  American  tract  society,  and  one  of  the 
executive  committee,  most  diligent  for  thirty  years. 
His  last  tear  fell  in  hearing  his  daughter  repeat 
the  text,  "  Eye  hath  not  seen,  nor  ear  heard," 
&C.  —  N.  T.  Observer,  Aug.  16,  1855. 

BLISS,  JOHX,  colonel,  an  officer  of  the  Revo 
lution,  died  in  Springfield  in  1804,  descended  from 
Thomas  Bliss  of  Hartford,  who  died  in  1640,  and 
from  Nathaniel  of  Springfield. — He  was  a  sen 
ator  and  a  judge  of  the  court  of  common  pleas. 
His  daughter  was  the  mother  of  Judge  Oliver  B. 
Morris  of  Springfield. 

BLISS,  GEORGE,  LL.  D.,  died  at  Springfield 
March  8,  1830,  aged  65.  He  was  a  son  of  Moses 
B.  of  S.  and  Abigail  Mctcalf,  a  daughter  of  Wil 
liam  M.  of  Lebanon.  His  father  died  July  4, 
1814,  aged  78.  G.  Bliss's  three  wives  were  Han 
nah,  daughter  of  Dr.  John  Clark  of  Lebanon; 
Mary  Lathrop  of  New  Haven,  and  Abigail,  daugh 
ter  of  Rev.  David  S.  Rowland.  He  had  four 
children  by  his  first  wife  and  four  by  his  third. 
His  brother  Moses  died  in  S.  in  1849,  aged  75. 
He  had  ten  children. 

BLISS,  JOHN,  colonel,  died  at  St.  Augustine  Nov. 
22,  1854,  aged  G6.  A  graduate  of  Cambridge  in 
1808,  he  was  an  officer,  wounded  at  Niagara  falls 
in  1814  ;  he  was  an  instructor  and  commander  of 
cadets  at  West  Point  from  1813  to  1819.  His 
military  office  he  resigned  in  1837 ;  he  lived  at 

BLODGET,  SAMUEL,  remarkable  for  enter 
prise,  died  in  Aug.,  1807,  aged  84.  He  was  born 
at  Woburn,  Mass.,  and  resided  many  years  at 
Haverhill.  Before  the  Revolution  he  was  a  judge 
of  the  court  of  common  pleas  for  the  county  of 
Hillsborough,  N.  II.  He  was  engaged  in  the  ex 
pedition  against  Louisbourg  in  1745.  Having 
raised  in  1783,  by  a  machine  of  his  invention,  a 
valuable  cargo  from  a  ship  sunk  near  Plymouth, 
he  was  induced  to  go  to  Europe  for  the  purpose 
of  recovering  from  the  deep  the  treasures  buried 
therein.  In  Spain  he  met  with  discouragement. 
His  project  for  raising  the  Royal  George  was  no 
better  received  in  England.  After  his  return  he 
set  up  a  duck  manufactory  in  1791 ;  and  in  1793 
he  removed  to  N.  II.  and  commenced  the  canal, 
which  bears  his  name,  around  Amoskcag  falls. 
He  expended  much  money  without  completing  the 
work,  became  embarrassed,  and  for  a  time  suf 
fered  imprisonment  for  debt.  Judge  B.  was  rig 
idly  temperate.  At  all  seasons  he  slept  in  a 
large  room,  with  open  windows.  He  intended  to 
live,  in  consequence  of  the  course  he  pursued, 
until  he  was  ajt  least  100  years  old ;  but  he  died 
of  a  consumption,  occasioned  by  his  exposure  in 
travelling  from  Boston  to  Haverhill  in  a  cold 



night.  His  projects  for  public  improvements  un 
happily  involved  him  in  great  pecuniary  losses. 
He  wanted  more  skill.  — Mass.  Hist.  Coll.,  n.  s. 
IV.  158. 

BLOOMFIELI),  JOSEPH,  governor  of  New 
Jersey,  was  probably  a  descendant  of  Thomas 
Bloomfield,  who  lived  at  Ncwbury,  Mass.,  in 
1638  and  afterwards  removed  to  New  Jersey. 
He  was  a  soldier  of  the  Revolution.  He  suc 
ceeded  Richard  Howell  as  governor  in  1801,  and 
was  succeeded  in  that  office  by  Aaron  Ogdcn  in 
1812.  In  the  war,  which  commenced  in  this  year, 
he  was  a  brigadier-general.  He  died  at  Burling 
ton  Oct.  3,  1823.  Gen.  Bloomfield  was  a  firm 
republican  in  politics ;  in  congress  a  sound  legis 
lator  ;  a  brave  soldier  in  the  field ;  and  in  private 
life  an  excellent  man.  —  Farmer's  Collect.,  n. 
App.  91. 

BLOUNT,  WILLIAM,  governor  of  the  territory 
south  of  the  Ohio,  was  appointed  to  that  office 
in  1790.  The  first  governor  of  Tennessee  under 
the  constitution  in  1796  was  John  Sevier.  While 
a  member  of  the  senate  of  the  U.  S.  from  Ten 
nessee,  Mr.  Blount  was  expelled  from  that  body 
in  July,  1797,  for  being  concerned  in  a  project  of 
the  British  to  conquer  the  Spanish  territories,  and 
instigating  the  Creeks  and  Cherokees  to  lend  their 
aid.  He  died  at  Knoxvillc  March  26,  1800, 
aged  56. 

BLOUNT,  WILLIE,  governor  of  Tenn.  from 
1809  to  1815,  died  at  Nashville  Sept.  10,  1835, 
aged  68. 

BLOWERS,  THOMAS,  minister  in  Beverly, 
Massachusetts,  died  June  17,  1729,  aged  51.  He 
was  bom  at  Cambridge  Aug.  1,  1677.  His 
mother  was  the  sister  of  Andrew  Belcher.  He 
was  graduated  at  Harvard  college  in  1695,  and 
was  ordained  pastor  of  the  first  church  in  Beverly 
Oct.  29,  1701.  He  was  a  good  scholar,  and  an 
excellent  minister ;  of  sincere  and  ardent  piety ; 
of  great  meekness  and  sweetness  of  temper ;  of 
uncommon  stability  in  his  principles  and  steadi 
ness  in  his  conduct.  He  was  a  vigilant,  prudent 
pastor,  and  a  close,  pathetic  preacher.  He  pub 
lished  a  sermon  on  the  death  of  Rev.  Joseph  Green 
of  Salem  village,  1715.  —  A7.  E.  Weekly  Journal, 
June  23,  1729  ;  Foxcrqft's  Funeral  Sermon. 

BLOWERS,  SAMPSON  SALTER,  died  at  Hali 
fax,  N.  S.,  Oct.  25,  1842,  aged  100  years  and  6 
months.  A  graduate  of  Harvard  in  1763,  he 
survived  all  who  graduated  before  him.  Born  in 
Boston,  he  studied  law  under  Gov.  Hutchinson. 
In  1770  he  was  counsel  with  Adams  and  Quincy 
in  the  trial  of  the  British  soldiers.  As  a  tory  he 
was  sent  to  Halifax.  He  was  raised  to  the  su 
preme  bench  in  1795,  and  was  presiding  judge 
from  1801  to  1833.  His  name  was  in  the  pro 
scribing  act  of  Mass,  in  1778. 

BOARDMAX,  GEORGE  D.,  an  eminent  Bap 
tist  missionary  to  Burmah,  died  Feb.  11,  1831. 




BOGARDUS,  EYERARDUS,  the  first  minister 
of  the  Reformed  Dutch  church  in  New  York, 
came  early  to  this  country,  though  the  exact  time 
of  his  arrival  is  not  known.  The  records  of  this 
church  begin  with  the  year  1639.  He  was  or 
dained  and  sent  forth,  it  is  believed,  by  the  classis 
of  Amsterdam,  which  had  for  a  number  of  years 
the  superintendence  of  the  Dutch  churches  in 
New  Netherlands,  or  the  province  of  New  York. 
The  tradition  is,  that  Mr.  Bogardus  became  blind 
and  returned  to  Holland  some  time  before  the  sur 
render  of  the  colony  to  the  British  in  1664.  lie 
was  succeeded  by  John  and  Samuel  Megapolen- 
sis.  —  Christian's  Mag.  N.  Y.  I.  368. 

BOGARDUS,  ROBERT,  general,  nearly  fifty 
years  at  the  bar  of  New  York,  died  Sept.  12, 
1841,  aged  70.  He  was  a  State  senator. 

BOGART,  ABRAHAM,  died  in  the  poor-house 
in  Maury  county,  Tenn.,  June  14,  1833,  aged  118 
years,  —  a  native  of  Delaware.  He  never  drank 
spirits  and  he  never  was  sick. 

BOLLAN,  WILLIAM,  agent  of  Massachusetts 
in  Great  Britain,  died  in  England  in  1776.  He 
was  born  in  England,  and  came  to  this  country 
about  the  year  1740.  In  1743  he  married  a  most 
amiable  and  accomplished  lady,  the  daughter  of 
Gov.  Shirley,  who  died  at  the  age  of  25.  Mr. 
Bollan  was  a  lawyer  of  eminence,  in  profitable 
business,  was  advocate  general,  and  had  just  re 
ceived  the  appointment  of  collector  of  customs 
for  Salem  and  Marblehead,  Avhen  he  was  sent  to 
England  in  1745  as  agent  to  solicit  a  reimburse 
ment  of  the  expenses  in  the  expedition  against 
Cape  Breton.  It  was  a  difficult,  toilsome  agency 
of  three  years  ;  but  he  conducted  it  with  great 
skill  and  fidelity,  and  obtained  at  last  a  full  repay 
ment  of  the  expenditure,  being  183,649  pounds 
sterling.  He  arrived  at  Boston  Sept.  19,  1748, 
with  653,000  ounces  of  silver  and  ten  tons  of  cop 
per,  reckoned  at  175,000  pounds  sterling,  or 
nearly  800,000  dollars.  He  was  again  sent  to 
England  as  the  agent :  but  it  appears  from  a  let 
ter,  which  he  wrote  in  1752  to  the  secretary  of 
Massachusetts,  that  for  his  three  years'  services 
the  colony,  after  seven  years  from  his  appoint 
ment,  voted  him  the  sum  of  only  1500  pounds 
sterling.  He  had  supported  his  family,  and  ad 
vanced  of  his  money  in  the  agency  business  as 
much  as  fifteen  hundred  pounds ;  he  had  aban 
doned  a  profitable  business,  which  would  have 
yielded  him  double  the  amount  voted  him ;  and 
besides  this  he  had  passed  his  years  in  the  degra 
dation  of  "  a  continual  state  of  attendance  and 
dependence  on  the  motions  and  pleasures  of  the 
great,"  standing  alone  too  without  any  support  or 
assistance.  After  Gov.  Shirley  was  superseded, 
attempts  were  made  to  displace  Mr.  Bollan,  not 
withstanding  his  address  and  talents,  and  his 
long,  faithful,  and  important  services.  His  con 

nection  with  Shirley  and  his  attachment  to  the 
Episcopal  form  of  worship  awakened  prejudices. 
Dissatisfaction  had  also  been  occasioned  by  his 
making  some  deductions  from  the  money,  granted 
in  1759,  as  a  reimbursement  to  the  province,  and 
his  neglecting  to  correspond  with  the  general 
court.  He  was  dismissed  in  1762,  and  Jasper 
Mauduit,  whose  learning;  and  talents  were  not  ad 
equate  to  the  office,  was  appointed  in  his  place. 
i  In  1768  or  1769  he  obtained  from  Alderman 
Bcckford  copies  of  thirty-three  letters  of  Gov. 
Bernard,  which  he  sent  to  Massachusetts,  being 
employed  as  agent  by  the  council,  though  not  by 
the  general  court.  For  this  act  Lord  North  ex 
claimed  against  him  in  parliament ;  but  it  restored 
his  lost  popularity.  Mr.  Hancock  declared  in 
the  house  of  representatives,  that  there  Avas  no 
man,  to  whom  the  colonies  were  more  indebted. 
In  1775  he  exerted  himself  in  recommending  to 
the  mother  country  conciliatory  measures.  Sev 
eral  of  his  letters  and  writings  are  in  the  Mass. 
Historical  Collections,  vols.  I.  and  Yl.  In  one  of 
them  he  maintains,  that  the  boundary  of  Nova 
Scotia  to  the  north  is  the  river  of  Canada.  He 
published  a  number  of  political  tracts,  among 
which  are  the  following :  importance  of  Cape  Bre 
ton  truly  illustrated,  Lond.,  1746;  colonioc  Angli- 
canaB  illustratae,  1762  ;  the  ancient  right  of  the 
English  nation  to  the  American  fishery  examined 
and  stated,  1764 ;  the  :  .utual  interests  of  Great 
Britain  and  the  American  colonies  considered, 
1765 ;  freedom  of  speech  and  writing  upon  public 
affairs  considered,  1766 ;  the  importance  of  the 
colonies  in  North  America  and  the  interests  of 
Great  Britain  with  regard  to  them  considered, 
1766 ;  epistle  from  Timoleon,  1768 ;  continued 
corruption  of  standing  armies,  1768 ;  the  free 
Briton's  memorial,  in  defence  of  the  right  of  elec 
tion,  1769  ;  a  supplemental  memorial,  on  the  ori 
gin  of  parliaments,  &c.,  1770  ;  a  petition  to  the 
king  in  council  Jan.  26,  1774,  with  illustrations 
intended  to  promote  the  harmony  of  Great  Brit- 
ian  and  her  colonies.  This  petition  he  offered  as 
agent  for  the  council  of  the  province  of  Massa 
chusetts.  —  Ilutchinson's  Mass.  II.  436 ;  Minofs 
Contin.  II.  109,  110;  Eliot. 

BOLLES,  Lucius,  D.  D.,  died  in  Boston  Jan. 
5,  1844,  aged  64.  He  had  been  pastor  of  the 
first  Baptist  church,  Salem,  and  was  many  years 
secretary  of  the  Baptist  board  of  foreign  missions. 
He  published  a  sermon  before  the  association, 

BOLLMAN,  ERICH,  M.  D.,  was  born  at  Hoya, 
in  Hanover,  in  Europe,  and  was  well  educated, 
receiving  his  medical  degree  at  Gottingen.  He 
settled  as  a  physician  at  Paris.  In  1794  he  engaged 
in  the  project  of  releasing  La  Fayette  from  the  prison 
of  Olmutz.  His  coadjutor  was  Francis  Iluger, 
an  American,  son  of  Col.  Hugcr  of  South  Caro- 




lina.  He  found  means  through  the  surgeon  to 
communicate  with  the  prisoner.  As  La  Fayctte 
was  riding  out  for  his  health,  Nov.  8,  the  guard 
was  attacked  and  overcome  :  the  prisoner  and  his 
deliverers  galloped  off,  but  missing  the  way,  were 
soon  captured.  Dr.  Bollman  was  confined  twelve 
months  and  then  banished.  After  ho  came  to  the 
United  States,  he  was  implicated  in  the  conspir 
acy  of  Burr.  On  his  return  from  South  America 
he  died  at  Jamaica  of  the  yellow  fever  Dec.  9, 
1821.  He  published  paragraphs  on  banks,  1810 ; 
improved  system  of  the  money  concerns  of  the 
union,  1816 ;  strictures  on  the  theories  of  Mr. 
Kicardo.  —  Jennison. 

BOMFORD,  GEORGE,  colonel,  died  in  Boston, 
March  25,  1828.  He  was  distinguished  in  the 
war  with  Great  Britain.  He  perfected  the  ord 
nance  department. 

BOMMASEEN,  an  Indian  chief,  signed  the 
treaty  of  Pcmaquid  in  Maine  Aug.  11,  1693,  with 
Madockawondo  and  other  sagamores.  It  was  one 
part  of  the  agreement  that,  as  the  French  had 
instigated  wars,  the  Indians  should  abandon  the 
French  interest.  The  treaty  is  given  at  length 
by  Mather.  The  next  year,  after  various  barbari 
ties  at  Kittery  and  elsewhere,  in  which  he  was 
suspected  to  have  been  concerned,  Bommaseen 
presented  himself  with  two  other  Indians  at 
Pcmaquid,  "  as  loving  as  bears  and  as  harmless 
as  tigers,"  pretending  to  have  just  come  from 
Canada  ;  when  Capt.  March  made  him  prisoner 
Nov.  19,  and  sent  him  to  Boston,  where  he  was 
kept  a  year  or  two  in  gaol.  In  1696  one  of  the 
ministers  of  Boston  visited  Bommaseen  at  his  re 
quest  in  prison,  when  the  savage  inquired,  whether 
it  was  true,  as  the  French  had  taught  him,  that 
the  Virgin  Mary  was  a  French  lady,  and  that  it 
was  the  English  who  murdered  Jesus  Christ,  and 
whether  he  required  his  disciples  "  to  revenge 
Ins  quarrel  upon  the  English  ? "  The  minister 
gave  him  suitable  religious  instruction,  and  taught 
him  how  to  obtain  the  pardon  of  sins  from  God, 
Avithout  paying  beaver  skins  for  it  to  a  priest ; 
which  instruction  was  received  with  strong  ex 
pressions  of  gratitude.  This  is  the  serious  nar 
rative  of  Cotton  Mather.  Unless  the  Indian 
invented  the  story,  what  a  proof  is  here  furnished 
of  the  depravity  of  the  French  teachers  of  the 
savages !  After  his  liberation  Bommaseen  mani 
fested  his  humanity  by  saving  the  life  of  Rebecca 
Taylor,  a  captive,  whom  her  master  was  endeav 
oring  to  hang  with  his  belt  near  Montreal  in 
1696.  —  Ilulchinson,  II.  149 ;  Magnal.  VII.  22. 

BOND,  THOMAS,  M.  D.,  a  distinguished  physi 
cian  and  surgeon,  died  March  26,  1784,  aged  72. 
He  was  born  in  Maryland  in  1712.  After  study 
ing  with  Dr.  Hamilton,  he  spent  a  considerable 
time  in  Paris.  On  his  return  he  commenced  the 
practice  of  medicine  at  Philadelphia  about  the 

year  1734.  With  his  brother,  Dr.  Phineas  Bond, 
he  attended  the  Pennsylvania  hospital,  in  which 
the  first  clinical  lectures  were  delivered  by  him. 
He  assisted  in  founding  the  college  and  academy. 
Of  a  literary  society,  composed  of  Franklin,  Bar- 
tram,  Godfrey,  and  others,  he  was  a  member  in 
1743,  and  an  officer  of  the  philosophical  society 
from  its  establishment.  The  annual  address  be 
fore  the  society  was  delivered  by  him  in  1782,  on 
the  rank  of  man  in  the  scale  of  being.  For  half 
a  century  he  had  the  first  practice  in  Philadel 
phia.  Though  disposed  to  pulmonary  consumption, 
by  attention  to  diet,  and  guarding  against  the 
changes  of  the  weather,  and  the  obstruction  of 
blood  when  his  lungs  were  affected,  he  lived  to  a 
good  old  age.  His  daughter,  married  to  Thomas 
Lawrence,  died  in  177 1.  His  brother,  Dr.  Phineas 
Bond,  who  studied  at  Leyden,  Paris,  Edinburgh, 
and  London,  and  was  an  eminent  practitioner  in 
Philadelphia,  died  in  June,  1773,  aged  56.  lie 
published  in  the  London  Medical  Inquiries  and 
Observations,  vol.  I.,  an  account  of  a  worm  in  the 
liver,  1754;  on  the  use  of  Peruvian  bark  in 
scrofula,  vol.  II.  —  Thacher's  Med.  Biog. ;  Ham- 
say's  Rev.  Med.  37  ;  Miller  I.  312. 

BOND,  THOMAS  F,,  I).  D.,  editor  of  the  New 
York  Christian  Advocate  and  Journal,  died  March 
19,  1856,  aged  74.  A  native  of  Maryland,  he 
joined  the  Methodist  church  in  Baltimore  in  1805 ; 
and  there  he  lived  many  years  in  various  offices 
of  trust.  He  was  respected  and  beloved. 

BONNYCASTLE,  CHARLES,  died  in  Oct.,  1840, 
aged  48,  the  son  of  John  B.  of  England,  He  was 
the  author  of  algebra  ;  professor  of  mathematics 
in  the  university  of  Virginia ;  and  published  a 
work  on  inductive  geometry. 

BONYTHON,  RICHARD,  captain,  died  before 
1653.  He  was  one  of  the  first  settlers  of  Saco, 
had  a  grant  of  one  hundred  and  twenty  acres  in 
Saco,  1629.  He  was  one  of  the  commissioners 
under  Gorges  for  the  government  of  the  province 
of  Maine,  then  called  New  Somersetshire,  in  1636. 
The  first  meeting  was  held  at  Saco  March  25, 
which  was  the  first  day  of  the  year.  When 
Gorges  had  obtained  from  the  king  a  new  charter 
of  the  province,  Bonython  was  named  one  of  the 
council,  with  Vines,  Jocelyn,  and  others,  in  1640. 
The  last  court  under  under  this  authority  was 
held  at  Wells  in  1646.  He  lived  in  a  house  on 
the  left  bank  of  the  Saco,  just  below  the  falls. 
His  name  is  written  Benython  by  Sullivan  and 
Bonighton  by  Farmer  and  Willis.  He  was  an 
upright  and  worthy  magistrate  ;  even  against  his 
own  son  he  once  entered  a  complaint.  This  son 
was  John  Bonython,  who  was  outlawed  for  con 
temning  the  summons  of  court  and  was  guilty  of 
various  outrages ;  he  died  in  1684.  —  His  ungov 
ernable  temper  procured  him  the  title  of  the 
sagamore  of  Saco  in  the  couplet  proposed  for  his 



gravestone,  which  represents  him  as  having  gone 
to  the  evil  spirit  of  the  Indians : 

"  Here  lies  Bonython,  the  sagamore  of  Saco  ; 
He  lived  a  rogue  and  died  a  knave  and  went  to  Ilobomocko." 

Although  he  left  many  children,  yet  his  name  is 
extinct  in  Maine  and  probably  in  New  England. 
—  Folsom's  Hist.  Saco,  113,  115;  Sullivan,  368. 

BOOGE,  PUBLICS  V.,  died  in  Oneida  co.,  Xew 
York,  Sept.  28,  1836,  aged  72  ;  the  oldest  minister 
in  the  presbytery  of  O.  A  graduate  of  Yale  in 
1787,  he  preached  much  in  New  England. 

BOONE,  DAXIEL,  colonel,  one  of  the  first  set 
tlers  of  Kentucky,  died  in  Missouri  Sept.  26, 1820, 
aged  nearly  90.  While  he  was  young,  his  parents, 
who  came  from  Bridgeworth,  Eng.,  removed  from 
Pennsylvania  or  Virginia  to  the  Yadkin  river  in 
North  Carolina.  He  was  early  addicted  to  hunt 
ing  in  the  woods ;  in  the  militia  he  attained  to 
the  rank  of  colonel.  In  1769,  in  consequence  of 
the  representation  of  John  Finley,  who  had  pen 
etrated  into  the  wilderness  of  Kentucky,  he  was 
induced  to  accompany  him  in  a  journey  to  that 
country.  He  had  four  other  companions,  John 
Stuart,  Joseph  Holden,  James  Money,  and  William 
Cool,  with  whom  he  set  out  May  1.  On  the  7th 
of  June  they  arrived  at  the  Red  river,  a  branch 
of  the  Kentucky ;  and  here  from  the  top  of  a 
hill  they  had  a  view  of  the  fertile  plains,  of  which 
they  were  in  pursuit.  They  encamped  and  re 
mained  in  this  place  till  Dec.  22,  when  Boone 
and  Stuart  were  captured  by  the  Indians  near 
Kentucky  river.  In  about  a  week  they  made 
their  escape ;  but  on  returning  to  their  camp,  they 
found  it  plundered,  and  deserted  by  their  com 
panions,  who  had  gone  back  to  Carolina.  Stuart 
was  soon  killed  by  the  Indians ;  but  Boone  was 
joined  by  his  brother,  and  they  remained  and 
prosecuted  the  business  of  hunting  during  the 
winter,  without  further  molestation.  His  brother 
going  home  for  supplies  in  May  1770,  he  re 
mained  alone  in  the  deep  solitude  of  the  western 
wilderness  until  his  return  with  ammunition  and 
horses  July  27th.  During  this  period  this  wild 
man  of  the  woods,  though  greeted  every  night 
with  the  howlings  of  wolves,  was  delighted  in 
his  excursions  with  the  survey  of  the  beauties  of 
the  country,  and  found  greater  pleasure  in  the 
solitude  of  wild  nature,  than  he  could  have  found 
amid  the  hum  of  the  most  elegant  city.  With 
his  brother  he  traversed  the  country  to  Cumber 
land  river.  It  was  not  until  March,  1771,  that 
he  returned  to  his  family,  resolved  to  conduct 
them  to  the  paradise  which  he  had  explored. 

Having  sold  his  farm,  he  set  out  with  his  own 
and  five  other  families  Sept.  25,  1773,  and  was 
joined  in  Powell's  valley  by  forty  men.  After 
passing  over  two  mountains,  called  Powell's  and 
Walden's,  through  which,  as  they  ranged  from 
the  northeast  to  the  southwest,  passes  were  found, 


and  approaching  the  Cumberland,  the  rear  of  the 
company  was  attacked  by  the  Indians  on  the  10th 
of  October,  when  six  men  Avere  killed,  among 
whom  was  the  eldest  son  of  Col.  Boone.  One 
man  was  also  wounded,  and  the  cattle  were  scat 
tered.  This  disaster  induced  them  to  retreat 
about  forty  miles  to  the  settlement  on  Clinch 
river,  where  he  remained  with  his  family,  until 
June  6,  1774,  when,  at  the  request  of  governor 
Dunmore,  he  conducted  a  number  of  surveyors  to 
the  falls  of  Ohio.  On  this  tour  of  eight  hundred 
miles  he  was  absent  two  months.  After  this  he 
was  intrusted  by  the  governor,  during  the  cam 
paign  against  the  Shawanese,  with  the  command 
of  three  forts.  Early  in  1775,  at  the  request  of 
a  company  in  North  Carolina,  he  attended  a  treaty 
with  the  Cherokee  Indians  at  Wataga,  in  order 
to  make  of  them  the  purchase  of  lands  on  the 
south  side  of  the  Tennessee  river.  After  perform 
ing  this  service,  he  was  employed  to  mark  out  a 
road  from  the  settlements  on  the  Holston  to  the 
Kentucky  river.  While  thus  employed,  at  the 
distance  of  about  fifteen  miles  from  what  is  now 
Boonesborough,  the  party  was  attacked  by  the 
Indians,  who  killed  four  and  wounded  five.  In 
April,  at  a  salt-lick,  on  the  southern  bank  of  the 
Kentucky,  in  what  is  now  Boonesborough,  a  few 
miles  from  Lexington,  he  began  to  erect  a  fort,  con 
sisting  of  a  block  house  and  several  cabins,  enclosed 
with  palisades.  On  the  14th  of  June  he  returned 
to  his  family  in  order  to  remove  them  to  the  fort. 
His  wife  and  daughters  were  the  first  white  wo 
men  who  stood  on  the  banks  of  the  Kentucky 
river.  July  14,  1776,  when  all  the  settlements 
were  attacked,  two  of  Col.  Calway's  daughters 
and  one  of  his  own  were  taken  prisoners  ;  Boone 
pursued  with  eighteen  men,  and  in  two  days 
overtook  the  Indians,  killed  two  of  them,  and  re 
covered  the  captives.  The  Indians  made  repeated 
attacks  upon  Boonesborough ;  Nov.  15,  1777, 
with  one  hundred  men,  and  July  4,  with  two 
hundred  men.  On  both  sides  several  were  killed 
and  wounded ;  but  the  enemy  were  repulsed ;  as 
they  were  also  July  19,  from  Logan's  Fort  of 
fifteen  men,  which  was  besieged  by  two  hundred. 
The  arrival  of  twenty-five  men  from  Carolina  and 
in  August  of  one  hundred  from  Virginia  gave  a 
new  aspect  to  affairs,  and  taught  the  savages  the 
superiority  of  "  the  long  knives,"  as  they  called 
the  Virginians.  Jan.  1,  1778,  he  went  with  thirty 
men  to  the  blue  licks  on  the  Licking  river  to 
make  salt  for  the  garrison.  Feb.  7,  being  alone, 
he  was  captured  by  a  party  of  one  hundred  and 
two  Indians  and  two  Frenchmen ;  he  capitulated 
for  his  men,  and  they  were  all  carried  to  Chilli- 
cothe  on  the  Little  Miami,  whence  he  and  ten  men 
were  conducted  to  Detroit,  where  he  arrived  March 
30.  The  governor,  Hamilton,  treated  him  with 
much  humanity,  and  offered  100  pounds  for  his 
redemption.  But  the  savages  refused  the  offer 




from  affection  to  their  captive.  Being  carried 
back  to  Chillicothe  in  April,  he  was  adopted  as  a 
son  in  an  Indian  family.  He  assumed  the  appear 
ance  of  cheerfulness  ;  but  his  thoughts  were  on 
his  wife  and  children.  Aware  of  the  envy  of  the 
Indians,  he  was  careful  not  to  exhibit  his  skill  in 
shooting.  In  June  he  went  to  the  salt  springs  on 
the  Scioto.  On  his  return  to  Chillicothe  he  ascer 
tained  that  four  hundred  and  fifty  warriors  were 
preparing  to  proceed  against  Boonesborough.  lie 
escaped  June  16,  and  arrived  at  the  fort  June  20th, 
having  travelled  one  hundred  and  sixty  miles  in 
four  days,  with  but  one  meal.  His  wife  had  re 
turned  to  her  father's.  Great  efforts  were  made 
to  repair  the  fort  in  order  to  meet  the  expected 
attack.  August  1,  he  went  out  with  nineteen  men 
to  surprise  Point  Creek  town  on  the  Scioto ; 
meeting  with  thirty  Indians,  he  put  them  to  flight, 
and  captured  their  baggage.  At  last,  Aug.  8, 
the  Indian  army  of  four  hundred  and  forty-four 
men,  led  by  Captain  Dugnesne  and  eleven  other 
Frenchmen,  and  their  own  chiefs,  with  British 
colors  flying,  summoned  the  fort  to  surrender. 
The  next  day  Boone,  having  a  garrison  of  only 
fifty  men,  announced  his  resolution  to  defend  the 
fort,  while  a  man  was  alive.  They  then  proposed 
that  nine  men  should  be  sent  out  sixty  yards  from 
the  fort  to  enter  into  a  treaty ;  and  when  the 
articles  were  agreed  upon  and  signed,  they  said 
it  was  customary  on  such  occasions,  as  a  token 
of  sincere  friendship,  for  two  Indians  to  shake 
every  white  man  by  the  hand.  Accordingly  two 
Indians  approached  each  of  the  nine  white  men, 
and  grappled  with  the  intent  of  making  him  a 
prisoner  ;  but  the  object  being  perceived,  the  men 
broke  away  and  re-entered  the  fort.  An  attempt 
was  now  made  to  undermine  it ;  but  a  counter 
trench  defeated  that  purpose.  At  last,  on  the 
20th,  the  enemy  raised  the  siege,  having  lost 
thirty-seven  men.  Of  Boone's  men  two  were 
killed  and  four  wounded.  "  We  picked  up,"  said 
he,  "  one  hundred  and  twenty-five  pounds  of  bul 
lets,  besides  what  stuck  in  the  logs  of  our  fort, 
which  certainly  is  a  great  proof  of  their  industry." 
In  1779,  when  Boone  was  absent,  revisiting  his 
family  in  Carolina,  Col.  Bowman  with  one  hundred 
and  sixty  men  fought  the  Shawanese  Indians  at 
old  Chillicothe.  In  his  retreat  the  Indians  pur 
sued  him  for  thirty  miles,  when  in  another 
engagement  Col.  Ilarrod  suggested  the  successful 
project  of  mounting  a  number  of  horses  and 
breaking  the  Indian  line.  Of  the  Kentuckians 
nine  were  killed.  June  22,  1780,  about  six  hun 
dred  Indians  and  Canadians  under  Col.  Bird 
attacked  Kiddie's  and  Martin's  stations  and  the 
forks  of  Licking  river  with  six  pieces  of  artillery, 
and  carried  away  all  as  captives.  Gen.  Clarke, 
commanding  at  the  falls  of  Ohio,  marched  with 
his  regiment  and  troops  against  Keccaway,  the 

principal  Shawanese  town,  on  a  branch  of  the 
Miami,  and  burned  the  town,  with  the  loss  of 
seventeen  on  each  side.  About  this  time  Boone 
returned  to  Kentucky  with  his  family.  In  Oct., 
1780,  soon  after  he  was  settled  again  at  Boones 
borough,  he  went  with  his  brother  to  the  Blue 
Licks,  and  as  they  were  returning  the  latter  was 
slain  by  a  party  of  Indians,  and  he  was  pursued 
by  them  by  the  aid  of  a  dog.  By  shooting  him 
Boone  escaped.  The  severity  of  the  ensuing 
winter  was  attended  with  great  distress,  the  enemy 
having  destroyed  most  of  the  corn.  The  people 
subsisted  chiefly  on  buffalo's  flesh.  In  May,  1782, 
the  Indians  having  killed  a  man  at  Ashton's  sta 
tion,  Captain  A.  pursued  with  twenty-five  men, 
but  in  an  attack  upon  the  enemy  he  was  killed 
with  twelve  of  his  men.  August  10  two  boys 
were  carried  off  from  Maj.  Hay's  station.  Capt. 
llolden  pursued  with  seventeen  men  ;  but  he  also 
was  defeated,  with  the  loss  of  four  men.  In  a 
field  near  Lexington  an  Indian  shot  a  man,  and 
running  to  scalp  him,  was  himself  shot  from  the 
fort  and  fell  dead  upon  his  victim.  On  the  15th 
August  five  hundred  Indians  attacked  Briant's 
station,  five  miles  from  Lexington,  and  destroyed 
all  the  cattle;  but  they  were  repulsed  on  the 
third  day,  having  about  thirty  killed,  Avhile  of  the 
garrison  four  were  killed  and  three  wounded. 
Boone,  with  Cols.  Todd  and  Trigg  and  Maj.  liar- 
land,  collected  one  hundred  and  seventy-six  men 
and  pursued  on  the  18th.  They  overtook  the 
enemy  the  next  day  a  mile  beyond  the  Blue  Licks, 
about  forty  miles  from  Lexington,  at  a  remarka 
ble  bend  of  a  branch  of  Licking  river.  A  battle 
ensued,  the  enemy  having  a  line  formed  across 
from  one  bend  to  the  other,  but  the  Kentuckians 
were  defeated  with  the  great  loss  of  sixty  killed, 
among  whom  were  Cols.  Todd  and  Trigg,  and 
Maj.  Ilarland,  and  Boone's  second  son.  Many- 
were  the  widows  made  in  Lexington  on  that  fatal 
day.  The  Indians  having  four  more  killed,  four 
of  the  prisoners  were  given  up  to  the  young  war 
riors  to  be  put  to  death  in  the  most  barbarous 
manner.  Gen.  Clarke,  accompanied  by  Boone, 
immediately  marched  into  the  Indian  country  and 
desolated  it,  burning  old  Chillicothe,  Peccaway, 
new  Chillicothe,  Willis  Town,  and  Chillicothe. 
With  the  loss  of  four  men  he  took  seven  prison 
ers  and  five  scalps,  or  killed  five  Indians.  In  Oc 
tober  the  Indians  attacked  Crab  Orchard.  One 
of  the  Indians  having  entered  a  house,  in  which 
were  a  woman  and  a  negro,  and  being  thrown  to 
the  ground  by  the  negro,  the  woman  cut  off  his 
head.  From  this  period  to  the  peace  with  Great 
Britain  the  Indians  did  no  harm.  "  Two  darling 
sons  and  a  brother,"  said  Boone,  "  have  I  lost  by 
savage  hands,  which  have  also  taken  from  me  forty 
valuable  horses  and  abundance  of  cattle.  Many 
dark  and  sleepless  nights  have  I  spent,  separated 




from  the  cheerful  society  of  men,  scorched  by  the 
summer's  sun  and  pinched  by  the  Avinter's  cold, 
an  instrument  ordained  to  settle  the  wilderness." 
From  this  period  he  resided  in  Kentucky  and 
Virginia  till  1798,  when  in  consequence  of  an  im 
perfect  legal  title  to  the  lands,  which  he  had  settled, 
he  found  himself  dispossessed  of  his  property. 
In  his  indignation  he  fled  from  the  delightful  re 
gion,  which  he  had  explored,  when  a  wilderness, 
and  which  now  had  a  population  of  half  a  million. 
With  his  rifle  he  crossed  the  Ohio  and  plunged 
into  the  immense  country  of  the  Missouri.  In 
1799  he  settled  on  the  Fcmme  Osage  river  with 
numerous  followers.  In  1800  he  discovered  the 
Boone's  Lick  country,  now  a  fine  settlement :  in 
the  same  year  he  visited  the  head  waters  of  the 
Grand  Osage  river  and  spent  the  winter  upon  the 
head  waters  of  the  Arkansas.  At  the  age  of  80, 
in  company  with  a  white  man  and  a  black  man, 
laid  under  strict  injunctions  to  carry  him  back  to 
his  family,  dead  or  alive,  he  made  a  hunting  trip 
to  the  head  waters  of  the  Great  Osage,  and  was 
successful  in  trapping  beaver  and  other  game.  In 
Jan.,  1812,  he  addressed  a  memorial  to  the  legis 
lature  of  Kentucky,  stating  that  he  owned  not  an 
acre  of  land  in  the  region,  which  he  first  settled ; 
that  in  1794  he  passed  over  into  the  Spanish 
province  of  Louisiana,  under  an  assurance  from 
the  governor,  who  resided  at  St.  Louis,  that  land 
should  be  given  him  ;  that  accordingly  ten  thou 
sand  acres  were  given  him  on  the  Missouri  and  he 
became  Sjudic  or  chief  of  the  district  of  St. 
Charles ;  but  that  on  the  acquisition  of  Louisiana 
by  the  United  States  his  claims  were  rejected  by 
the  commissioners  of  land,  because  he  did  not  ac 
tually  reside ;  and  that  thus  at  the  age  of  80  he  was 
a  wanderer,  having  no  spot  of  his  own  whereon  to 
lay  his  bones.  The  legislature  instructed  their  del 
egates  to  congress  to  solicit  a  confirmation  of  this 
grant.  He  retained,  it  is  believed,  2,000  acres. 
In  his  old  age  he  pursued  his  accustomed  course 
of  life,  trapping  bears  and  hunting  with  his  rifle. 
He  died  at  the  house  of  his  son,  Maj.  A.  Boone, 
at  Charette.  He  left  sons  and  daughters  in  Mis 
souri.  In  consequence  of  his  death  the  legisla 
ture  of  Missouri  voted  to  wear  a  badge  of  mourn 
ing  for  twenty  days.  A  brother  died  in  Missis 
sippi,  Oct.,  1808,  aged  81.  Col.  Boone  was  of 
common  stature,  of  amiable  disposition,  and  hon 
orable  integrity.  In  lu's  last  years  he  might  have 
been  seen  by  the  traveller  at  the  door  of  his  house, 
with  his  rifle  on  his  knee  and  his  faithful  dog  at 
his  side,  lamenting  the  departed  \igor  of  his 
limbs,  and  meditating  on  the  scenes  of  his  past 
life.  Whether  he  also  meditated  on  the  approach 
ing  scenes  of  eternity,  and  his  dim  eyes  ever  kindled 
up  with  the  glorious  hopes  of  the  Christian  is  not 
mentioned  in  the  accounts  of  him,  which  have 
been  examined.  But  of  all  objects  an  irreligious 
old  man,  dead  as  to  worldly  joy  and  dead  as  to 

celestial  hope,  is  the  most  pitiable.  An  account 
of  his  adventures,  drawn  up  by  himself,  was  pub 
lished  in  Filson's  supplement  to  Imlay's  descrip 
tion  of  the  western  territory,  1793.  —  Riles' 
Weekly  Register,  March  13,  1813. 

BOOTH,  CHAUNCEY,  minister  of  Coventry, 
Conn.,  died  May  24,  1851,  aged  68.  He  was  set 
tled  in  1815  and  dismissed  in  1844:  he  toiled  in 
six  revivals. 

BOOTT,  KIRK,  died  at  Lowell,  April  11, 1837, 
aged  46.  Born  in  Boston,  educated  in  England, 
he  served  as  an  officer  in  Spain  under  the  Duke 
of  Wellington.  During  tAvo  years  at  Woolwich, 
he  acquired  skill  as  a  draftsman  and  engineer. 
He  superintended  the  erection  of  the  Lowell 
manufacturing  establishments,  and  was  a  man  of 
energy,  and  generous  and  liberal. 

BORDLEY,  JOHN  BEALE,  a  writer  on  agri 
culture,  died  at  Philadelphia  Jan.  25,  1804,  aged 
76.  In  the  former  part  of  his  life  he  was  an  in 
habitant  of  Md.  He  was  of  the  profession  of  the 
law,  and  before  the  Itevolution  was  a  judge  of 
the  superior  court  and  court  of  appeals  of  Mary 
land.  He  had  also  a  seat  at  the  executive  council 
of  the  province.  But  he  was  not  allured  by  this 
office  from  his  duty  to  his  country.  He  found 
our  Revolution  necessary  to  our  freedom,  and  he 
rejoiced  in  its  accomplishment.  His  habitual  and 
most  pleasing  employment  was  husbandry  ;  which 
he  practised  extensively  upon  his  own  estate  on 
Wye  Island  in  the  bay  of  Chesapeake.  As  he 
readily  tried  every  suggested  improvement,  and 
adopted  such  as  were  confirmed  by  lu's  experi 
ments,  and  as  he  added  to  his  example  frequent 
essays  upon  agricultural  subjects,  he  was  greatly 
instrumental  in  diffusing  the  best  knowledge  of 
the  best  of  all  arts.  He  was  cheerful  in  his  tem 
per,  and  was  respected  and  beloved.  In  religion 
he  was  of  the  most  liberal  or  free  system  within 
the  pale  of  revelation.  In  his  political  principles 
he  was  attached  to  that  republican  form  of  gov 
ernment,  in  which  the  public  authority  is  founded 
on  the  people,  but  guarded  against  the  sudden 
fluctuations  of  their  will.  He  published  Forsyth's 
treatise  on  fruit  trees  with  notes  ;  sketches  on  ro 
tations  of  crops,  1792;  essays  and  notes  on  hus 
bandry  and  rural  affairs,  with  plates,  1799  and 
1801 ;  a  view  of  the  courses  of  crops  in  England 
and  Maryland,  1804.  —  U.  S.  Gazette,  Feb.  1. 

BORK,  CHRISTIAN,  minister  of  the  Dutch  Re 
formed  church  in  Franklin  street,  N.  Y.,  died 
about  1825  or  1830,  at  an  advanced  age,  and  was 
succeeded  by  George  Dubois.  In  the  Revolution 
ary  war  he  was  a  soldier  in  the  British  army,  lie 
studied  with  Dr.  Livingston,  and  was  first  settled 
near  Albany.  Once  in  ministering,  by  way  of 
exchange  at  Stcphcntown  to  an  English  congrega 
tion,  he  made  a  part  of  the  prayer  in  Dutch  and 
German,  lie  preached  without  notes  and  was 
fervent  and  eminently  useful.  If  it  be  true,  as 


reported,  that,  having  a  yoke-fellow  not  of  the 
sweetest  temper,  she  once  locked  him  in  his 
study  at  the  moment  for  going  to  the  church ;  it 
is  altogether  probable,  from  his  own  energy  of 
character,  that  this  little  obstacle  was  instantly  re 

BOSTWICK,  DAVID,  an  eminent  minister  in 
New  York,  was  of  Scotch  extraction,  and  was 
born  about  the  year  1720.  He  was  first  settled 
at  Jamaica  on  Long  Island,  where  he  continued 
till  1756,  when  the  synod  translated  him  to  the 
Presbyterian  society  of  New  York.  In  this 
charge  he  continued  till  Nov.  12,  1703,  when  he 
died,  aged  43.  He  was  of  a  mild,  catholic  dispo 
sition,  of  great  piety  and  zeal ;  and  he  confined 
himself  entirely  to  the  proper  business  of  his  of 
fice.  He  abhorred  the  frequent  mixture  of  divin 
ity  and  politics,  and  much  more  the  turpitude  of 
making  the  former  subservient  to  the  latter.  His 
thoughts  were  occupied  by  things,  which  are  above, 
and  he  wished  to  withdraw  the  minds  of  his  peo 
ple  more  from  the  concerns  of  this  world.  He 
was  deeply  grieved,  when  some  of  his  flock  be 
came,  not  fervent  Christians,  but  furious  politi 
cians.  He  preached  the  gospel,  and  as  liis  life 
corresponded  with  his  preaching,  he  Avas  respected 
by  good  men  of  all  denominations.  His  doctrines 
he  derived  from  the  scriptures,  and  he  understood 
them  in  accordance  with  the  public  confessions  of 
the  reformed  churches.  His  discourses  were  me 
thodical,  sound,  and  pathetic,  rich  in  sentiment, 
and  ornamented  in  diction.  With  a  strong,  com 
manding  voice,  his  pronunciation  was  clear,  dis 
tinct,  and  deliberate.  He  preached  without  notes, 
with  great  ease  and  fluency  ;  but  he  always  studied 
his  sermons  with  great  care.  With  a  lively  imag 
ination  and  a  heart  deeply  affected  by  the  truths 
of  religion,  he  was  enabled  to  address  his  hearers 
with  solemnity  and  energy.  Few  men  described 
the  hideous  deformity  of  sin,  the  misery  of  man's 
apostasy  from  God,  the  wonders  of  redeeming 
love,  and  the  glory  and  riches  of  divine  grace  in 
so  distinct  and  affecting  a  manner.  He  knew  the  ! 
worth  of  the  soul  and  the  deceitfulness  of  the  hu-  j 
man  heart ;  and  he  preached  with  plainness,  more 
intent  to  impress  sinners  with  their  guilt  and  to 
teach  them  the  truths  of  God,  than  to  attract 
their  attention  to  himself.  Though  he  was  re 
markable  for  his  gentleness  and  prudence,  yet  in 
preaching  the  gospel  he  feared  no  man.  He 
knew  whose  servant  he  was,  and  with  all  boldness 
and  impartiality  he  deliveied  his  message,  pro 
claiming  the  terrors  of  the  divine  law  to  every 
transgressor,  however  elevated,  and  displaying  the 
mild  glories  of  the  gospel  for  the  comfort  and  re 
freshment  of  every  penitent  believer.  A  few 
months  before  his  death  his  mind  was  greatly  dis 
tressed  by  apprehensions  respecting  the  interests 
of  his  family,  when  he  should  be  taken  from  them. 
But  God  was  pleased  to  give  him  such  views  of 




his  power  and  goodness,  and  such  cheerful  reli 
ance  upon  the  wisdom  and  rectitude  of  his  gov 
ernment,  as  restored  to  him  peace  and  calmness. 
He  was  willing  to  cast  himself  and  all  that  was 
dear  to  him,  upon  the  providence  of  his  heavenly 
Father.  In  this  temper  he  continued  to  his  last 
moment,  when  he  placidly  resigned  his  soul  into 
the  hands  of  his  Saviour.  Such  is  the  serenity, 
frequently  imparted  to  Christians  in  the  solemn 
hour  of  dissolution. 

He  published  a  sermon,  preached  May  25, 
1758,  entitled,  self  disclaimed  and  Christ  exalted. 
It  received  the  warm  recommendation  of  Gilbert 
Tennent.  He  published  also  an  account  of  the 
life,  character,  and  death  of  Pres.  Davies,  pre 
fixed  to  Davies'  sermon  on  the  death  of  George 
II.,  1761.  After  his  decease  there  was  published 
from  his  manuscripts  a  vindication  of  the  right  of 
infants  to  the  ordinance  of  baptism,  being  the 
substance  of  several  discourses  from  Acts  II.  39. 
—  Middleton's  Biog.  Evan.  iv.  414-418;  New 
and  Gen.  Biog.  Diet. ;  Smith's  New  York,  193  ; 
Pref.  to  Bostwick's  Vindication. 

BOUCHER,  PIERRE,  governor  of  Trois  Riv- 
ieres  in  Canada,  died  at  the  age  of  nearly  100 
years,  having  lived  to  see  numerous  descendants, 
some  of  the  fifth  generation.  He  was  sent  to 
France  to  represent  the  temporal  and  spiritual 
wants  of  the  colony ;  and  published  in  1664  an 
account  of  Canada,  entitled,  Histoire  veritable  et 
naturelle  des  moeurs  et  productions,  &c. 

BOUCHER,  JONATHAN,  a  learned  archaeolo 
gist,  was  a  native  of  Cumberland,  —  the  northern 
county  of  England,  the  country  of  lakes,  the  abode 
of  the  poets  Wordsworth  and  Southey,  and  the 
resort  of  "  the  lakers,"  —  but  came  to  America 
at  the  age  of  16.  After  receiving  Episcopal  or 
dination,  he  was  appointed  rector  of  Hanover  and 
then  of  St.  Mary,  Va.  Gov.  Eden  gave  him  also 
the  rectory  of  St.  Anne,  Annapolis,  and  of 
Queen  Anne,  in  Prince  George's  county.  These 
are  indeed  saintly  and  princely  names  for  a  Pro 
testant,  republican  country.  However,  Mr.  Bou 
cher  was  a  loyalist,  unshaken  by  the  mighty  dem 
ocratic  movements  around  him.  In  his  farewell 
sermon,  at  the  beginning  of  the  Revolution  in 
1775,  he  declared  that,  as  long  as  he  lived,  he 
would  say  with  Zadock,  the  priest,  and  Nathan, 
the  prophet,  "  God  save  the  king !  "  Returning  to 
England,  he  Avas  appointed  vicar  of  Epsom  ;  and 
there  he  spent  the  remainder  of  his  life.  He 
died  April  27,  1804,  aged  67.  He  was  esteemed 
one  of  the  best  preachers  of  his  time.  During 
the  last  fourteen  years  of  his  life  he  was  em 
ployed  in  preparing  a  glossary  of  provincial  and 
archaeological  words,  intended  as  a  supplement 
to  Dr.  Johnson's  Dictionary.  The  manuscripts 
of  Mr.  Boucher  were  purchased  of  his  family  in 
1831  by  the  proprietors  of  the  English  edition  of 
Dr.  Webster's  Dictionary,  who  proposed  to  pub- 




lish  them  as  a  supplement  to  Webster.  He  pub 
lished  in  1799  a  view  of  the  causes  and  conse 
quences  of  the  American  Revolution  in  fifteen 
discourses,  preached  in  N.  America  between  1703 
and  1775,  dedicated  to  Washington,  containing 
many  anecdotes  illustrative  of  political  events ; 
—  also,  two  sermons  before  the  grand  juries  of 
Surrey  and  Cumberland,  1799. 

BOUCHER,  CHARLES,  died  at  Berthier,  Can 
ada  East,  May,  1852,  aged  106. 

BOUCIIETTE,  JOSEPH,  colonel,  surveyor-gen 
eral  of  Lower  Canada,  died  April  8,  1841,  aged 
67,  with  only  a  few  minutes'  illness.  He  pub 
lished  a  description  of  Lower  Canada,  4to.,  1815. 

BOUDIXOT,  ELIAS,  L.L.  D.,  first  president 
of  the  American  Bible  society,  died  in  Burling 
ton,  N.  J.,  Oct.  24,  1821,  aged  81.  He  was  born 
in  Philadelphia  May  2,  1740.  His  great-grand 
father,  Elias,  was  a  Protestant  in  France,  who 
fled  from  his  country  on  the  revocation  of  the 
edict  of  Nantes ;  his  father,  Elias,  died  in  1770 ; 
his  mother,  Catherine  Williams,  was  of  a  Welsh 
family.  After  a  classical  education  he  studied 
law  under  Richard  Stockton,  whose  eldest  sister 
he  married.  Soon  after  commencing  the  prac 
tice  of  law  in  New  Jersey,  he  rose  to  distinction. 
He  early  espoused  the  cause  of  his  country.  In 
1777  congress  appointed  him  commissary-general 
of  prisoners  ;  and  in  the  same  year  he  was  elected 
a  delegate  to  congress,  of  which  body  he  was 
elected  the  president  in  Nov.,  1782.  In  that  ca 
pacity  he  put  his  signature  to  the  treaty  of  peace. 
He  returned  to  the  profession  of  the  law ;  but 
was  again  elected  to  congress  under  the  new  con 
stitution,  in  1789,  and  was  continued  a  member 
of  the  house  six  years.  In  1796  Washington  ap 
pointed  him  the  director  of  the  mint  of  the 
United  States,  as  the  successor  of  Rittenhouse  : 
in  this  office  he  continued  till  1805,  when  he  re 
signed  it,  and  retiring  from  Philadelphia  passed 
the  remainder  of  his  life  at  Burlington,  N.  J. 
He  lost  his  wife  about  the  year  1808.  His 
daughter  married  Wm.  Bradford.  His  brother, 
Elisha  Boudinot,  died  at  Newark  Oct.  17,  1819, 
aged  71.  After  the  establishment  in  1816  of  the 
Bible  society  which  he  assisted  in  creating,  he 
was  elected  its  first  president;  and  he  made 
to  it  the  munificent  donation  of  10,000  dollars. 
He  afterwards  contributed  liberally  towards  the 
erection  of  its  depository.  In  1812  he  was 
elected  a  member  of  the  American  board  of  com 
missioners  for  foreign  missions,  to  which  he  pre 
sented  the  next  year  a  donation  of  100  pounds  ster 
ling.  When  three  Cherokee  youth  were  brought 
to  the  foreign  mission  school  in  1818,  one  of 
them  by  his  permission  took  his  name,  for  he  was 
deeply  interested  in  every  attempt  to  meliorate 
the  condition  of  the  American  Indians.  His 
house  was  the  seat  of  hospitality  and  his  days 
were  spent  in  the  pursuits  of  biblical  literature, 

in  the  exercise  of  the  loveliest  charities  of  life, 
and  the  performance  of  the  highest  Christian  du 
ties.  He  was  a  trustee  of  Princeton  college,  in 
which  he  founded  in  1805  the  cabinet  of  natural 
history,  which  cost  3,000  dollars.  He  was  a 
member  of  a  Presbyterian  church.  By  the  relig 
ion  which  he  professed  he  was  supported  and 
cheered  as  he  went  down  to  the  grave.  His  pa 
tience  was  unexhausted  ;  his  faith  was  strong  and 
triumphant.  Exhorting  those  around  him  to  rest 
in  Jesus  Christ  as  the  only  ground  of  trust,  and 
commending  his  daughter  and  only  child  to  the 
care  of  his  friends,  he  expressed  his  desire  to  de 
part  in  peace  to  the  bosom  of  his  Father  in 
heaven,  and  his  last  prayer  was,  "  Lord  Jesus,  re 
ceive  my  spirit." 

By  his  last  will  Dr.  Boudinot  bequeathed  his 
large  estate  principally  to  charitable  uses  ;  200 
dollars  for  ten  poor  widows ;  200  to  the  New 
Jersey  Bible  society  to  purchase  spectacles  for  the 
aged  poor,  to  enable  them  to  read  the  Bible ; 
2,000  dollars  to  the  Moravians  at  Bethlehem  for 
the  instruction  of  the  Indians ;  4,000  acres  of 
land  to  the  society  for  the  benefit  of  the  Jews ; 
to  the  Magdalen  societies  of  New  York  and  Phil 
adelphia  500  dollars  each ;  three  houses  in  Phil 
adelphia  to  the  trustees  of  the  general  assembly 
for  the  purchase  of  books  for  ministers ;  also, 
5,000  dollars  to  the  general  assembly  for  the  sup 
port  of  a  missionary  in  Philadelphia  and  New 
York;  4,080  acres  of  land  for  theological  stu 
dents  at  Princeton  ;  4,000  acres  to  the  college  of 
New  Jersey  for  the  establishment  of  fellowships ; 
4,542  acres  to  the  American  board  of  commis 
sioners  for  foreign  missions,  with  special  reference 
to  the  benefit  of  the  Indians  ;  3,270  acres  to  the 
hospital  at  Philadelphia,  for  the  benefit  of  for 
eigners  ;  4,589  acres  to  the  American  Bible  soci 
ety  ;  13,000  acres  to  the  mayor  and  corporation 
of  Philadelphia,  to  supply  the  poor  with  wood  on 
low  terms  ;  also,  after  the  decease  of  his  daughter, 
5,000  dollars  to  the  college  and  5,000  to  the  the 
ological  seminary  of  Princeton,  and  5,000  to  the 
A.  B.  of  commissioners  for  foreign  missions,  and 
the  remainder  of  his  estate  to  the  general  assem 
bly  of  the  Presbyterian  church.  How  benevo 
lent,  honorable,  and  useful  is  such  a  charitable 
disposition  of  the  property,  which  God  intrusts 
to  a  Christian,  compared  with  the  selfish  and  nar 
row  appropriation  of  it  to  the  enrichment  of 
family  relatives,  without  any  reference  to  the  dif 
fusion  of  truth  and  holiness  in  the  earth  ?  For 
such  deeds  of  charity  the  names  of  Boudinot,  and 
Burr,  and  Abbot,  and  Norris,  and  Phillips  will  be 
held  in  lasting,  most  honorable  remembrance. 
Dr.  Boudinot  published  the  age  of  revelation,  or 
the  age  of  reason  an  age  of  infidelity,  1790,  also 
1801  ;  an  oration  before  the  society  of  the  Cin 
cinnati,  1793 ;  second  advent  of  the  Messiah, 
1815;  star  in  the  west,  or  an  attempt  to  discover 




the  long  lost  tribes  of  Israel,  preparatory  to  their 
return  to  their  beloved  city,  Jerusalem,  8vo.  1816. 
Like  Mr.  Adair,  he  regards  the  Indians  as  the 
lost  tribes.  —  Panoplist  17:  399;  18:  25;  Green's 
Disc.  UTS. 

BOUDINOT,  ELIAS,  a  Cherokee  Indian,  died 
June  10,  1839,  being  murdered  by  Indians  west 
of  the  Mississippi.  lie  was  a  man  of  education, 
talent^,  and  inlluence. 

BOUDINOT,  ADRIANA,  died  at  Hanover,  N.  H., 
in  Sept.,  1855,  aged  78,  the  widow  of  Tobias  B. 
of  New  Jersey,  the  nephew  of  Elias  B.  Born  in 
the  West  Indies,  she  was  of  Huguenot  descent 
from  Mr.  Lasalle  of  St.  Thomas,  whose  daughter 
married  Mr.  Malleville :  their  son  Thomas,  gov 
ernor  of  the  Danish  Islands,  was  the  father  of 
Maria  Malleville.  She  first  married  Gov.  Suhm, 
who  was  the  father  of  Maria  Wheelock,  and  next 
Mr.  Von  Beverhoudt,  who  removed  to  N.  J.,  to 
Beverwyck,  in  Parsippany,  and  was  the  father  of 
Mrs.  Boudinot.  She  died  in  Christian  peace. 
Her  father's  house  was  honored  with  the  visits 
of  Washington  and  his  wife  while  the  army  was 
at  Morris. 

BOUGHTON,  BENJAMIN,  died  in  Fredericks- 
burgh,  Va.,  in  1842,  bequeathing  2,000  dollars 
to  the  Bible  society,  the  same  to  the  tract  society, 
with  a  legacy  to  Sunday  schools. 

BOULDIN,  THOMAS  T.,  judge,  died  in  Wash 
ington  Feb.  11,  1834,  a  member  of  congress  from 
Va.  Having  been  blamed  for  not  speaking  of 
the  death  of  his  predecessor,  Randolph,  he  rose 
to  reply,  sank  down  into  a  chair,  and  died. 

BOUND,  EPHRAIM,  first  minister  of  the  sec 
ond  Baptist  church  in  Boston,  was  ordained  in 
1743  and  died  in  1765 :  he  was  useful  and  re 

BOUQUET,  HENRY,  a  brave  officer,  was  ap 
pointed  lieutenant  colonel  in  the  British  army  in 
1756.  In  the  year  1763  he  was  sent  by  General 
Amherst  from  Canada  with  military  stores  and 
provisions  for  the  relief  of  Fort  Pitt.  While  on 
his  way  he  was  attacked  by  a  powerful  body  of 
Indians  on  the  5th  and  6th  of  August,  but  by  a 
skilful  manipuvre,  supported  by  the  determined 
bravery  of  his  troops,  he  defeated  them,  and 
reached  the  fort  in  four  days  from  the  action.  In 
the  following  year  he  was  sent  from  Canada  on  an 
expedition  against  the  Ohio  Indians,  and  in  Octo 
ber  he  reduced  a  body  of  the  Shawanese,  Dcla- 
wares,  and  other  Indians  to  the  necessity  of  making 
terms  of  peace  at  Tuscarawas.  I  Ic  died  at  Pen- 
sacola  in  February,  1766,  being  then  a  brigadier 
general.  Thomas  Ilutchins  published  at  Phila 
delphia  in  1765  an  historical  account  of  the 
expedition  against  the  Ohio  Indians  in  1764,  with 
a  maj>  and  plates. — Annual  Iteyister  for  1763, 
p.  27-31 ;  for  1764,  p.  181;  for  1766,  p. 62. 

BOURNE,  RICHARD,  a  missionary  among  the 
Indi-.ns  at  Marshree,  died  at  Sandwich  about  the 

year  1685.  He  was  one  of  the  first  emigrants 
from  England,  who  settled  at  Sandwich.  Being  a 
religious  man,  he  officiated  publicly  on  the  Lord's 
day,  until  a  minister,  Mr.  Smith,  was  settled ;  he 
then  turned  his  attention  to  the  Indians  at  the 
southward  and  eastward,  and  resolved  to  bring 
them  to  an  acquaintance  with  the  gospel.  He 
went  to  Marshpee,  not  many  miles  to  the  south. 
The  first  account  of  him  is  in  1658,  when  he  was 
in  that  town,  assisting  in  the  settlement  of  a  boun 
dary  between  the  Indians  and  the  proprietors  of 
Barn  stable.  Having  obtained  a  competent  knowl 
edge  of  the  Indian  language  he  entered  on  the 
missionary  service  with  activity  and  ardor.  On 
the  17th  of  August,  1670,  he  was  ordained  pastor 
of  an  Indian  church  at  Marshpee,  constituted  by 
his  own  disciples  and  converts ;  which  solemnity 
was  performed  by  the  famous  Eliot  and  Cotton. 
He  left  no  successor  in  the  ministry  but  an  Indian, 
named  Simon  Popmonet.  Mr.  Bourne  is  deserv 
ing  of  honorable  remembrance  not  only  for  his 
zealous  exertions  to  make  known  to  the  Indians 
the  glad  tidings  of  salvation,  but  for  his  regard  to 
their  temporal  interests.  He  wisely  considered 
that  it  would  be  hi  vain  to  attempt  to  propagate 
Christian  knowledge  among  them,  unless  they  had 
a  territory,  where  they  might  remain  in  peace,  and 
have  a  fixed  habitation.  He  therefore,  at  his  own 
expense,  not  long  after  the  year  1660,  obtained  a 
deed  of  Marshpee  from  Quachatisset  and  others 
to  the  South  Sea  Indians,  as  his  people  were 
called.  This  territory,  in  the  opinion  of  Mr. 
Hawley,  was  perfectly  adapted  for  an  Indian  town, 
being  situated  on  the  Sound,  in  sight  of  Martha's 
Vineyard,  cut  into  necks  of  land,  and  well  watered. 
After  the  death  of  Mr.  Bourne,  his  son,  Shcarja- 
shub  Bourne,  Esq.,  succeeded  him  in  the  Marshpee 
inheritance,  where  he  lived  till  his  death  in  1719. 
He  procured  from  the  court  at  Plymouth  a  ratifica 
tion  of  the  Indian  deeds,  so  that  no  parcel  of  the 
lands  could  be  bought  by  any  white  person  or  per 
sons  without  the  consent  of  all  the  said  Indians, 
not  even  with  the  consent  of  the  general  court. 
Thus  did  the  son  promote  the  designs  of  the 
father,  watching  over  the  interests  of  the  aborig 
ines.  A  letter  of  Mr.  Bourne,  giving  an  account 
of  the  Indians  in  Plymouth*  county  and  upon  the 

j  Cape,  is  preserved  in   Gookin.—  Mather's  Mag. 

I  ill.  199;  Coll.  Hist.  Soc.  I.   172,   196-199,  218: 

|  in.  188-190  ;  VIII.  170. 

BOURNE,  EZRA,  chief  justice  of  the  court  of 
common  pleas  for  Barnstable  county,  died  at 
Marshpee  in  Sept.,  1764,  aged  87.  lie  was  the 
youngest  son  of  Shearjashub  Bourne,  who  died  at 
Sandwich,  March  7,  1719,  aged  75.  lie  succeeded 
his  father  in  the  superintendence  of  the  Indians, 
over  whom  he  had  great  influence.  He  married 
a  sister  of  Rev.  Thomas  Prince.  His  son,  Shear- 

ijashub,  a  graduate  of  Harvard  college  in    1743, 
died  at  Bristol,  R.  I.,  Feb.  9, 1781.     His  grandson, 




Shearjashub,  a  graduate  of  1764,  a  representative 
in  congress  and  chief  justice  of  the  common  pleas 
for  Suffolk,  died  in  1806.  His  grandson,  Benja 
min,  L.L.  1).,  a  graduate  of  1775,  a  member  of 
congress,  and  appointed  a  judge  of  the  circuit 
court  of  Rhode  Island  in  1801,  died  Sept.  17, 
1808.—  Coll.  Hist.  Soc.  III.  190. 

BOURNE,  JOSEPH,  missionary  to  the  Indians, 
was  the  son  of  the  preceding  and  graduated  in 
1722  at  Harvard  college,  in  the  catalogue  of  which 
his  name  is  erroneously  given  Bourn.  He  was 
ordained  at  Marshpee  as  successor  to  Simon  Pop- 
monet  Nov.  26,  1729.  He  resigned  his  mission  in 
1742,  complaining  much  of  the  ill  treatment 
which  the  Indians  received,  and  of  the  neglect  of 
the  commissioners  with  regard  to  his  support. 
He  was  succeeded  by  an  Indian,  named  Solomon 
Briant ;  but  he  still  took  an  interest  in  the  cause, 
in  which  he  was  once  particularly  engaged,  and 
much  encouraged  and  assisted  the  missionary, 
Mr.  Hawley.  Mr.  Bourne  died  in  1767. —  Coll. 
Hist.  Soc.  in.  190-191. 

BOURS,  PETER,  Episcopal  minister  in  Marble- 
head,  died  in  1762,  aged  36.  He  was  a  native  of 
Newport,  and  was  graduated  at  Harvard  college 
in  1747.  After  his  settlement  at  Marblehead,  he 
discharged  with  faithfulness  the  duties  of  his 
office  nine  years,  enforcing  the  doctrines  of  the 
gospel  with  fervency,  and  illustrating  the  truth  of 
what  he  taught  by  his  life.  His  predecessors 
were  Mousam,  Pigot,  Malcolm ;  his  successors, 
Weeks,  Harris,  Bowers.  His  dying  words  were 
"  O  Lamb  of  God,  receive  my  spirit." —  Whit- 
welVs  Ser.  on  Death  of  Barnard ;  Coll.  Hist.  Soc. 
vin.  77. 

BOUTELLE,  TIMOTHY,  L.L.  I).,  diedinWater- 
ville,  Me.,  Nov.  12,  1855,  aged  77.  Born  in 
Leominster,  he  graduated  at  Harvard  in  1800. 
He  devoted  his  life  to  the  legal  profession  in 
Watervillc,  but  sometimes  occupied  public  sta 
tions.  The  cause  of  internal  improvement  and  of 
education  was  dear  to  him. — Boston  Advertiser, 
July  16,  1856. 

BOWDEN,  JOHN,  D.  D.,  professor  of  belles- 
lettres  and  moral  philosophy  in  Columbia  college, 
N.  Y.,  was  an  Episcopal  clergyman  more  than  forty 
years.  In  1787  he  was  rector  of  Norwalk.  He 
was  elected  bishop  of  Connecticut,  but,  as  he  de 
clined,  Mr.  Jarvis  was  appointed.  He  died  at 
Ballston  July  31,  1817,  aged  65.  He  published  a 
letter  to  E.  Stiles,  occasioned  by  his  ordination 
sermon  at  New  London,  1787  ;  the  apostolic  ori 
gin  of  episcopacy,  in  a  series  of  letters  to  Dr. 
Miller,  2  vols.  8vo.  1808. — Jennison. 

BOWD1TCH,  NATHANIEL,  L.L.  D.,  F.  R.  S., 
president  of  the  American  academy,  died  at  Bos 
ton  March  16,  1838,  aged  nearly  65,  being  born 
at  Salem  March  26,  1773.  The  son  of  a  ship 
master,  he  had  little  education.  From  1795  he 
spent  nine  years  in  a  seafaring  life.  He  was 

president  of  a  marine  insurance  company  from 
1804  to  1823,  Avhen  he  became  actuary  for  the 
rest  of  his  life  of  the  Massachusetts  Hospital 
Life  Insurance  Co.  By  his  extraordinary  genius 
and  industry  he  became  acquainted  with  Latin, 
Greek,  French,  Italian,  Spanish,  Portuguese,  and 
German,  and  was  one  of  the  most  eminent  of 
mathematicians  and  astronomers.  About  to  die, 
with  his  children  arranged  in  the  order  of  age  at 
his  bedside,  he  said,  "  Lord,  now  lettest  thou  thy 
servant  depart  in  peace,  according  to  thy  word." 
He  published  Practical  Navigator  in  1802,  and 
various  communications  in  the  Memoirs  of  the 
American  Academy ;  and  at  his  own  expense,  a 
translation  of  the  Mecanique  Celeste  of  La  Place, 
with  a  commentary  in  four  large  quarto  vols. 

BOWDOIN,  JAMES,  L.L.  I).,  Governor  of 
Massachusetts,  and  a  philosopher  and  statesman, 
died  Nov.  6,  1790,  aged  63.  He  was  born  in 
Boston  August  8,  1727,  and  was  the  son  of 
James  Bowdoin,  an  eminent  merchant.  His 
grandfather,  Peter  Bowdoin,  or  Pierre  Baudouin, 
was  a  physician  of  Rochelle,  in  France.  On  the 
revocation  of  the  edict  of  Nantes  in  1685,  he  fled 
with  a  multitude  of  Protestants,  and  went  first  to 
Ireland,  and  came  to  Falmouth,  noAv  Portland,  in 
Casco  Bay,  Maine,  as  early  as  April,  1687.  He 
owned  several  tracts  of  land,  one  tract  of  twenty- 
three  acres  extending  across  the  Neck,where  South 
street  now  is.  In  about  three  years  he  removed 
to  Boston.  The  day  after  his  departure  the  In 
dians  attacked,  May  15,  1690,  and  in  a  few  days 
destroyed  Casco.  The  time  of  his  death  is  not 
ascertained;  his  will  is  dated  in  1704, but  was  not 
proved  till  1719.  He  had  two  sons  and  two 
daughters.  His  eldest  son,  James,  the  father  of 
Gov.  B.,  by  his  industry,  enterprise  and  economy 
having  acquired  a  great  estate  and  laid  the  foun 
dation  of  the  eminence  of  his  family,  died  Sept. 
4,  1747,  aged  71;  he  also  left  two  sons,  James 
and  William,  the  latter  by  his  second  wife. 

Mr.  Bowdoin  was  graduated  at  Harvard  college 
in  1745.  During  his  residence  at  the  university 
he  was  distinguished  by  his  genius  and  umvearied 
application  to  his  studies,  while  his  modesty,  po 
liteness,  and  benevolence  gave  his  friends  assurance 
that  liis  talents  would  not  be  prostituted,  nor  his 
future  eminence  employed  for  the  promotion  of 
unworthy  ends.  When  he  arrived  at  the  age  of 
twenty-one  years,  he  came  in  possession  of  an 
ample  fortune,  left  him  by  his  father,  who  died 
Sept.  4,  1747.  He  was  now  in  a  situation  the 
most  threatening  to  his  literary  and  moral  im 
provement,  for  one  great  motive,  which  impels 
men  to  exertion,  could  have  no  influence  upon 
him,  and  his  great  wealth  put  it  completely  in  his 
power  to  gratify  the  giddy  desires  of  youth.  But 
his  h'fe  had  hitherto  been  regular,  and  he  now 
with  the  maturity  of  wisdom  adopted  a  system 
which  was  most  rational,  pleasing,  and  useful.  He 




determined  to  combine  with  the  enjoyments  of 
domestic  and  social  life  a  course  of  study  which 
should  enlarge  and  perfect  the  powers  of  his 
mind.  At  the  age  of  twenty-two  years  he  mar 
ried  a  daughter  of  John  Erving,  and  commenced 
a  system  of  literary  and  scientific  research,  to 
which  he  adhered  through  life. 

In  the  year  1753  the  citizens  of  Boston  elected 
him  one  of  their  representatives  in  the  general 
court,  where  his  learning  and  eloquence  soon  ren 
dered  him  conspicuous.  He  continued  in  this 
station  until  1736,  when  he  was  chosen  into  the 
council,  in  which  body  he  was  long  known  and 
respected.  With  uniform  ability  and  patriotism 
he  advocated  the  cause  of  his  country.  In  the 
disputes  which  laid  the  foundation  of  the  Ameri 
can  revolution,  his  writings  and  exertions  were 
eminently  useful.  Governors  Bernard  and  Hutch- 
inson  were  constrained  to  confess,  in  their  confi 
dential  letters  to  the  British  ministry,  the  weight 
of  his  opposition  to  their  measures.  In  1769 
Bernard  negatived  him,  when  he  was  chosen  a 
member  of  the  council,  in  consequence  of  which 
the  inhabitants  of  Boston  again  elected  him  their 
representative  in  1770.  Hutchinson,  who  in  this 
year  succeeded  to  the  governor's  chair,  permitted 
him  to  take  a  seat  at  the  council  board,  because, 
said  he,  "  his  opposition  to  our  measures  will  be 
less  injurious  in  the  council,  than  in  the  house  of 
representatives."  He  wras  chosen  a  delegate  to 
the  first  congress,  but  the  illness  of  Mrs.  Bowdoin 
prevented  him  from  attending  with  the  other  del 
egates.  In  the  year  1775,  a  year  most  critical 
and  important  to  America,  he  was  chosen  pres 
ident  of  the  council  of  Massachusetts,  and  he 
continued  in  that  office  the  greater  part  of  the 
time  till  the  adoption  of  the  State  constitution  in 
1780.  lie  was  president  of  the  convention  which 
formed  it ;  and  some  of  its  important  articles  are 
the  result  of  his  knowledge  of  government. 

In  the  year  1785,  after  the  resignation  of  Han 
cock,  he  was  chosen  governor  of  Massachusetts, 
and  was  re-elected  the  following  year.  In  this 
office  his  wisdom,  firmness,  and  inflexible  integrity 
were  conspicuous.  He  was  placed  at  the  head 
of  the  government  at  the  most  unfortunate  period 
after  the  revolution.  The  sudden  influx  of  foreign 
luxuries  had  exhausted  the  country  of  its  specie, 
while  the  heavy  taxes  of  the  war  yet  burthened 
the  people.  This  state  of  suffering  awakened 
discontent,  and  the  spirit  of  disorder  was  cher 
ished  by  unlicensed  conventions,  wliich  were  arrayed 
against  the  legislature.  One  great  subject  of 
complaint  was  the  administration  of  justice. 
Against  lawyers  and  courts  the  strongest  resent 
ments  were  manifested.  In  many  instances  the 
judges  were  restrained  by  mobs  from  proceeding 
in  the  execution  of  their  duty.  As  the  insurgents 
became  more  audacious  from  the  lenient  measures 
of  the  government  and  were  organizing  them 

selves  for  the  subversion  of  the  constitution,  it  be 
came  necessary  to  suppress  by  force  the  spirit  of 
insurrection.  Gov.  Bowdoin  accordingly  ordered 
into  service  upwards  of  four  thousand  of  the 
militia,  who  were  placed  under  the  command  of 
the  veteran  Lincoln.  As  the  public  treasury  did 
not  afford  the  means  of  putting  the  troops  in 
motion,  some  of  the  citizens  of  Boston  with  the 
governor  at  the  head  of  the  list  subscribed  in  a 
few  hours  a  sufficient  sum  to  carry  on  the  proposed 
expedition.  This  decisive  step  rescued  the  gov 
ernment  from  the  contempt  into  which  it  was 
sinking,  and  was  the  means  of  saving  the  com 
monwealth.  The  dangerous  insurrection  of  Shays 
was  thus  completely  quelled. 

In  the  year  1787  Gov.  Bowdoin  was  succeeded 
by  Hancock,  in  consequence  of  the  exertions  of 
the  discontented,  who  might  hope  for  greater 
clemency  from  another  chief  magistrate.  He 
died  in  Boston,  after  a  distressing  sickness  of 
three  months.  His  wife,  Elizabeth  Erving,  died 
in  May,  1803,  aged  72.  He  left  two  children, 
James,  and  a  daughter  who  married  Sir  John 
Temple,  consul-general  of  Great  Britain  in  the 
United  States,  and  died  Oct.  26,  1809. 

Gov.  Bowdoin  was  a  learned  man,  and  a  con 
stant  and  generous  friend  of  literature.  He 
subscribed  liberally  for  the  restoration  of  the 
library  of  Harvard  college  in  the  year  1764,  when 
it  was  consumed  by  fire,  lie  was  chosen  a  fellow 
of  the  corporation  in  the  year  1779;  but  the 
pressure  of  more  important  duties  induced  him 
to  resign  this  office  in  1784.  lie  ever  felt,  how 
ever,  an  affectionate  regard  for  the  interests  of 
the  college,  and  bequeathed  to  it  four  hundred 
pounds,  the  interest  of  which  was  to  be  applied 
to  the  distribution  of  premiums  among  the  stu 
dents  for  the  encouragement  of  useful  and  polite 
literature.  The  American  academy  of  arts  and 
sciences,  incorporated  at  Boston  May  4,  1780,  at 
a  time  when  our  country  was  in  the  deepest  dis 
tress,  was  formed  under  his  influence,  and  was  an 
object  of  his  constant  attention.  He  was  chosen 
its  first  president,  and  he  continued  in  that  office 
till  his  death.  He  was  regarded  by  its  members 
as  the  pride  and  ornament  of  their  institution. 
To  this  body  he  bequeathed  one  hundred  pounds 
and  his  valuable  library,  consisting  of  upwards  of 
twelve  hundred  volumes  upon  every  branch  of 
science.  He  was  also  one  of  the  founders  and 
the  president  of  the  Massachusetts  bank,  and  of 
the  humane  society  of  Massachusetts.  The  lit 
erary  character  of  Gov.  Bowdoin  gained  him 
those  honors,  which  are  usually  conferred  on  men 
distinguished  for  their  literary  attainments.  He 
was  constituted  doctor  of  IBAVS  by  the  university 
of  Edinburgh,  and  was  elected  a  member  of  the 
royal  societies  of  London  and  Dublin. 

He  was  deeply  convinced  of  the  truth  and  ex 
cellence  of  Christianity,  and  it  had  a  constant 



effect  upon  his  life.  He  was  for  more  than  thirty 
years  an  exemplary  member  of  the  church  in 
Brattle  street,  to  the  poor  of  which  congregation 
he  bequeathed  a  hundred  pounds.  His  charities 
•were  abundant.  He  respected  the  injunctions  of 
the  gospel  of  Jesus  Christ,  which  he  professed. 
He  knew  the  pleasures  and  advantages  of  family 
devotion,  and  he  conscientiously  observed  the 
Christian  sabbath,  presenting  himself  habitually 
in  the  holy  temple,  that  he  might  be  instructed 
in  religious  duty,  and  might  unite  with  the  wor 
shippers  of  God.  In  his  dying  addresses  to  his 
family  and  servants  he  recommended  the  Chris 
tian  religion  to  them  as  of  transcendent  importance, 
and  assured  them,  that  it  was  the  only  founda 
tion  of  peace  and  happiness  in  life  and  death. 
As  the  hour  of  his  departure  approached,  he 
expressed  his  satisfaction  in  the  thought  of 
going  to  the  full  enjoyment  of  God  and  his  Re 

Gov.  Bowdoin  was  the  author  of  a  poetic  "Par 
aphrase  of  the  Economy  of  Human  Life,"  dated 
March  28,  1759.  He  also  published  a  philo 
sophical  discourse,  publicly  addressed  to  the 
American  academy  of  arts  and  sciences  in  Boston 
Nov.  8,  1780,  when  he  was  inducted  into  the  office 
of  president.  This  is  prefixed  to  the  first  volume 
of  the  society's  memoirs.  In  this  work  he  pub 
lished  several  other  productions,  which  manifest 
no  common  taste  and  talents  in  astronomical  in 
quiries.  The  following  are  the  titles  of  them  : 
Observations  upon  an  hypothesis  for  solving  the 
phenomena  of  light,  with  incidental  observations 
tending  to  show  the  hcterogeneousness  of  light, 
and  of  the  electric  fluid,  by  their  union  with  each 
other ;  Observations  on  light  and  the  waste  of 
matter  in  the  sun  and  fixed  stars  occasioned  by 
the  constant  efflux  of  light  from  them;  Obser 
vations  tending  to  prove  by  phenomena  and 
scripture  the  existence  of  an  orb,  which  surrounds 
the  whole  material  system,  and  which  may  be 
necessary  to  preserve  it  from  the  ruin,  to  which, 
without  such  a  counterbalance,  it  seems  liable  by 
that  universal  principle  in  matter,  gravitation. 
He  supposes,  that  the  blue  expanse  of  the  sky  is 
a  real  concave  body  encompassing  all  visible  na 
ture  ;  that  the  milky  way  and  the  lucid  spots  in 
the  heavens  are  gaps  in  this  orb,  through  which 
the  light  of  exterior  orbs  reaches  us;  and  that 
thus  an  intimation  may  be  given  of  orbs  on  orbs 
and  systems  on  systems  innumerable  and  incon 
ceivably  grand.  —  Thacher's  Fun.  Ser.  ;  Lowell's 
Eulogy ;  Mass.  Mag.  III.  5-8,  304,  305,  372  ; 
Univer.  Asyl.  I.  73-70  ;  Miller,  II. ;  Minofs  Hist. 
Insur.  ;  Rldrsltall,  v.  121;  Amer.  Quar.  Rev.,  II. 
505  ;  Maine  Hist.  Coll.  184 ;  Eliot. 

BOWDOIX,  JAMES,  the  son  of  the  preceding, 
died  Oct.  11,  1811,  aged  58.  He  was  born 
Sept.  22,  1752.  After  he  graduated  at  Harvard 
college  in  1771,  he  proceeded  to  England,  where 


he  prosecuted  the  study  of  the  law  nearly  a 
year  at  the  university  of  Oxford.  After  revis 
iting  his  native  country  he  sailed  again  for  Eu 
rope,  and  travelled  in  Italy,  Holland,  and  Eng 
land.  On  hearing  ot  the  battle  of  Lexington  he 
returned  home.  The  anxieties  of  his  father  pre 
vented  him  from  engaging  in  military  service,  to 
which  he  was  inclined.  Before  the  close  of  the 
war  he  married  the  daughter  of  Mr.  William 
Bowdoin,  the  half  brother  of  his  father.  Devoting 
much  of  his  time  to  literary  pursuits  at  his  resi 
dence  in  Dorchester,  he  yet  sustained  succes 
sively  the  public  offices  of  representative,  senator, 
and  councillor. 

Soon  after  the  incorporation  of  the  college, 
which  bears  the  name  of  Bowdoin,  he  made  to  it 
a  donation  of  one  thousand  acres  of  land  and 
more  than  eleven  hundred  pounds.  About  this 
time  he  was  chosen  a  fellow,  or  elected  into  the 
corporation  of  Harvard  college,  and  retained  the 
office  seven  years.  Having  received  a  commission 
from  Mr.  Jefferson,  the  President  of  the  United 
States,  as  minister  plenipotentiary  to  the  court  of 
Madrid,  he  sailed  May  10,  1805,  and  was  abroad 
until  April  18,  1808.  The  objects  of  his  mission, 
which  related  to  the  settlement  of  the  limits  of 
Louisiana,  the  purchase  of  Florida,  and  the  pro 
curing  of  compensation  for  repeated  spoliations  of 
American  commerce,  were  not  accomplished. 
During  his  absence  he  spent  two  years  in  Paris, 
where  he  purchased  many  books,  a  collection  of 
well  arranged  minerals,  and  fine  models  of  crys 
tallography,  which  he  afterwards  presented  to 
Bowdoin  college.  After  his  return  much  of  his 
time  was  spent  upon  his  family  estate,  the  valuable 
island  of  Naushaun,  near  Martha's  Vineyard. 
At  this  time  his  translation  of  Danbenton's  "Ad 
vice  to  Shepherds  "  was  published  for  the  benefit 
of  the  owners  of  sheep.  lie  had  previously  pub 
lished,  anonymously,  "  Opinions  respecting  the 
commercial  intercourse  between  the  United  States 
and  Great  Britain."  In  July,  1811,  he  executed 
a  deed  to  Bowdoin  college  of  six  thousand  acres 
in  the  town  of  Lisbon.  By  his  last  will  he  be 
queathed  to  the  college  several  articles  of  philo 
sophical  apparatus,  a  costly  collection  of  seventy 
fine  paintings,  and  the  reversion  of  Naushaun 
island  on  the  failure  of  issue  male  of  the  dcvis:ecs. 
The  college  claims  are  now  settled. 

After  a  long  period  of  infirmity  and  of  painful 
attacks  of  disease  he  died  without  children.  His 
widow  married  Gen.  Henry  Dearborn.  At  her 
decease  she  left  a  sum  of  money  and  a  number  of 
valuable  family  portraits  to  the  college.  The 
name  of  James  Bowdoin  was  borne  by  one  of  the 
heirs  of  his  estate,  —  the  son  of  his  niece  who 
married  Thomas  L.  Winthrop,  the  lieutenant  gov 
ernor  of  Massachusetts.  —  Jcnk.J  Eulogy. 

BOWDOIN,  JAMES,  of  Boston,  died  in  Havana 
March  6,  1833,  aged  38;  a  graduate  of  Bowdoin 



college  in  1814.  He  was  the  son  of  Lieut.  Gov. 
Winthrop.  He  took  the  name  of  his  grandfather 
Bowdoin  and  received  a  competent  fortune.  Re 
linquishing  the  practice  of  the  law,  he  devoted 
himself  to  literature,  especially  to  history.  The 
chronological  index  of  the  ten  vols.  of  second 
series  of  the  Historical  Society  was  made  out  by 
him,  and  he  performed  other  useful  labors  for  the 
society.  A  brief  memoir  is  in  Hist.  Cull.  3d  series, 
vol.  IX. 

BOWEX,  JAEEZ,  L'.L.  D.,  lieut.  governor  of 
Rhode  Island,  was  born  in  Providence,  graduated 
at  Yale  college  in  17.57,  and  died  May  7,  1815, 
aged  75  years.  For  thirty  years  he  was  the  chan 
cellor  of  the  college  at  Providence  as  the  successor 
of  Gov.  Hopkins.  During  the  Pie  volution  ary  war 
he  was  devoted  to  the  cause  of  his  country,  and 
was  a  member  of  the  board  of  war,  judge  of  the 
supreme  court,  and  lieut.  governor.  Of  the  na 
tional  convention  at  Annapolis  and  of  the  State 
convention  to  consider  the  constitution  he  was  a 
member.  During  the  administration  of  Wash 
ington  he  was  commissioner  of  loans  for  Rhode 
Island.  Of  the  Bible  society  of  It.  I.  he  was  the 
president.  In  the  maturity  of  his  years  he  be 
came  a  member  of  the  first  Congregational  church. 
His  great  capacity  for  public  business,  joined  to  his 
unquestioned  integrity,  gave  him  an  elevated  char 
acter  and  great  influence  in  society.  A  gentleman 
of  the  same  name  was  a  judge  of  the  superior 
court  in  Georgia ;  having  in  an  elegant  charge, 
delivered  at  Savannah,  made  some  imprudent 
remarks  concerning  the  colored  population,  the 
grand  jury  presented  his  charge,  in  consequence 
of  which  he  sent  them  all  to  prison,  lie  was 
removed  from  office,  and,  it  is  said,  died  insane  at 

BOWEX,  PARDON,  M.  I).,  a  distinguished  phy 
sician,  died  Oct.  25,  1826,  aged  G9.  He  was  born 
in  Providence  March  22,  1757.  Richard  Bowcn 
is  said  to  have  been  his  ancestor ;  perhaps  it  was 
Griffeth  Bowcn,  who  lived  in  Boston  in  1639.  His 
father  was  Dr.  Ephraim  Bowen,  an  eminent  phy 
sician  of  Providence,  who  died  Oct.  21,  1812, 
aged  96  years.  After  graduating  at  the  college 
of  Rhode  Island  in  1775,  he  studied  Avith  his 
brother,  Dr.  William  Bowcn,  and  embarked  as 
surgeon  in  a  privateer  in  1779.  Though  captured 
and  imprisoned  seven  months  at  Halifax,  he  was 
not  deterred  from  engaging  repeatedly  in  similar 
enterprises,  resulting  in  new  imprisonments.  In 
1782  he  reached  home  and  Avas  content  to  remain 
on  shore.  In  1783  he  repaired  to  Philadelphia 
for  his  improvement  in  his  profession  at  the  med 
ical  school.  After  his  return  it  was  but  gradually 
that  he  obtained  practice.  At  length  his  success 
was  ample ;  his  eminence  in  medicine  and  surgery 
were  undisputed.  During  the  prevalence  of  the 
yellow  fever  he  shrank  not  from  the  peril ;  more 
than  once  was  he  attacked  by  that  disease.  For 

much  of  his  success  he  was  indebted  to  his  study 
of  idiosyncrasy,  or  of  the  peculiarities,  moral,  in 
tellectual  and  physical,  of  his  patients.  In  1820 
he  experienced  an  attack  of  the  palsy,  which  ter 
minated  his  professional  labors,  in  consequence  of 
which  he  retired  to  the  residence  of  his  son-in-law, 
Franklin  Greene,  at  Potowomut  (Warwick),  where 
he  passed  years  of  suffering,  sometimes  amount 
ing  to  agony.  In  the  life-giving  energy  of  the 
doctrines,  precepts,  and  promises  of  the  Bible  he 
found  the  only  adequate  support  and  solace. 
His  wife,  who  survived  him,  was  the  daughter  of 
Henry  Ward,  secretary  of  Rhode  Island.  Dr. 
Bowen  sustained  an  excellent  character ;  he  was 
modest,  upright,  afTable ;  free  from  covetousness 
and  ambition  ;  beneficent ;  and  in  his  last  days  an 
example  of  Christian  holiness.  He  published  an 
elaborate  account  of  the  yellow  fever  of  Provi 
dence  in  1805  in  Hosack's  medical  register,  vol. 
IV. —  Tit uclicr's  Med.  Ling. 

BOWEX,  WILLIAM  C.,  M.  D.,  professor  of 
chemistry  in  Brown  university,  received  this  ap 
pointment  in  1812,  and  died  April  23,  1815,  aged 
29.  He  was  the  only  son  of  Dr.  AYilliam  Bowen, 
who  was  an  eminent  practitioner  at  the  age  of 
80  years,  and  was  born  June  2,  1785.  After 
graduating  at  Union  college  in  1703,  he  studied 
medicine  with  Dr.  Pardon  Bowen  ;  also  at  Edin 
burgh  and  Paris,  and  at  London  as  the  private 
pupil  of  Sir  Astley  Cooper.  lie  did  not  return 
till  Aug.  1811.  Experiments  to  discover  the 
composition  of  the  bleaching  liquor,  just  brought 
into  use  in  England,  laid  the  foundation  of  the 
disease  which  terminated  his  life.  He  married  a 
daughter  of  Col.  Olney.  Though  his  labors  on 
chlorine  impaired  his  property  and  destroyed  his 
life,  they  led  to  the  creation  of  the  valuable 
bleaching  establishments  of  Rhode  Island.  — 
ThacJter's  Med.  Biog. 

BOWEX,  NATHANIEL,  D.  D.,  bishop  of  South 
Carolina,  died  Aug.  25.,  1839,  aged  59. 

BOWEX,  CHARLES,  died  Dec.  19,  1845,  aged 
38,  drowned  with  his  wife  and  oldest  child  by  the 
sinking  of  the  steamer  Belle  Zane  in  the  M'issis- 
sippi,  by  striking  a  snag,  five  hundred  miles  above 
Xew  Orleans.  He  lived  in  Zanesville,  Ohio,  but 
was  a  native  of  Charlestown,  and  in  Boston  pub 
lished  for  several  years  the  Xorth  American  Re 
view,  Amer.  Almanac,  Token,  and  other  works. 

BOWIE,  ROBEKT,  general,  governor  of  Mary 
land,  succeeded  John  F.  Mercer  as  governor  in 
1803,  and  was  succeeded  by  Robert  Wright  in 
1805.  He  was  again  governor  in  1811,  but  the 
next  year  was  succeeded  by  Levin  Winder.  He 
died  at  Xottingham  in  Jan.,  1818,  aged  64.  He 
was  an  officer  of  the  Revolution,  and  presents  one 
of  the  multitude  of  instances  in  America  of  the 
success  of  patriotism,  integrity,  and  benevolence, 
unassisted  by  the  advantages  of  wealth  or  of  a 
learned  education. 




BOWLES,  WILLIAM  A.,  an  Indian  agent,  died 
Dec.  23,  1805.  He  was  born  in  Frederic  county, 
the  son  of  a  schoolmaster  in  Maryland,  who  Avas 
an  Englishman  and  brother  of  Carington  B., 
keeper  of  the  famous  print-shop,  Ludgate  hill, 
London.  At  the  age  of  thirteen  Bowles  privately 
left  his  parents  and  joined  the  British  army  at 
Philadelphia.  Afterwards  he  entered  the  service 
of  the  Creek  Indians  and  married  an  Indian  wo 
man.  Ferocious  like  the  savages,  he  instigated 
them  to  many  of  their  excesses.  The  British  re 
warded  him  for  his  exertions.  After  the  peace  he 
went  to  England.  On  his  return  his  influence 
with  the  Indians  was  so  disastrous,  that  the  Span 
iards  offered  six  thousand  dollars  for  his  appre 
hension.  He  was  entrapped  in  Feb.,  1792,  and 
sent  a  prisoner  to  Madrid  and  thence  to  Manilla 
in  179,3.  Having  leave  to  go  to  Europe,  he  re 
paired  to  the  Creeks  and  commenced  his  depre 
dations  anew  ;  but  being  again  betrayed  in  1804 
into  the  hands  of  the  Spaniards,  he  was  confined 
in  the  Moro  castle,  Havana,  where  he  died.  Such 
is  the  miserable  end  of  most  of  the  unprincipled 
adventurers,  of  whom  there  is  any  account.  A 
memoir  of  him  was  published  in  London,  1791,  in 
which  he  is  called  ambassador  from  the  united 
nations  of  Creeks  and  Cherokees. — Jennison. 

BOYD,  THOMAS,  a  soldier,  who  perished  by  the 
hands  of  the  Indians,  was  a  private  soldier  be 
longing  to  Capt.  Matthew  Smith's  Pennsylvania 
rifle  company,  in  Arnold's  expedition  through  the 
wilderness  of  Maine  to  Quebec  in  1775.  lie  was 
the  largest  and  strongest  man  in  the  company. 
He  was  taken  prisoner  in  the  assault,  Dec.  31. 
After  being  exchanged  he  was  a  lieutenant  in  the 
first  Pennsylvania  regiment,  and  accompanied  Gen. 
Sullivan  in  his  expedition  against  the  Indians  in 
the  Seneca  country,  New  York,  in  Aug.  and 
Sept.,  1779.  When  the  army  had  marched  be 
yond  Canandaigua,  and  was  near  the  Gcnesee 
town  on  the  Genesee  river,  Boyd  was  sent  out  in 
the  evening  of  Sept.  12  to  reconnoitre  the  town 
six  miles  distant.  He  took  twenty-six  men,  with 
an  Oneida  chief,  named  Han-Jost.  The  guides 
mistook  the  road,  and  led  him  to  a  castle  six 
miles  higher  up  the  river  than  Genesee.  Here  a 
few  Indians  were  discovered,  of  whom  two  were 
killed  and  scalped.  On  his  return  Boyd  was  in 
tercepted  by  several  hundred  Indians  and  rangers 
under  Butler.  His  flanking  parties  escaped;  but 
he  and  fourteen  men  with  the  Oneida  chief  were 
encircled.  Itesorting  to  a  small  grove  of  trees, 
surrounded  with  a  cleared  space,  he  fought  des 
perately  till  all  his  men  but  one  were  killed  and 
he  himself  was  shot  through  the  body.  The  next 
day  his  body  and  that  of  his  companion,  Michael 
Parker,  were  found  at  Genesee,  barbarously  muti 
lated.  The  Indians  had  cruelly  whipped  him; 
stabbed  him  with  spears ;  pulled  out  his  nails ; 
plucked  out  an  eye,  and  cut  out  his  tongue.  His 

head  was  cut  off.  Simpson,  afterwards  general, 
his  companion  at  Quebec,  decently  buried  him. 
His  scalp,  hooped  and  painted,  found  in  one  of 
the  wigwams,  was  recognized  by  Simpson  by  its 
long,  brown,  silky  hair.  —  Maine  Hist.  Coll.  I. 
416 ;  American  Remembrancer,  1780,  1G2. 

BOYD,  WILLIAM,  minister  of  Lamington  in 
New  Jersey,  died  May  15,  1808.  He  was  de 
scended  from  Scottish  ancestors,  who  emigrated 
to  Pennsylvania.  He  was  born  in  Franklin  county, 
1758.  At  the  age  of  fifteen  he  lost  his  father,  but 
about  the  same  time  it  pleased  the  Father  of 
mercies  to  turn  him  from  darkness  to  light.  His 
collegial  education  was  completed  at  Princeton  in 
1778,  under  the  presidency  of  Dr.  Witherspoon. 
After  pursuing  the  study  of  theology  with  Dr. 
Allison,  of  Baltimore,  he  commenced  preaching 
the  gospel.  His  popularity  and  talents  would 
have  procured  him  a  conspicuous  situation ;  but 
he  was  destitute  of  ambition.  He  preferred  a 
retired  situation,  and  accepted  the  call  of  Laming 
ton.  Here  he  continued  till  his  death.  A  lively 
faith  in  the  Iledccmer  gave  him  hope  and  triumph. 
He  was  a  man  of  unfeigned  humility,  amiable  in 
the  various  relations  of  life,  and  remarkable  for 
prudence  and  moderation  in  all  his  deportment. 
He  was  a  preacher  of  peculiar  excellence.  Deeply 
penetrated  himself  with  a  sense  of  the  total  de 
pravity  of  the  human  heart,  and  of  the  inability 
of  man  to  perform  anything  acceptable  to  God 
without  the  influence  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  he  en 
deavored  to  impress  these  truths  on  others.  He 
dwelt  upon  the  necessity  of  a  Divine  atonement, 
and  of  faith  in  the  Piedeemer,  in  order  to  justifica 
tion  ;  upon  the  riches  of  Divine  grace  and  the 
encouragements  of  the  gospel  to  the  humble  and 
contrite ;  upon  the  dangers  of  self-deception  and 
the  false  refuges  of  the  wicked.  He  was  remark 
able  for  a  natural  facility  and  perspicuity  of 
expression.  For  a  few  years  he  wrote  his  ser 
mons  and  committed  them  to  memory;  but  for 
the  remainder  of  his  life  he  depended,  after  hav 
ing  digested  his  subject,  upon  the  vigor  of  his 
powers.  A  penetrating  eye,  natural  gestures,  a 
sweet  and  commanding  voice,  and  an  irreproacha 
ble  character,  gave  weight  and  authority  to  his 
words.  But  his  labors,  like  those  of  many  other 
good  men,  were  attended  with  only  a  gradual  in 
crease  of  the  church  committed  to  his  care. 

He  was  formed  no  less  for  society  than  for  the 
pulpit,  having  a  friendly  disposition,  being  ani 
mated  in  conversation,  accommodating  himself  to 
the  tempers  of  others,  and  mingling  condescen 
sion  with  dignity.  —  Evany.  Intellig.  May,  1808. 

BOYD,  JOHN  P.,  brigadier-general  in  the  army 
of  the  United  States,  died  at  Boston  Oct.  4,  1830, 
aged  02.  He  commanded  the  detachment  of 
fifteen  hundred  men  of  Wilh'amson's  army,  which 
fought  the  battle  of  Williamsburg,  Upper  Canada, 
with  eighteen  hundred  of  the  enemy,  the  garri- 




sons  of  Kingston  and  Prescott,  Nov.  11,  1813.  j  the  year  1692,  it  had  proved  destructive  to  the 
In  this  severe  action  brigadier-general  Covington  I  lives  of  many,  though  it  was  much  less  mortal 
was  killed ;  the  American  loss  was  three  hundred  than  when  it  appeared  in  the  year  1678.  On  its 
thirty-nine ;  the  British  one  hundred  eighty-one,  re-appearance,  Dr.  Cotton  Mather,  who  had  read 
This  British  force  being  in  the  rear,  and  the  co-  I  in  a  volume  of  the  philosophical  transactions,  put 

operation  of  Hampton  having  failed,  the  proposed 
descent  to  Montreal  was  abandoned,  and  the 
American  army  recrossed  the  St.  Lawrence  and 
went  into  winter  quarters  at  French  Mills.  Gen. 
Boyd  was  a  good  officer ;  his  early  military  career 
was  in  India.  But  this  service  was  of  a  peculiar 

into  his  hands  by  Dr.  Douglass,  two  communica 
tions  from  the  east,  the  one  from  Timoni  at 
Constantinople,  and  the  other  from  Pylarini,  the 
Venetian  consul  at  Smyrna,  giving  an  account  of 
the  practice  of  inoculation  for  the  small  pox,  con 
ceived  the  idea  of  introducing  this  practice  in 

kind.     He   organized  three   battalions,   each   of  I  Boston.     He   accordingly,   June  6,  addressed  a 

about  five  hundred  men,  and  had  also  a  small  ir 
regular  force.  He  had  six  cannon,  three  or  four 
elephants,  and  as  many  English  officers,  lie 
hired  his  men  and  his  officers  at  a  certain  number 
of  rupees  a  month.  This  corps,  as  regarded  arms 
and  equipments,  was  his  sole  property ;  and  in 
the  command  of  it  he  entered  the  service  of  any 
of  the  Indian  princes  who  would  give  him  the 
best  pay.  Once  he  was  in  the  pay  of  Holkar ; 
afterwards  in  the  Peshwas  service ;  then,  quitting 
the  Mahratta  territory,  he  was  hired  for  the  ser 
vice  of  Nizam  Ally  Khan.  Then  he  marched  to 
Poona,  and,  having  no  eligible  offer  of  employ 
ment,  he  sold  out  his  elephants,  guns,  arms,  and 
equipments,  to  Col.  Felose,  a  Neapolitan  partisan, 
who  acquired  the  implements,  elephantine  and 
human,  for  carrying  on  the  same  trade  of  hired 
ruffianship.  In  1808  he  was  in  Paris.  After  the 
war  he  received  the  appointment  of  naval  officer 
for  the  port  of  Boston,  lie  published  documents 
and  facts  relative  to  military  events  during  the  late 
war,  1816.  — Boston  Weekly  Messenger,  vm.  774. 

BOYD,  WILLIAM,  died  in  1800,  a  graduate  of 
Harvard  in  1796.  He  wrote  a  poem  on  Woman, 
and  other  pieces. 

BOYLE,  JOHN,  chief  justice  of  Kentucky,  died 
Jan.  28,  1834.  He  had  been  a  judge  of  the  cir- 

letter  to  the  physicians  of  Boston,  inclosing  an 
abridgment  of  those  communications,  and  re 
questing  them  to  meet  and  take  the  subject  into 
consideration.  As  this  request  was  treated  with 
neglect,  he  wrote  to  Dr.  Boylston  separately,  June 
24,  and  sent  him  all  the  information  which  he 
had  collected,  in  the  hope  that  he  would  be  per 
suaded  to  embrace  a  new  and  favorable  means  for 
the  preservation  of  human  life.  Dr.  Boylston 
happily  was  a  man  of  benevolence  and  courage. 
When  there  was  before  him  a  promising  opportu 
nity  for  diminishing  the  evils  of  human  life,  he 
was  not  afraid  to  struggle  with  prejudice,  nor 
unwilling  to  encounter  abuse.  The  practice  would 
be  entirely  new  in  America,  and  it  was  not  known 
that  it  had  been  introduced  into  Europe.  Yet 
he  determined  to  venture  upon  it.  He  first  in 
oculated,  June  26th,  his  son  Thomas,  of  the  age 
of  six  years,  and  two  of  his  servants.  Encour 
aged  by  the  success  of  this  experiment,  he  began 
to  enlarge  his  practice.  The  other  physicians 
gave  their  unanimous  opinion  against  inoculation, 
as  it  would  infuse  a  malignity  into  the  blood  ; 
and  the  selectmen  of  Boston  forbade  it  in  July. 
But  these  discouragements  did  not  quench  the 
zeal  and  benevolence,  which  were  now  excited; 
though  prejudice  might  have  triumphed  over  an 

cuit  court  of  the  United  States,  and  Avas  able  and  |  enlightened  practice,  if  the  clergy  had  not  step- 
distinguished,  i  ped  in  to  aid  the  project.     Six  venerable  ministers 

BOYLSTON,  ZABDIEL,  F.  R.  S.,  an  eminent 
physician,  who  first  introduced  the  inoculation  of 
the  small  pox  in  America,  died  at  Boston  March 
1,  1766,  aged  86.  He  was  born  of  respectable 
parents  at  Brookline,  Mass.,  in  1680.  His  father 
was  Peter  B.,  the  son  of  Doctor  Thomas  B.,  who 
received  his  medical  degree  at  Oxford,  and  came 
to  tin's  country  and  settled  in  Brookline  in  1635. 
After  a  good  private  education,  he  studied  physic 
under  the  care  of  Dr.  John  Cutler,  an  eminent 
physician  and  surgeon  of  Boston,  and  in  a  few 
years  arrived  at  great  distinction  in  his  profession, 
and  accumulated  a  handsome  fortune.  He  was 
remarkable  for  his  skill,  his  humanity,  and  his 
close  attention  to  his  patients.  In  the  year  1721 
the  small  pox  prevailed  in  Boston,  and  being 
fatal,  like  the  plague,  it  carried  with  it  the  utmost 
terror.  This  calamity  had  not  visited  the  town 
since  the  year  1702,  in  winch  year,  as  well  as  in 

of  Boston  gave  their  whole  influence  in  its  favor; 
and  the  weight  of  their  character,  the  confidence 
which  was  reposed  in  their  wisdom,  and  the  deep 
reverence  inspired  by  their  piety,  were  hardly 
sufficient  to  preserve  the  growing  light  from  ex 
tinction.  They  were  abused,  but  they  triumphed. 
July  17,  Dr.  Boylston  inoculated  his  son  John, 
who  was  older  than  Thomas,  and  Aug.  23,  his 
son  Zabdiel,  aged  14.  During  the  year*  1721 
and  the  beginning  of  1722  he  inoculated  two 
hundred  and  forty-seven  persons  in  Boston  and 
the  neighboring  towns.  Thirty-nine  were  inocu 
lated  by  other  physicians,  making  in  the  whole 
two  hundred  and  eighty-six,  of  whom  only  six 
died.  During  the  same  period,  of  five  thousand 
seven  hundred  and  fifty-nine  persons,  who  had 
the  small  pox  in  the  natural  way,  eight  hundred 
and  forty-four  died.  The  utility  of  the  practice 
was  now  established  beyond  dispute,  and  its  sue- 




cess  encouraged  its  more  general  introduction  in 
England,  in  which  country  it  had  been  tried  upon 
a  few  persons,  most  or  all  of  whom  were  convicts. 
In  the  prosecution  of  his  good  work  Dr.  Boylston 
was  obliged  to  meet  not  only  the  most  virulent, 
but  the  most  dangerous  opposition.  Dr.  Law 
rence  Dalhonde,  a  French  physician  in  Boston, 
gave  his  deposition  concerning  the  pernicious 
effects  of  inoculation,  which  he  had  witnessed  in 
Europe.  The  deposition,  dated  July  22,  was  pub 
lished  by  the  selectmen,  the  rulers  of  the  town, 
in  their  zeal  against  the  practice.  Dr.  Douglass, 
a  Scotchman,  violent  in  his  prejudices,  and  bitter 
and  outrageous  in  his  conduct,  bent  his  whole 
force  to  annihilate  the  practice,  which  had  been 
introduced.  One  argument,  which  he  brought 
against  it,  was  that  it  was  a  crime,  which  came 
under  the  description  of  poisoning  and  spreading 
infection,  which  were  made  penal  by  the  laws  of 
England.  In  the  pamphlets,  which  were  pub 
lished  in  1721  and  1722,  various  kinds  of  reason 
ing  are  found.  The  following  extracts  will  give 
some  idea  of  the  spirit  of  them.  "  To  spread 
abroad  a  moral  contagion,  what  is  it  but  to  cast 
abroad  arrows  and  death  ?  If  a  man  should  wil 
fully  throw  a  bomb  into  a  town,  burn  a  house,  or 
kill  a  man,  ought  he  not  to  die  ?  I  do  not  see 
how  we  can  be  excused  from  great  impiety 
herein,  when  ministers  and  people,  with  loud  and 
strong  cries,  made  supplications  to  almighty  God 
to  avert  the  judgment  of  the  small  pox,  and  at 
the  same  time  some  have  been  carrying  about 
instruments  of  inoculation  and  bottles  of  the 
poisonous  humor,  to  infect  all  who  were  willing 
to  submit  to  it,  whereby  we  might  as  naturally 
expect  the  infection  to  spread,  as  a  man  to  break 
his  bones  by  casting  himself  headlong  from  the 
highest  pinnacle.  Can  any  man  infect  a  family 
in  the  town  in  the  morning,  and  pray  to  God  in 
the  evening,  that  the  distemper  may  not  spread?" 
It  was  contended,  that,  as  the  small  pox  was  a 
judgment  from  God  for  the  sins  of  the  people, 
to  endeavor  to  avert  the  stroke  would  but  provoke 
him  the  more ;  that  inoculation  was  an  encroach 
ment  upon  the  prerogatives  of  Jehovah,  whose 
right  it  was  to  wound  and  to  smite ;  and  that,  as 
there  was  an  appointed  time  to  man  upon  earth, 
it  would  be  useless  to  attempt  to  stay  the  ap 
proach  of  death. 

The  people  became  so  exasperated,  that  it  was 
unsafe  for  Dr.  Boylston  to  travel  in  the  evening. 
They  even  paraded  the  streets  with  halters  and 
threatened  to  hang  liim.  But  his  cool  and  deter 
mined  spirit,  supported  by  his  trust  in  God, 
enabled  him  to  persevere.  As  he  believed  him 
self  to  be  in  the  way  of  his  duty,  he  did  not  trem 
ble  at  the  apprehension  of  the  evils  which  might 
come  upon  him.  "NVhen  his  family  were  alarmed 
for  his  safety,  he  expressed  to  them  his  resigna 
tion  to  the  will  of  heaven.  To  such  a  height  was 

the  popular  fury  raised,  that  a  lighted  gran  ado 
was  thrown  in  the  night  into  the  chamber  of  Mr. 
Walter,  minister  of  lloxbury,  who  had  been  pri 
vately  inoculated  in  the  house  of  his  uncle,  Dr. 
Mather  of  Boston.  The  shell,  however,  was  not 
filled  with  powder,  but  with  a  mixture  of  brim 
stone  and  bituminous  matter. 

Had  Dr.  Boylston  gone  at  this  time  to  Eng 
land,  he  might  have  accumulated  a  fortune  by 
his  skill  in  treating  the  small  pox.  lie  did  not 
however  visit  that  country  till  1725,  when  inocu 
lation  was  common.  He  was  then  received  with 
the  most  flattering  attention.  He  was  chosen  a 
member  of  the  royal  society,  though  he  was  not, 
as  Dr.  Thacher  supposes,  the  first  American  thus 
honored,  for  Dr.  Cotton  Mather  was  elected  in 
1713.  He  enjoyed  the  friendship  of  some  of  the 
most  distinguished  characters  of  the  nation.  Of 
these  he  used  to  mention  with  great  respect  and 
affection  Dr.  Watts,  with  whom  he  corresponded. 
After  his  return  to  his  native  country  he  continued 
at  the  head  of  his  profession,  and  engaged  in  a 
number  of  literary  pursuits.  His  communications 
to  the  royal  society  were  ingenious  and  useful. 
After  a  long  period  of  eminence  and  skill  in  his 
profession,  his  age  and  infirmities  induced  him  to 
retire  to  his  patrimonial  estate  in  Brookline,  where 
he  passed  the  remainder  of  his  days.  He  had 
the  pleasure  of  seeing  inoculation  universally 
practised,  and  of  knowing,  that  he  was  himself 
considered  as  one  of  the  benefactors  of  mankind. 
Occupied  in  his  last  days  in  agricultural  pursuits, 
he  bestowed  much  care  on  the  improvement  of 
the  breed  of  horses.  Those  of  his  own  farm 
were  celebrated.  It  seems  that  he  had  a  vigor 
ous  old  age,  notwithstanding  the  asthma,  which 
afflicted  him  forty  years,  for  he  was  seen  at  the 
age  of  84,  in  the  streets  of  Boston,  riding  a  colt, 
which,  as  an  excellent  horseman,  he  was  breaking 
to  the  bit.  He  died  saying  to  his  friends,  "  my 
work  in  this  world  is  done,  and  my  hopes  of  futu 
rity  are  brightening."  His  wife,  who  died  before 
him,  was  Jerusha  Minot  of  Boston.  His  second 
son,  John,  a  merchant,  died  at  Bath,  England, 
Jan.  17,  1795,  aged  80,  bequeathing  much  to  his 
•native  town.  The  inscription  upon  his  tomb  rep 
resents,  that  through  a  life  of  extensive  benefi 
cence  he  was  always  faithful  to  his  word,  just  in 
his  dealings,  afl'able  in  his  manners,  and  that  after 
a  long  sickness,  in  which  he  was  exemplary  for 
his  patience  and  resignation  to  his  Maker,  he 
quitted  this  mortal  life  in  a  just  expectation  of 
a  blessed  immortality. 

Dr.  Boylston  published  some  account  of  what 
is  said  of  inoculating  or  transplanting  the  small 
pox  by  the  learned  Dr.  Emanucl  Timonius  and 
Jacobus  Pylarinus,  1721;  an  historical  account  of 
the  small  pox  inoculated  in  New  England,  with 
some  account  of  the  nature  of  the  infection,  and 
some  short  directions  to  the  inexperienced,  dedi- 




catcd  to  the  princess  of  Wales,  London,  1726, 
and  Boston,  1730;  and  several  communications 
in  the  philosophical  transactions. — Muss.  Mag., 
Dec.,  1789,  177G-1779;  Pierce's  Cen.  Discourse  ; 
Holmes,  II.  148 ;  Boylston's  Hist.  Account ; 
HiiMtin.wu,  II.  273-270  ;  Thacher's  Med.  Bioy. 

BOYLSTOX,  NICHOLAS,  a  benefactor  of  Har 
vard  college,  died  in  Boston  Aug.  18,  1771,  aged 
5,3.  His  portrait,  which  is  an  admirable  paint 
ing,  is  in  the  philosophy  chamber  of  the  college. 
He  had  been  an  eminent  merchant,  and  was 
about  to  retire  from  business  to  enjoy  the  fruit 
of  his  industry,  when  he  was  removed  from  the 
earth.  He  was  honest  in  his  dealings,  and  re 
markable  for  his  sincerity,  having  a  peculiar 
abhorrence  of  all  dissimulation.  He  bequeathed 
to  the  university  at  Cambridge  1500  pounds  for 
laying  the  foundation  of  a  professorship  of  rhet- 
eric  and  oratory.  This  sum  was  paid  into  the 
college  treasury  by  his  executors  Feb.  11,  1772; 
and  the  fund  became  accumulated  to  23,200  dol 
lars  before  any  appropriation  was  made.  John 
Quincy  Adams,  then  a  senator  of  the  United 
States,  was  installed  the  first  professor,  June  12, 
1806,  with  the  title  of  "The  Boylston  professor 
of  rhetoric  and  oratory  in  Harvard  college."  — 
Holmes,  II.  179. 

BOYLSTOX,  WARD  NICHOLAS,  a  patron  of 
medical  science,  was  the  son  of  the  preceding, 
and  died  at  his  seat  in  Roxbury,  Mass.,  Jan. 
7,  1828,  aged  78  years.  In  the  year  1800  he  gave 
to  the  medical  school  of  Harvard  college  a  valu 
able  collection  of  medical  and  anatomical  books 
and  engravings,  making  also  an  arrangement  for 
its  perpetual  enlargement.  —  Bartleifs  Prog. 
Med.  Science. 

BORMAX,  JOHN  L.,  died  near  Oxford,  Mary 
land,  April  20,  1823,  aged  64,  a  profound  lawyer. 
He  published  a  sketch  of  the  history  of  Maryland 
during  the  three  first  years,  1811. 

Bit  ACE,  JONATHAN,  judge,  died  at  Hartford 
Aug.  26,  1837,  aged  83.  He  was  a  member  of 
Congress  in  1798,  judge  of  county  court  and  of 
probate,  and  a  highly  respected  citizen. 

BRACE,  LUCY  COLLINS,  wife  of  Rev.  Dr.  J. 
Brace,  died  at  Xewington,  Conn.,  Nov.  16,  1854, 
aged  72.  It  had  been  proposed  to  celebrate  in  a 
few  weeks,  the  fiftieth  year  of  her  husband's  set 
tlement  and  of  their  marriage.  For  many  years 
she  met  every  Sunday  a  Bible  class  of  her  own 
age  and  a  missionary  society ;  she  was  an  example 
of  the  various  excellences  exhibited  in  the  lives 
of  a  multitude  of  pastor's  wives  in  our  countrv. 

BRACKEN,  JOHN,  bishop  in  Virginia,  died  at 
Williamsburg  July  15,  1818.  He  had  been  for 
many  years  not  only  a  bishop,  but  president  of 
William  and  Mary  college. 

of  the  supreme  court  of  Pennsylvania,  died  at 
Carlisle  June  25,  1816,  aged  67.  He  was  born 

about  1749,  and  graduated  at  Princeton  in  1771, 
in  the  class  with  James  Madison.  He  was  the 
master  of  an  academy  in  Maryland  before  the 
Revolution.  In  1781  he  settled  at  Piltsburg, 
which  he  deemed  favorably  situated  for  becoming 
a  large  town ;  and  in  its  improvement  he  en 
gaged  with  zeal.  He  wrote  for  the  newspapers 
many  essays  in  prose  and  poetry.  His  pieces 
were  generally  satirical;  one  of  them  ridiculed 
the  society  of  the  Cincinnati.  In  1789  he  was 
appointed  judge.  In  1798  political  partisans  re 
proached  him  for  his  partiality  to  Mr.  Gallatin. 
A  few  years  before  his  death  he  removed  to  Car 
lisle.  His  wife,  whom  he  married  in  1790,  was 
Sabina  Wolf,  a  young  lady  of  German  origin, 
whose  parents  lived  on  the  banks  of  the  Ohio 
river.  He  published  a  poem  on  the  rising 
glory  of  America,  1774;  eulogium  of  the  brave 
men  who  fell  in  the  contest  with  Great  Britain, 
1779 ;  modern  chivalry,  the  adventures  of  Capt. 
Farrago,  etc.,  1792 ;  2d  edit.  2  vols.,  1808 ;  ora 
tion  July  4,  1793 ;  incidents  of  the  insurrection 
in  1794  in  Pennsylvania,  1795;  gazette  publica 
tions,  collected,  1806 ;  law  of  miscellanies,  con 
taining  instructions  for  the  study  of  the  law,  1814. 
BRACKETT,  ANTHONY,  captain,  an  early  set 
tler  at  Casco,  or  Falmouth,  as  Portland,  Maine, 
was  at  first  called,  was  lulled  by  the  Indians  Sept. 
21,  1689.  He  was  the  son  of  Anthony  B.,  of 
Greenland,  N.  II.,  then  a.  part  of  Portsmouth. 
He  lived  at  Casco  as  early  as  1662,  and  was  one 
of  the  settlers  around  the  back  cove.  His  farm 
consisted  of  four  hundred  acres.  The  Indians, 
led  by  Simon,  whp  escaped  from  prison  at  Dover, 
and  was  familiar  at  Brackett's,  took  him,  his  wife, 
and  five  children,  and  a  negro  servant  prisoners 
Aug.  11,  1676.  Michael  Mitton,  the  brother  of 
his  wife,  was  killed.  At  Presumpscot  also  the 
party  killed  and  captured  several  persons.  Thomas 
Brackett,  his  brother,  who  lived  at  Clark's  point, 
on  the  neck,  was  shot  down  and  his  wife  and  three 
children  taken  ;  Megunnaway,  an  Indian,  "  a  no 
torious  rogue,"  being  concerned  in  his  murder. 
In  all  thirty-four  persons  were  killed  and  carried 
into  captivity.  The  prisoners  were  conveyed  to 
Arrousic  Island,  of  which  the  Indians  had  recently 
gained  possession,  killing  Capt,  Lake  and  wound 
ing  Davis.  Being  left  there  in  Xovember  while 
the  Indians  proceeded  on  an  expedition,  Brackett 
escaped  in  an  old  leaky  birch  canoe,  which  his 
wife  had  repaired  with  a  needle  and  thread,  found 
in  a  deserted  house;  and  crossed  over  to  Black 
point  with  his  family,  and  got  on  board  a  vessel 
bound  to  Piscataqua.  After  the  peace  of  Casco, 
April  12,  1678,  he  returned,  and  in  1682  was  in 
trusted  with  the  command  of  fort  Loyall  at  Port 
land.  In  1688  he  was  put  in  command  of  the 
three  forts,  erected  by  Andros.  In  1679  lie  mar 
ried  for  his  second  wife  Susannah  Drake  of  Hamp 
ton,  covenanting  with  her  father,  that  one  half 




of  his  estate  should  be  her  jointure  and  descend 
to  her  male  children.  A  dispute  between  the 
children  of  the  two  marriages  respecting  this 
property  was  adjusted  by  an  amicable  division. 
His  sons  were  Anthony  and  Scth  :  the  latter  was 
killed  at  the  capture  of  Saco,  May  20,  1G90,  and 
the  former  taken  prisoner.  His  posterity  still 
remain  at  Casco.  Thomas  Brackett's  wife,  the 
sister  of  M.  Mitton,  died  in  captivity;  his  son 
Joshua  afterwards  lived  in  Greenland,  where  he 
died,  being  the  father  of  Anthony  and  Joshua  of 
Portland.  —  Willis'  Hist,  of  Portland,  in  Maine 
Hist.  Coll.,  I.  94,  200,  207,^143-156. 

BRACKET!,  JOSHUA,  M.  1).,  a  distinguished 
physician,  died  July  17,  1802,  aged  09.  He  was 
born  in  Greenland,  New  Hampshire,  in  May,  1733, 
and  after  graduating  at  Harvard  college  in  1752, 
studied  theology  at  the  request  of  his  parents, 
and  became  a  preacher ;  but  the  science  of  medi 
cine  had  for  him  greater  attractions.  He  studied 
with  Dr.  Clement  Jackson,  then  the  principal 
physician  in  Portsmouth,  and  established  himself 
in  that  town,  in  which  he  continued  during  the 
remainder  of  his  life.  His  wife,  Hannah  Whip- 
pie  of  Kittery,  died  in  May,  1805,  aged  70,  be 
queathing  to  the  Xew  Hampshire  medical  society, 
of  which  her  husband  had  been  president,  500 
dollars.  She  was  skilful  in  botany,  having  a 
garden  of  rare  plants. 

Dr.  Brackett  was  a  skilful,  faithful,  benevolent 
physician,  particularly  successful  in  obstetrical 
practice ;  mild,  amiable,  unassuming,  affable ; 
warm  in  friendship,  an  enemy  to  flattery,  a  despiser 
of  popular  applause.  It  is  stated  that  he  never 
made  a  charge  for  his  professional  services  to  the 
poor,  with  whom  he  thought  the  payment  would 
occasion  any  embarrassment.  In  his  religious 
sentiments  he  was  a  Universalist.  He  took  a  deep 
interest  in  the  promotion  of  natural  history  at 
Cambridge,  and  requested  his  wife  to  appropriate 
1500  dollars  towards  the  professorship  of  that 
science  in  Harvard  college.  She  complied  with 
his  request  and  added  to  the  amount.  Dr.  Brack 
ett  was  a  zealous  whig  in  the  Revolution ;  during 
which  he  was  appointed  judge  of  the  maritime 
court  of  Xewr  Hampshire,  and  honorably  sustained 
the  office,  till  its  duties  were  transferred  to  the 
district  court.  He  was  a  benefactor  of  the  New 
Hampshire  medical  society,  of  which  he  was  presi 
dent  from  1793  to  1799,  presenting  to  it,  at  its 
establishment,  one  hundred  and  forty-three  vols. 
of  valuable  medical  books.  — Adams'  Ann.  Ports 
mouth,  321 ;  Thacher's  Med.  Bioy. ;  Med.  Repos. 
s.  h.,  I.  211. 

BRACKETT,  JAMES,  died  at  Rock  Island,  111., 
May  19,  1852,  aged  70.  A  graduate  of  Dart 
mouth  in  1805,  he  was  a  lawyer  of  Otsego.  He 
was  a  literary  man  and  published  several  ad 

BRADBURY,  TiiEomiLUS,  a  judge  of  the 

superior  court  of  Massachusetts,  died  Sept.  6, 
1803,  aged  03.  He  was  a  graduate  at  Harvard 
college  in  1757.  His  early  days  were  devoted 
with  diligence  and  success  to  the  profession  of 
the  law.  He  resigned  the  emoluments  arising 
from  his  practice  for  the  appointment  of  a  judge, 
in  which  station  he  was  intelligent  and  faithful  in 
executing  the  laws.  A  sudden  attack  of  disease 
at  length  rendered  him  incapable  of  discharging 
the  duties  of  his  office.  —  Columb.  Centinel,Sc\)t. 
11,  1803. 

BRADDOCK,  EDWARD,  major-general,  and 
commander  in  chief  of  the  British  forces  in 
America,  died  July  13,  1775.  He  arrived  in  Vir 
ginia  with  two  regiments  from  Ireland  in  Feb 
ruary,  1755.  The  plan  of  military  operations 
having  been  settled  in  April,  by  a  convention  of 
the  several  governors  at  Alexandria,  he  undertook 
to  conduct  in  person  the  expedition  against 
Fort  I)u  Qucsne,  now  Pittsburg.  Meeting  with 
much  delay  from  the  necessity  of  opening  roads, 
the  general  determined  to  advance  with  rapidity 
at  the  head  of  twelve  hundred  men,  leaving  the 
heavy  baggage  to  the  care  of  Colonel  Dunbar, 
who  was  to  follow  by  slow  and  easy  marches. 
He  reached  the  Monongahela  July  8th.  The 
succeeding  day  he  expected  to  invest  the  fort. 
He  accordingly  made  his  dispositions  in  the  morn 
ing.  He  was  advised  to  advance  the  provincial 
companies  in  the  front  for  the  purpose  of  scouring 
the  woods,  and  discovering  any  ambuscade,  which 
might  be  formed  for  him.  But  he  held  both  his 
enemy  and  the  provincials  in  too  much  contempt 
to  follow  this  salutary  counsel.  Three  hundred 
British  regulars  composed  his  van,  which  was  sud 
denly  attacked,  at  the  distance  of  about  seven 
miles  from  the  fort,  by  an  invisible  enemy,  con 
cealed  by  the  high  grass.  The  whole  army  was 
soon  thrown  into  confusion.  The  brave  general 
exerted  his  utmost  powers  to  form  his  broken 
troops  under  a  galling  fire  upon  the  very  ground 
where  they  were  first  attacked;  but  his  efforts 
were  fruitless.  With  such  an  enemy,  in  such  a 
situation,  it  was  necessary  either  to  advance  or 
retreat.  All  his  officers  on  horseback,  excepting 
his  aid,  the  late  General  Washington,  were  killed 
or  wounded;  and  after  losing  three  horses  he 
received  a  mortal  wound  through  his  right  arm 
into  his  lungs.  The  defeated  army  fled  precipi 
tately  to  the  camp  of  Dunbar,  near  forty  miles 
distant,  where  Braddock,  who  was  brought  off  the 
ground  in  a  tumbril,  expired  of  his  wounds. 
Sixty-four  out  of  eighty-five  officers,  and  about 
half  his  privates  were  killed  and  wounded,  making 
in  the  whole  a  loss  of  about  seven  hundred  men. 
Of  the  killed  were  William  Shirley  of  the  staff, 
and  Col.  Sir  Peter  Halket ;  and  among  the 
wounded,  Robert  Orme,  Roger  Morris,  Sir  John 
St.  Clair  and  others  of  the  staff;  and  Lieut.-Cols. 
Gage  and  Burton.  Though  Mante  defends  the 




conduct  of  Bradclock,  yet  this  disaster  obviously 
resulted  from  the  contempt  of  good  advice. — 
Marshall,  I.  384,  390-393  ;  II.  14-19 ;  Holmes, 
II.  GO ;  Coll.  Hist.  Soc.  vil.  89-94 ;  s.  s.  Till. 
153;  Wynne,  II.  37-42;  Mante,  17,  21,26. 

BRADFORD,  WILLIAM,  governor  of  Ply 
mouth,  died  May  9,  1657,  aged  G7.  The  names 
of  Bradford  and  Brewster,  who  were  driven  from 
England  into  exile  by  ecclesiastical  bigotry  and 
intolerance,  are  names  among  the  most  honorable 
and  memorable  in  the  history  of  the  world.  lie 
was  governor  in  1621,  and  in  all  thirty-one  years. 
lie  was  a  first  settler,  one  of  the  hundred  Pilgrims 
in  the  Mayflower  in  1620.  He  was  born  in  March, 
1590,  in  Austerfield,  a  little  village  in  the  southern 
border  of  Yorkshire,  in  England.  His  grand 
father,  William  B.,  and  John  Hanson  lived  in  Aus 
terfield  in  1575,  and  were  the  only  persons  of  prop 
erty  in  the  townlet.  Alice,  the  daughter  of  Mr. 
Hanson  and  Mary  Gresham,  was  his  mother. 
His  father,  William,  died  in  1591 ;  his  grandfather, 
William,  in  1596.  He  had  a  good  patrimony. 
He  was  left  to  the  care  of  his  uncle  Robert. 
Scrooby,  in  Nottinghamshire,  the  residence  of 
Brewster,  was  only  four  or  five  miles  distant  from 
Austerfield,  to  the  south.  At  Brewster's  house, 
the  manor,  was  formed  a  new  church  in  1606  or 
1607,  most  of  the  members  of  which  had  proba 
bly  belonged  to  the  church  of  Mr.  Clifton  at  Bab- 
worth,  only  a  mile  or  two  south  of  Scrooby : 
Clifton  was  the  minister,  Brewster  the  elder.  Mr. 
Bradford  was  one  of  the  founders  of  this  church. 
At  the  age  of  12  or  13  years  his  mind  was  seri 
ously  impressed  by  divine  truth  in  reading  the 
Scriptures,  and  an  illness  of  long  continuance 
conspired  to  preserve  him  from  the  follies  of 
youth.  His  good  impressions  were  confirmed  by 
attending  upon  the  ministry  of  Mr.  Richard  Clif 
ton,  and  by  his  union  with  the  Puritan  company, 
which  met  at  Mr.  Brewster's  in  Scrooby.  As  he 
advanced  in  years  he  was  stigmatized  as  a  Separ 
atist  ;  but  such  was  his  firmness,  that  he  cheerfully 
bore  the  frowns  of  his  relatives  and  the  scoff's  of 
his  neighbors,  and  connected  himself  with  the 
church  over  which  Mr.  Clifton  and  Mr.  Robinson 
presided,  fearless  of  the  persecution,  which  he 
foresaw  this  act  would  draw  upon  him.  Believing 
that  many  practices  of  the  established  church  of 
England  were  repugnant  to  the  directions  of  the 
word  of  God,  he  was  fully  resolved  to  prefer  the 
purity  of  Christian  worship  to  any  temporal  ad 
vantages,  which  might  arise  from  bending  his 
conscience  to  the  opinions  of  others. 

In  the  autumn  of  1607,  when  he  was  seventeen 
years  of  age,  he  was  one  of  the  company  of  Dis 
senters  who  made  an  attempt  to  go  over  to 
Holland,  where  a  commercial  spirit  had  estab 
lished  a  free  toleration  of  religious  opinions ;  but 
the  master  of  the  vessel  betrayed  them,  and  they 
were  thrown  into  prison  at  Boston  in  Lincoln 

shire.  In  the  spring  of  the  next  year  he  made 
another  unsuccessful  attempt.  At  length  he 
effected  his  favorite  object  and  joined  his  brethren 
at  Amsterdam.  Here  he  put  himself  an  appren 
tice  to  a  French  Protestant,  who  taught  him  the 
art  of  silk-dying.  When  he  reached  the  age  of 
twenty-one  years,  and  came  in  possession  of  his 
estate  in  England,  he  converted  it  into  money, 
and  engaged  in  commerce,  in  which  he  was  not 

Mr.  Bradford,  after  a  residence  of  about  ten 
years  in  Holland,  engaged  with  zeal  in  the  plan 
of  removal  to  America,  which  was  formed  by  the 
English  church  at  Leyden  under  the  care  of  Mr. 
Robinson.  He  accordingly  embarked  for  England, 
July  22,  1620,  and  on  the  sixth  of  September  set 
sail  from  Plymouth  with  the  first  company. 
While  the  ship  in  November  lay  in  the  harbor  of 
Cape  Cod,  he  was  one  of  the  foremost  in  the  sev 
eral  hazardous  attempts  to  find  a  proper  place  for 
the  seat  of  the  colony.  Before  a  suitable  spot  was 
agreed  upon,  his  wife  fell  into  the  sea  and  was 
drowned.  Soon  after  the  death  of  Governor 
Carver  at  Plymouth,  April  5,  1621,  Mr.  Bradford 
was  elected  governor  in  his  place.  He  was  at 
this  time  in  the  thirty-third  year  of  his  age,  and 
was  most  conspicuous  for  wisdom,  fortitude,  piety, 
and  benevolence.  The  people  appointed  Isaac 
Allerton  his  assistant,  not  'because  they  could  re 
pose  less  confidence  in  him  than  in  Carver,  who 
had  been  alone  in  the  command,  but  chiefly  on 
account  of  his  precarious  health.  One  of  the  first 
acts  of  his  administration  was  to  send  an  embassy 
to  Massasoit,  for  the  purpose  of  confirming  the 
league  with  the  Indian  sachem,  of  procuring  seed 
corn  for  the  next  season,  and  of  exploring  the 
country.  It  was  well  for  the  colony  that  the 
friendship  of  Massasoit  was  thus  secured,  for  his 
influence  was  extensive.  In  consequence  of  his 
regard  for  the  new  settlers,  nine  sachems  in  Sep 
tember  went  to  Plymouth,  and  acknowledged 
themselves  loyal  subjects  of  King  James.  In  the 
same  month  a  party  was  sent  out  to  explore  the 
Bay  of  Massachusetts.  They  landed  under  a  cliff, 
supposed  to  be  Copp's  Hill,  in  Boston,  where  they 
were  received  with  kindness  by  Obbatinewa,  who 
gave  them  a  promise  of  his  assistance  against  the 
squaw  sachem.  On  their  return  they  carried  with 
them  so  good  a  report  of  the  country,  that  the 
people  lamented  that  they  had  established  them 
selves  at  Plymouth ;  but  it  was  not  now  in  their 
power  to  remove. 

In  the  beginning  of  1622  the  colony  began  to 
experience  a  distressing  famine,  occasioned  by  the 
arrival  of  new  settlers,  who  came  unfurnished  with 
provisions.  In  the  height  of  their  distress  a 
threatening  message  was  received  from  Canonicus, 
sachem  of  Narragansett,  expressed  by  the  present 
of  a  bundle  of  arrows,  bound  with  the  skin  of  a 
serpent.  The  governor  sent  back  the  skin  filled 




with  powder  and  ball.  This  prompt  and  ingenious 
reply  terminated  the  correspondence.  The  Xarra- 
gansetts  were  so  terrified,  that  they  even  returned 
the  serpent's  skin  without  inspecting  its  contents. 
It  was  however  judged  necessary  to  fortify  the 
town ;  and  this  work  was  performed  by  the  people 
•while  they  were  suffering  the  extremity  of  famine. 
For  some  time  they  subsisted  entirely  upon  fish. 
In  this  exigency  Governor  Bradford  found  the 
advantage  of  his  friendly  intercourse  with  the  In 
dians.  He  made  several  excursions  among  them, 
and  procured  corn  and  beans,  making  a  fair  pur 
chase  by  means  of  goods  which  were  brought  by 
two  ships  in  August,  and  received  by  the  planters 
in  exchange  for  beaver.  The  whole  quantity  of 
corn  and  beans  thus  purchased  amounted  to 
twenty-eight  hogsheads.  But  still  more  important 
benefits  soon  resulted  from  the  disposition  of 
Governor  Bradford  to  preserve  the  friendship  of 
the  natives.  During  the  illness  of  Massasoit  in 
the  spring  of  1623,  Mr.  "Winslow  was  sent  to  him 
•with  cordials,  which  contributed  to  his  recovery. 
In  return  for  this  benevolent  attention  the  grateful 
sachem  disclosed  a  dangerous  conspiracy,  then  in 
agitation  among  the  Indians,  for  the  purpose  of 
totally  extirpating  the  English.  This  plot  did  not 
originate  in  savage  malignity,  but  was  occasioned 
by  the  injustice  and  indiscretion  of  some  settlers 
in  the  Bay  of  Massachusetts.  As  the  most  effect 
ual  means  of  suppressing  the  conspiracy,  Massasoit 
advised  that  the  chief  conspirators,  whom  he 
named,  should  be  seized  and  put  to  death.  This 
melancholy  work  was  accordingly  performed  by 
Captain  Standish,  and  the  colony  was  relieved 
from  apprehension.  When  the  report  of  this 
transaction  was  carried  to  Holland,  Mr.  Robinson, 
in  his  next  letter  to  the  governor,  expressed  his 
deep  concern  at  the  event.  "O  that  you  had 
converted  some,"  said  he,  "  before  you  had  killed 

The  scarcity,  which  had  been  experienced  by 
the  planters,  was  in  part  owing  to  the  impolicy  of 
laboring  in  common  and  putting  the  fruit  of  their 
labor  into  the  public  store.  To  stimulate  industry 
by  the  prospect  of  individual  acquisition,  and  thus 
to  promote  the  general  good  by  removing  the  re 
straints  upon  selfishness,  it  was  agreed,  in  the 
spring  of  1G23,  that  every  family  should  plant  for 
themselves,  on  such  ground  as  should  be  assigned 
them  by  lot.  After  this  agreement  the  governor 
was  not  again  obliged  to  traffic  with  the  Indians 
in  order  to  procure  the  means  of  subsistence  for 
the  colony.  Thus  have  failed  the  common-stock 
projects  of  various  enthusiasts. 

The  original  government  of  Plymouth  was 
founded  entirely  upon  mutual  compact,  entered 
into  by  the  planters  before  they  landed,  and  was 
intended  to  continue  no  longer  than  till  they 
could  obtain  legal  authority  from  their  sovereign. 
The  first  patent  was  obtained  for  the  colony  in  the 

name  of  John  Pierce ;  but  another  patent  of 
larger  extent  was  obtained  of  the  council  for  New 
England,  January  13,  1630,  in  the  name  of  Wil 
liam  Bradford,  his  heirs,  associates,  and  assigns, 
which  confirmed  the  title  of  the  colonists  to  a 
large  tract  of  land,  and  gave  them  power  to  make 
all  laws,  not  repugnant  to  the  laws  of  England. 
In  the  year  1640,  when  the  number  of  people  was 
increased,  and  new  townships  were  erected,  the 
general  court  requested  Governor  Bradford  to 
surrender  the  patent  into  their  hands.  With  this 
request  he  cheerfully  complied,  reserving  for  him 
self  no  more  than  his  proportion,  as  settled  by  a 
previous  agreement.  After  this  surrender  the 
patent  was  immediately  delivered  again  into  his 
custody.  For  several  of  the  first  years  after  the 
first  settlement  of  Plymouth,  the  legislative,  ex 
ecutive,  and  judicial  business  was  performed  by 
the  whole  body  of  freemen  in  assembly.  In  1634 
the  governor's  assistants,  the  number  of  whom,  at 
the  request  of  Mr.  Bradford,  had  been  increased 
to  five  in  1624,  and  to  seven  in  1633,  were  con 
stituted  a  judicial  court,  and  afterwards  the 
supreme  judicature.  Petty  offences  were  tried  by 
the  selectmen  of  each  town,  with  liberty  of  appeal 
to  the  next  court  of  assistants.  The  first  assembly 
of  representatives  was  held  in  1639,  when  two 
deputies  were  sent  from  each  town,  excepting 
Plymouth,  which  sent  four.  In  1649  this  ine 
quality  Avas  done  away. 

Such  was  the  reputation  of  Mr.  Bradford, 
acquired  by  his  piety,  wisdom,  and  integrity,  that 
he  was  annually  chosen  governor,  as  long  as  he 
lived,  excepting  in  the  years  1633,  1636,  and  1644, 
when  Mr.  Winslow  was  appointed,  and  the  years 
1634  and  1638,  when  Mr.  Prince  was  elected  chief 
magistrate.  At  these  times  it  was  by  his  own 
request  that  the  people  did  not  re-elect  him. 
Governor  Winthrop  mentions  the  election  of  Mr. 
Winslow  in  1633,  and  adds,  "  Mr.  Bradford  hav 
ing  been  governor  about  ten  years,  and  now  by 
importunity  got  off."  What  a  lesson  for  the  am 
bitious,  who  bend  their  whole  influence  to  gain  and 
secure  the  high  offices  of  State !  Mr.  Bradford 
strongly  recommended  a  rotation  in  the  election 
of  governor.  "  If  this  appointment,"  he  pleaded, 
"  was  any  honor  or  benefit,  others  beside  himself 
should  partake  of  it ;  if  it  was  a  burden,  others 
beside  himself  should  help  to  bear  it."  But  the 
people  were  so  much  attached  to  him,  that  for 
thirty  years  they  placed  him  at  the  head  of  the 
government,  and  in  the  five  years  when  others 
were  chosen,  he  was  first  in  the  list  of  assistants, 
which  gave  him  the  rank  of  deputy  governor. 
After  an  infirm  and  declining  state  of  health  for  a 
number  of  months,  he  was  suddenly  seized  by  an 
acute  disease  in  May,  16(37.  In  the  night,  his  mind 
was  so  enraptured  by  contemplations  upon  relig 
ious  truth  and  the  hopes  of  futurity,  that  he  said 
to  his  friends  in  the  morning,  "  the  good  Spirit  of 




God  has  given  me  a  pledge  of  my  happiness  in 
another  world,  and  the  first  fruits  of  eternal 
glory."  The  next  day,  May  9,  1657,  he  was  re 
moved  from  the  present  state  of  existence,  greatly 
lamented  by  the  people  not  only  in  Plymouth,  but 
in  the  neighboring  colonies.  Ilubbard  makes  the 
day  of  his  death  June  o ;  but  the  lines  given  by 
Morton  are  doubtless  good,  at  least  for  the  date : 

"  The  ninth  of  May,  about  nine  of  the  clock, 
A  precious  one  God  out  of  Plymouth  took : 
Governor  Bradford  then  expired  his  breath." 

His  sister,  Alice,  married  to  George  Morton, 
who  died  in  1624,  survived  her  brother. 

The  seal  which  Gov.  B.  used  was  a  double  eagle. 
His  wife,  Dorothy  May,  was  drowned  at  Cape  Cod, 
Dec.  7, 1620,  so  that  she  never  reached  Plymouth. 
llis  second  wife  was  Alice  Southworth,  the  widow 
of  Edward  Southworth,  whom  he  married  in  1623. 
His  son,  John,  was  born  of  his  first  wife ;  William, 
Mercy,  and  Joseph  were  his  cliildren  by  Alice 
Southworth.  John  died  without  children.  Wil 
liam  had  fifteen  children,  and  Joseph  had  seven ; 
from  these  have  descended  the  Bradfords  of  New 
England  and  many  beyond  its  bounds. 

In  the  X.  E.  Register  of  Jan.  and  July,  1850,  is 
published  a  genealogy,  containing  the  names  of 
four  hundred  and  fourteen  of  his  descendants,  be 
sides  many  of  their  cliildren,  living  chiefly  in  Mas 
sachusetts.  Besides  the  bearers  of  the  name  of 
Bradford,  there  are  families  bearing  other  names, 
whose  children  are  his  descendants,  some  of  which 
names  are  the  following :  Adams,  Allen,  Allyn, 
Baker,  Barnes,  Brewster,  Chandler,  Child,  Chip- 
man,  Church,  Collins,  Cook,  Delano,  Drew,  I)  wight, 
Elliot,  Ensign,  Fessenden,  Finney,  Fitch,  Fowler, 
Frazer,  Freeman,  Gay,  Gilbert,  Gridley,  Ham 
mond,  llobart,  Holmes,  Hopkins,  Hunt,  Lane, 
Lawrence,  Le  Baron,  Lee,  Loring,  Metcalf,  Mitch 
ell,  Paddock,  Partridge,  Prince,  Riplcy,  Robbins, 
Rockwell,  Sampson,  Skinner,  Smith,  Soule,  Spoon- 
er,  Stanford,  Steel,  Stirling,  Sylvester,  Wadsworth, 
Waring,  Weston,  Whiting,  Wiswall.  The  sup 
posed  honor  of  descent  from  such  a  man  as  Brad 
ford  will  be  only  disgrace,  unless  there  be  caught 
from  the  record  of  his  life  something  of  his  inde 
pendence  of  thought,  something  of  his  unswerving 
adherence  to  the  right,  something  of  his  self-sac 
rificing  spirit,  something  of  his  zealous  toils,  his 
benevolence,  and  his  piety. 

Governor  Bradford,  though  not  favored  with  a 
learned  education,  possessed  a  strong  mind,  a 
sound  judgment,  and  a  good  memory.  In  the 
office  of  chief  magistrate  he  was  prudent,  tem 
perate,  and  firm.  He  would  sufier  no  person  to 
trample  on  the  laws  or  to  disturb  the  peace  of 
the  colony.  Some  young  men,  who  were  unwil 
ling  to  comply  with  the  order  for  laboring  on  the 
public  account,  excused  themselves  on  a  Christmas 
day,  under  pretence  that  it  was  against  their  con 

science  to  work.  But  not  long  afterwards,  finding 
them  at  play  in  the  street,  he  commanded  the 
instruments  of  their  game  to  be  taken  from  them, 
and  told  them  that  it  was  against  his  conscience 
to  suffer  them  to  play,  while  others  were  at  work, 
and  that,  if  they  had  any  religious  regard  to  the 
day,  they  should  show  it  in  the  exercise  of  devo 
tion  at  home.  This  gentle  reproof  had  the  desired 
effect.  On  other  occasions  his  conduct  was  equally 
moderate  and  determined.  Suspecting  John  Ly- 
ford,  who  had  imposed  himself  upon  the  colony 
as  a  minister,  of  factious  designs,  and  observing 
that  he  had  put  a  great  number  of  letters  on  board 
a  ship  for  England,  the  governor  in  a  boat  fol 
lowed  the  ship  to  sea,  and  examined  the  letters. 
As  satisfactory  evidence  against  Lyford  was  thus 
obtained,  a  convenient  time  was  afterwards  taken 
for  bringing  him  to  trial,  and  he  was  banished. 

Though  he  never  enjoyed  great  literary  advan 
tages,  Governor  Bradford  was  much  inclined  to 
literary  pursuits.  He  was  familiar  with  the 
French  and  Dutch  languages,  and  attained  con 
siderable  knowledge  of  the  Latin  and  Greek; 
but  he  more  assiduously  studied  the  Hebrew,  be 
cause,  as  he  said,  "  he  would  see  with  his  own 
eyes  the  ancient  oracles  of  God  in  their  native 
beauty."  He  had  read  much  of  history  and  phi 
losophy  ;  but  theology  was  his  favorite  study. 
Dr.  Mather  represents  him  as  an  irrefragable  dis 
putant,  especially  against  the  Anabaptists.  Yet 
he  was  by  no  means  severe  or  intolerant.  He 
wished  rather  to  convince  the  erroneous,  than  to 
suppress  their  opinions  by  violence.  His  dispo 
sition  was  gentle  and  condescending.  Though  he 
was  attached  to  the  discipline  of  the  Congrega 
tional  churches,  yet  he  was  not  a  rigid  Separatist. 
He  perceived  that  the  reformed  churches  differed 
among  themselves  in  the  modes  of  discipline,  and 
he  did  not  look  for  a  perfect  uniformity.  His  life 
was  exemplary  and  useful.  He  was  watchful 
against  sin,  a  man  of  prayer,  and  conspicuous  for 
holiness.  His  son,  William  Bradford,  was  deputy 
governor  of  the  colony  after  his  father's  death, 
and  died  at  Plymouth  at  the  age  of  seventy-nine. 
Several  of  his  descendants  were  members  of  the 
council  of  Massachusetts,  and  one  of  them  was  a 
deputy  governor  of  Rhode  Island  and  a  senator 
in  the  congress  of  the  United  States. 

Governor  Bradford  wrote  a  history  of  Plymouth 
people  and  colony,  beginning  with  the  first  for 
mation  of  the  church  in  1602  and  ending  with 
1647.  It  was  contained  in  a  folio  volume  of  two 
hundred  seventy  pages.  Morton's  memorial  is  an 
abridgment  of  it.  Prince  and  Hutchinson  had 
the  use  of  it,  and  the  manuscript  was  deposited 
with  Mr.  Prince's  valuable  collection  of  papers  in 
the  library  of  the  old  south  church  in  Boston.  In 
the  year  I77o  it  shared  the  fate  of  many  other 
manuscripts  in  that  place.  It  was  carried  away 
by  the  barbarians  of  the  British  army,  who  con- 




verted  the  old  south  church  into  a  riding  school. 
This  invaluable  work,  after  having  been  lost  eighty 
years,  has  just  been  recovered  and  printed  entire. 
For  this  recovery  the  American  public  is  indebted 
to  Rev.  John  S.  Barry,  who,  in  writing  his  History 
of  Massachusetts,  had  occasion,  in  1855,  to  con 
sult  an  English  book,  in  which  he  noticed  a  refer 
ence  to  a  manuscript  history  of  Plymouth  in  the 
Fulham  library,  with  quotations,  which  satisfied 
him  that  it  was  Bradford's  lost  MS.  This  was 
found  to  be  the  case  by  Mr.  Charles  Deane, 
through  the  agency  of  Rev.  Joseph  Hunter  of 
London.  An  exact  copy  was  obtained,  retaining 
the  ancient  spelling,  and  was  printed  by  the  Mass. 
Historical  Society  in  1856,  with  a  preface  and 
notes  by  Mr.  Deane,  chairman  of  the  publishing 
committee  of  the  society. 

This  manuscript  was  used  in  their  historical 
writings  by  Morton,  Prince,  and  Hutchinson.  A 
portion  of  the  work,  taken  from  the  church  records 
of  Plymouth,  but  not  recorded  as  Bradford's  writ 
ing,  was  published  by  Dr.  Young  in  his  chronicles 
of  the  pilgrims  in  1841,  most  of  which  had  been 
previously  printed  by  Hazard  as  a  Avork  of  Mor 
ton.  Of  the  way,  by  which  the  manuscript  reached 
the  Fulham  library,  no  information  has  been  ob 
tained.  In  this  primitive  book  Mr.  Deane  has 
inserted  a  page  of  a  fac  simile  of  the  handwriting 
of  Bradford  ;  and  he  has  annexed  Gov.  B.'slist  of 
the  passengers  in  the  Mayflower,  from  which  he 
concludes  that  the  number  of  passengers  was  one 
hundred  and  two,  instead  of  one  hundred,  the  usu 
ally-reckoned  number.  But  in  this  perhaps  he  falls 
into  an  error,  for  two,  whom  he  counts,  were  hired 
seamen  for  one  year,  when  they  returned,  and 
could  not  be  considered  among  "  the  first  begin 
ners,"  who  laid  the  foundation  of  all  the  colonies, 
any  more  than  any  other  seamen.  Mr.  D.  also 
mistakes  in  making  Gov.  B.  sixty-eight  years  old. 

Gov.  B.  had  a  large  book  of  copies  of  letters 
relative  to  the  affairs  of  the  colony,  which  is  lost. 
A  fragment  of  it,  however,  found  in  a  grocer's 
shop  at  Halifax,  was  published  by  the  Massachu 
setts  Historical  Society,  to  which  is  subjoined  a 
descriptive  and  historical  account  of  New  England 
in  verse.  If  this  production  is  somewhat  deficient 
in  the  beauties  of  poetry,  it  has  the  more  sub 
stantial  graces  of  piety  and  truth.  He  published 
some  pieces  for  the  confutation  of  the  errors  of 
the  times,  particularly  of  the  Anabaptists. — Bel- 
knap's  Amer.  Biog.  II.  217-251;  Mather's  Ma g- 
nalia,  n.  2-5  ;  Davis1  Morton,  269 ;  NeaVs  New 
England,  I.  99,  316 ;  Prince's  Annals,  Pref.  VI, 

IX.  196  ;  Coll.  Hist.  Soc.  III.  27,  77  ;  VI.  s.  s.  555  ; 

X.  67  ;  Bradford's  Hist.  ;  Thacher's  Plymouth  ; 
N.  E.  Memorial,  I.  81 ;  N.  E.  Register,  1850. 

BRADFORD,  ALICE,  the  wife  of  Gov.  B.,  died 
at  Plymouth  March  27,  1670,  aged  80,  having 
survived  her  husband  nearly  thirteen  years.  Born 
in  England,  she  first  married  Edward  Southworth, 

living  with  him  seven  years  in  Nottinghamshire, 
near  the  residence  of  Mr.  Bradford,  who  well 
knew  her,  and,  as  report  says,  had  early  sought 
her  hand.  Her  name  was  Alice  Carpenter. 
Being  left  a  widow,  Gov.  Bradford  renewed  his 
offer  to  her  two  years  after  the  death  of  his  first 
wife,  Dorothy  May.  She  was  now  of  the  age  of 
thirty-three.  Waiving  her  riyht  to  demand  a 
personal  visit,  which  would  call  away  the  governor 
from  his  important  duties  to  the  colony  in  the 
wilderness,  she  generously  listened  to  his  request, 
and  came  over  in  the  ship  Ann,  which  arrived 
Aug.  1,  1623.  She  was  accompanied  by  the  gov 
ernor's  brother-in-law,  George  Morton,  by  her 
sister,  Bridget  Fuller,  and  by  two  daughters  of 
Elder  Brewster.  Her  two  sons,  Thomas  and  Con 
stant  Southworth,  were  brought  over  in  1629  or 
1630.  She  was  married  Aug.  14,  and  lived  with 
her  husband  nearly  thirty  years.  She  brought 
with  her  considerable  property.  She  was  well 
educated,  and  of  extraordinary  capacity  and  great 
worth.  She  incessantly  toiled  for  the  literary 
improvement  and  the  refinement  of  the  youth  at 
Plymouth.  If  she  ever  felt  honored  in  being 
married  to  Mr.  Southworth,  who  was  descended 
in  the  tenth  generation  from  Sir  Gilbert  S., 
knight  of  Lancaster,  yet  she  must  have  felt  more 
happy  in  being  the  companion  of  him  who  laid 
the  foundation  of  civil  and  religious  freedom  in  a 
new  world,  and  whose  name  would  be  held  illus 
trious  by  the  generations  to  come  of  their  de 
scendants  and  others,  down  to  the  end  of  time. 
Her  sister,  Mary  Carpenter,  an  old  maid,  a  mem 
ber  of  the  church  of  Duxbury,  died  at  Plymouth 
March  20,  1667,  aged  ninety.  Other  sisters  were 
Bridget,  who  married  Samuel  Fuller,  and  gave  to 
the  church  the  lot  of  ground  on  which  the  par 
sonage  stood ;  Priscilla,  the  wife  of  William 
Wright ;  and  the  wives  of  John  Cooper  and  Rev. 
Mr.  Reyner.  At  the  end  of  Bradford's  History 
are  published  two  pages  of  memorial  lines  by  N. 
Morton,  "  Upon  the  life  and  death  of  that  godly 
matron,  Mistris  Alice  Bradford,"  from  which  it 
appears  that  she  and  her  father  belonged  to  the 
Puritan  Separatists  of  the  north  of  England,  who 
fled  to  Holland  when  she  was  seventeen  years 
old.  He  is  called  a  confessor ;  and  it  is  added : 

"  And  shee  with  him  and  other  in  her  youth 
Left  tlieire  own  native  country  for  the  truth, 
And  in  successe  of  time  she  marryed  was 
To  one  whose  grace  and  vertue  did  surpusse, 
I  mean  good  Edward  Southworth,  vrhoe  not  long 
Continued  in  this  world  the  saints  ainouge." 

After  mentioning  the  death  of  her  last  husband, 
the  writer  says : 

"  E'r  since  that  time  in  widdowhood  shee  hath 
Lived  a  life  in  holynes  and  faith 
In  reading  of  Gods  word  and  contemplation, 
Which  healped  her  to  assurance  of  salvation 
Through  Gods  good  sperit  workeing  with  the  same, 
Forever  praised  be  his  holy  name." 




"  Tis  sad  to  see  our  houses  disposessd 
Of  holy  saints  whose  memory  is  blessd; 
When  they  decease  and  closed  are  in  tombe, 
Thercs  few  or  none  that  rises  in  their  rome, 
Thats  like  to  them  in  holines  and  grace." 

The  same  writer  says  of  her  husband : 

"  It  is  enough  to  name 
The  name  of  Bradford  fresh  in  memory, 
Which  smcles  with  odoriforus  fragrancye." 

—  TJiacher's  Pli/m.116',  Bradford's  Hist.  460. 

BRADFORD,  JOHN,  the  eldest  son  of  the 
preceding  by  his  first  wife,  was  born  in  England, 
and  came  over  with  Alice  Southworth  in  1623. 
He  lived  in  Duxbury  in  1615,  and  in  1652  was 
deputy  to  the  general  court.  He  married  Martha 
Bourne,  of  Marshfield.  In  1653  he  removed  to 
Norwich,  Conn.,  where  he  died  without  offspring 
in  1678,  aged  about  61.  His  widow  married 
Thomas  Tracy. 

BRADFORD,  WILLIAM,  major,  son  of  the 
preceding,  deputy  governor  of  Plymouth  colony, 
was  born  June  17,  1624,  and  died  Feb.  20,  1704, 
aged  79.  He  was  buried  at  his  request  by  the 
side  of  his  father.  These  homely  lines  are  on  Ins 
monument : 

"  He  lived  long  but  still  was  doing  good, 
And  in  his  country's  service  lost  much  blood. 
After  a  life  well  spent  he's  now  at  rest ; 
His  very  name  and  memory  is  blest." 

In  King  Philip's  war  he  commanded  the  Ply 
mouth  troops,  and  in  the  Xarragansett  fort  fight, 
Dec.  19,  1675,  at  East  Kingston,  when  the  fort 
was  taken,  he  received  a  ball  in  his  body,  which 
he  bore  during  the  remainder  of  his  life.  In  his 
last  will  he  provided  for  fifteen  children,  nine  sons 
and  six  daughters  ;  and  then-  very  numerous  de 
scendants  in  New  England  can  of  course  all  trace 
their  ancestry  to  Gov.  Bradford.  His  descendants 
are  of  the  oldest  line  of  the  Bradfords,  for  his 
elder  brother  John  had  no  children.  His  resi 
dence  was  on  the  north  side  of  Jones'  river,  in 
what  is  now  Kingston.  His  first  Avife  Avas  Alice, 
daughter  of  Thomas  Richards,  of  Weymouth  ; 
his  second  Avas  AvidoAV  WisAvall ;  his  third  Avas 
Mary,  the  widoAV  of  ReAr.  J.  Holmes,  of  Dux- 

BRADFORD,  JOSEPH,  the  third  son  of  Gov 
ernor  Bradford,  Avas  born  in  1630,  and  died  in 
1715,  aged  84.  His  Avife  was  Jacl,  the  daughter 
of  Rev.  Peter  Hobart,  of  Hingham.  His  sons 
were  John,  Samuel,  and  William ;  his  daughters 
Alice  or  Olive,  Abigail,  Mercy,  and  Priscilla, 
Avhose  husbands  were  as  folloAvs  :  Alice  or  Olive 
married  Edward  Mitchell  and  Joshua  Hersey ; 
Abigail  married  Gideon  Sampson ;  Mercy  mar 
ried  Jonathan  Freeman  and  Isaac  Cushman ; 
and  Priscilla  married  Seth  Chipman.  Farmer 
says  he  left  a  son  Elisha. 

BRADFORD,  GAMALIEL,  colonel,  died  at  Dux- 
bury,  Jan.  9,  1807,  aged  75.  He  Avas  an  officer 


in  the  French  Avars  and  in  the  army  of  the  RCATO- 
lution,  and  a  judge.  His  father,  Gamaliel,  died 
in  1778,  aged  73,  the  son  of  Samuel,  the  son  of 
Major  William.  His  daughter,  Sophia,  died  Feb. 
2,  1855,  aged  93.  Alden  B.  Avas  his  son ;  and 
Dr.  Gamaliel  B.,  of  Boston,  his  grandson. 

BRADFORD,  WILLIAM,  a  senator  of  the  Unit 
ed  States,  the  son  of  Samuel  B.,  and  a  descendant 
in  the  fourth  generation  from  Gov.  Bradford,  died 
July  6,  1808,  aged  78.  He  Avas  born  at  Plymp- 
ton,  Mass.,  in  Nov.,  1729.  Having  studied  physic 
Avith  Dr.  E.  Ilerscy,  he  commenced  the  practice 
in  Warren,  R.  I.,  and  Avas  skilful  and  successful. 
In  a  few  years  he  removed  to  Bristol,  and  built  a 
house  on  that  romantic  and  A'enerable  spot,  Mount 
Hope,  Avhich  is  associated  Avith  the  name  of  King 
Philip.  Here  he  studied  laAv  and  became  eminent 
in  civil  life  in  Rhode  Island.  In  the  Revolution 
ary  contest  he  took  a  decided  part  in  favor  of  the 
rights  of  the  colonies.  In  the  cannonade  of 
Bristol,  in  the  evening  of  Oct.  7,  1775,  by  the 
British  vessels  of  Avar,  the  Rose,  Glasgow,  and 
Siren,  he  Avent  on  board  the  Rose,  and  negotiated 
for  the  inhabitants.  About  this  time  his  OAvn 
house  Avas  destroyed  by  the  enemy.  In  1792  he 
Avas  elected  a  senator  in  congress,  but  soon  re 
signed  his  place  for  the  shades  of  his  delightful 
retreat.  He  Avas  many  years  speaker  of  the  as 
sembly  of  Rhode  Island,  and  deputy  governor. 
He  had  lived  a  AvidoAver  thirty-three  years  ;  his 
Avife,  Mary  Le  Baron,  of  Plymouth,  Avhom  he 
married  in  1751,  died  Oct.  2,  1775.  His  eldest 
son,  Major  William  Biadford,  was  aid  to  Gen. 
Charles  Lee,  of  the  Revolutionary  army.  By  in 
dustry  and  rigid  economy,  Mr.  Bradford  acquired 
an  independent  fortune,  in  the  use  of  Avhich  he 
Avas  hospitable  and  liberal.  For  many  years  he 
Avas  accustomed  to  deposit  AA'ith  his  minister  a 
generous  sum,  to  be  expended  in  charity  to  the 
poor.  In  his  habits  he  Avas  temperate,  seeking 
his  bed  at  an  early  hour  of  the  evening,  and  rising 
early  and  Avalking  over  his  extensive  farm.  Thus 
he  attained  nearly  to  the  age  of  fourscore.  — 
TJtachcr's  Med.  Biog. ;  Grisioold's  Fun.  Serm. 

BRADFORD,  WILLIAM,  the  first  printer  in 
Pennsyh-ania,  died  May  23,- 1752,  aged  93.  He 
Avas  born  in  Leicester,  England,  and,  being  a  Qua 
ker,  emigrated  to  this  country  in  1682  or  1683, 
and  landed  Avhere  Philadelphia  Avas  aftenvards 
laid  out,  before  a  house  Avas  built.  In  1687  he 
printed  an  almanac.  The  Avritings  of  George 
Keith,  Avhich  he  printed,  having  caused  a  quarrel 
among  the  Quakers,  for  one  of  them,  represented 
as  seditious,  he  Avas  arrested  Avith  Keith  and  im 
prisoned  in  1692.  It  is  remarkable,  that  in  his 
trial,  Avhen  the  justice  charged  the  jury  to  find 
only  the  fact  as  to  printing,  Bradford  maintained 
that  the  jury  Avere  also  to  find  Avhethcr  the  paper 
Avas  really  seditious,  and  maintained  that  "  the 
jury  are  judges  in  laAv,  as  well  as  the  matter  of 




fact."  This  is  the  very  point  which  awakened ! 
such  interest  in  England  in  the  time  of  Wilkes. 
Bradford  was  not  convicted ;  but,  having  incurred 
the  displeasure  of  the  dominant  party  in  Phila 
delphia,  he  removed  to  New  York  in  1693.  In 
that  year  he  printed  the  laws  of  the  colony.  Oct. 
16,  1725,  he  began  the  first  newspaper  in  New 
York,  called  the  N.  Y.  Gazette.  In  1728  he 
established  a  paper-mill  at  Elizabethtown,  N.  Y., 
which,  perhaps,  was  the  first  in  this  country. 
Being  temperate  and  active,  he  reached  a  great 
age,  a  stranger  to  sickness.  In  the  morning  of 
the  day  of  his  death  he  walked  about  the  city. 
By  his  first  wife,  a  daughter  of  Andrew  Sowles,  a 
printer  in  London,  he  had  two  sons,  Andrew  and 
William.  For  more  than  fifty  years  he  was 
printer  to  the  New  York  government,  and  for 
thirty  years  the  only  printer  in  the  province.  He 
was  kind  and  affable,  and  a  friend  to  the  poor.  — 
Thomas,  II.  91;  Pcnn.  Gaz.,  May  28,  1752. 

BRADFORD,  ANDREW,  a  printer,  the  son  of 
the  preceding,  died  Nov.  23, 1742,  aged  about  56. 
He  was  the  only  printer  in  Pennsylvania  from 
1712  to  1723.  lie  published  the  first  newspaper 
in  Philadelphia  Dec,  22,  1719,  called  the  Ameri 
can  Weekly  Mercury.  In  1732  he  was  post 
master  ;  in  1735  he  kept  a  bookshop,  at  the  sign 
of  the  Bible,  in  Second  street.  In  1738  he  re 
moved,  having  purchased  a  house,  No.  8  South 
Front  street,  which  in  1810  was  occupied  as  a 
printing  house  by  his  descendant,  Thomas  Brad 
ford,  the  publisher  of  the  True  American,  a  daily 
paper.  His  second  wife,  with  whom  he  failed  to 
find  happiness,  was  Cornelia  Smith,  of  New  York; 
she  continued  the  Mercury  till  the  end  of  1746, 
and  died  in  1755.  —  Thomas,  II.  30,  325. 

BRADFORD,  WILLIAM,  colonel,  a  printer,  and 
a  soldier  of  the  Revolution,  died  Sept.  25,  1791, 
aged  72.  He  was  the  grandson  of  the  first 
printer  in  Philadelphia.  His  father,  William,  was 
a  seaman.  Adopted  by  his  uncle,  Andrew  Brad 
ford,  he  became  his  partner  in  business ;  but  his 
foster  mother,  Mrs.  Cornelia  B.,  wishing  him  to 
fall  in  love  with  her  adopted  niece,  and  he  choos 
ing  to  fall  in  love  with  some  other  lady,  caused 
the  partnership  to  be- dissolved.  In  1741  he  went 
to  England,  and  returned  in  1742  with  printing 
materials  and  books.  At  this  period  he  married 
a  daughter  of  Thomas  Budd,  who  was  imprisoned 
with  his  ancestor  in  1692.  He  published  Dec.  2, 
1742,  the  Pennsylvania  Journal,  which  was  con 
tinued  till  the  present  century,  when  it  was  super 
seded  by  the  True  American.  In  1754  he  opened, 
at  the  corner  of  Market  and  Front  streets,  the 
London  coffee-house;  in  1762  he  opened  a  marine 
insurance  office  with  Mr.  Kydd.  He  opposed  the 
stamp  act  in  1765,  and  in  the  early  stage  of  the 
war  he  took  up  arms  for  his  country.  As  a  major 
and  colonel  in  the  militia  he  fought  in  the  battle 
of  Trenton,  in  the  action  at  Princeton,  and  in  sev 

eral  other  engagements.  He  was  at  Fort  Mifflin 
when  it  was  attacked.  After  the  British  army 
left  Philadelphia,  he  returned  with  a  broken  con 
stitution  and  a  shattered  fortune.  Business  had 
found  new  channels.  Soon  he  experienced  the 
loss  of  his  beloved  Avife  ;  age  advanced  upon  him  ; 
a  paralytic  shock  warned  him  of  approaching 
death.  To  his  children  he  said,  "  Though  I  be 
queath  you  no  estate,  I  leave  you  in  the  enjoyment 
of  liberty."  Such  patriots  deserve  to  be  held  in 
perpetual  remembrance.  He  left  three  sons : 
Thomas,  his  partner  in  business,  William,  attorney- 
general,  and  Schuyler,  who  died  in  the  East 
Indies;  also  three  daughters. —  Thomas,  II.  48, 
330;  U.  8.  Gaz. 

BRADFORD,  WILLIAM,  attorney-general  of 
the  United  States,  died  Aug.  23t  1795.  He  was 
the  son  of  the  preceding,  born  in  Philadelphia 
Sept.  14,  1755,  and  was  early  placed  under  the 
care  of  a  respectable  clergyman  a  few  miles  from 
the  city.  His  father  had  formed  the  plan  of 
bringing  him  up  in  the  insurance  office,  which  he 
then  conducted ;  but  so  strong  was  the  love  of 
learning  implanted  in  the  mind  of  his  son,  that 
neither  persuasions,  nor  offers  of  pecuniary  ad 
vantage,  could  prevail  with  him  to  abandon  the 
hopes  of  a  liberal  education.  He  was  graduated 
at  Princeton  college  in  1772.  During  his  resi 
dence  at  this  seminary  he  was  greatly  beloved  by 
his  fellow  students,  while  he  confirmed  the  ex 
pectations  of  his  friends  and  the  faculty  of  the 
college  by  giving  repeated  evidence  of  genius  and 
taste.  At  the  public  commencement  he  had  one 
of  the  highest  honors  of  the  class  conferred  upon 
him.  He  continued  at  Princeton  till  the  year  fol 
lowing,  during  which  time  he  had  an  opportunity 
of  attending  the  lectures  on  theology  of  Dr. 

He  now  commenced  the  study  of  the  law  under 
Edward  Shippen,  and  he  prosecuted  his  studies 
with  unwearied  application.  In  the  spring  of 
1776  he  was  called  upon  by  the  peculiar  circum 
stances  of  the  times  to  exert  himself  in  defence 
of  the  dearest  rights  of  human  nature,  and  to 
join  the  standard  of  his  country  in  opposition  to 
the  oppressive  exactions  of  Great  Britain.  When 
the  militia  were  called  out  to  form  the  flying  camp, 
he  was  chosen  major  of  brigade  to  Gen.  llober- 
deau,  and  on  the  expiration  of  his  term  accepted 
a  company  in  Col.  Hampton's  regiment  of  regu 
lar  troops.  He  was  soon  promoted  to  the  station 
of  deputy  muster-master-general,  with  the  rank 
of  licut.-colonel,  in  which  office  he  continued  about 
two  years,  till  his  want  of  health  obliged  him  to 
resign  his  commission  and  return  home.  He  now 
recommenced  the  study  of  the  law,  and  in  Sept., 
1779,  was  admitted  to  the  bar  of  the  supreme 
court.  In  Aug.,  1780,  he  was  appointed  attorney- 
general  of  Pennsylvania. 

In    1784   he   married  the   daughter   of  Elias 




Boudinot,  of  New  Jersey,  with  whom  he  lived  till 
his  death  in  the  exercise  of  every  domestic  virtue 
that  adorns  human  nature.  On  the  reformation 
of  the  courts  of  justice  under  the  new  constitution 
of  Pennsylvania,  he  was  solicited  to  accept  the 
office  of  a  judge  of  the  supreme  court,  and  was 
commissioned  byGov.  Mifflin,  Aug.  22,  1791.  In 
this  station  his  indefatigable  industry,  unshaken 
integrity  and  correct  judgment  enabled  liim  to 
give  general  satisfaction.  Here  he  had  deter 
mined  to  spend  a  considerable  part  of  his  life  ; 
but  on  the  promotion  of  Edmund  Randolph  to 
the  office  of  secretary  of  State,  as  successor  of 
Mr.  Jefferson,  he  was  urged  to  accept  the  office 
of  attorney-general  of  the  United  States,  now  left 
vacant.  He  accordingly  received  the  appointment 
Jan.  28,  1794.  But  he  continued  only  a  short 
time  in  this  station,  to  which  he  was  elevated  by 
Washington.  He  was  succeeded  by  Mr.  Lee,  of 
Virginia.  According  to  his  express  desire,  he  was 
buried  by  the  side  of  his  parents  in  the  burial 
ground  of  the  second  Presbyterian  church  in 

Mr.  Bradford  possessed  a  mild  and  amiable 
temper,  and  his  genteel  and  unassuming  manners 
were  united  with  genius,  eloquence,  and  taste. 
As  a  public  speaker  he  was  persuasive  and  con 
vincing.  He  understood  mankind  well,  and  knew 
how  to  place  his  arguments  in  the  most  striking 
point  of  light.  His  language  was  pure  and  sen 
tentious  ;  and  he  so  managed  most  of  his  forensic 
disputes,  as  scarcely  ever  to  displease  his  oppo 
nents,  while  he  gave  the  utmost  satisfaction  to  his 
clients.  He  possessed  great  firmness  of  opinion, 
yet  was  remarkable  for  his  modesty  and  caution 
in  delivering  his  sentiments.  Combining  a  quick 
and  retentive  memory  and  an  excellent  judgment 
with  great  equanimity  and  steadiness  in  his  con 
duct,  and  a  pleasing  deportment,  he  conciliated 
respect  and  affection.  Towards  his  country  he 
felt  the  sincerest  attachment,  and  her  interests 
he  preferred  to  every  selfish  consideration.  His 
charities  were  secret,  but  extensive  ;  and  none  in 
distress  were  ever  known  to  leave  him  with  dis 
content.  It  is  mentioned  as  a  proof  of  his  benev 
olence,  that  he  adopted  and  educated  as  his  own 
son  an  orphan  child  of  Joseph  Reed.  His  friend 
ships  were  few,  but  very  affectionate,  and  those 
who  aided  him  in  his  first  setting  out  in  life  were 
never  ungratefully  forgotten.  Though  engaged 
constantly  in  public  business,  yet  the  concerns  of 
this  world  did  not  make  him  regardless  of  the 
more  important  concerns  of  religion.  He  firmly 
believed  the  Christian  system,  for  he  had  given  it 
a  thorough  examination.  By  its  incomparable 
rules  he  regulated  his  whole  conduct,  and  on  its 
promises  he  founded  all  his  hopes  of  future  hap 

In  the  earlier  periods  of  his  life  he  was  not  un 
acquainted  with  the  walks  of  poetry,  and  some  of 

his  poetical  productions,  in  imitation  of  the  pasto 
rals  of  Shenstone,  were  published  in  the  Phila 
delphia  magazines.  They  were  at  the  time  held 
in  high  estimation.  He  published  in  1793  an 
inquiry  how  far  the  punishment  of  death  is  nec 
essary  in  Pennsylvania,  with  notes  and  illustra 
tions,  to  which  is  added  an  account  of  the  gaol 
and  penitentiary  house  of  Philadelphia,  by  Caleb 
Lownes.  This  Avork  was  written  at  the  request 
of  Gov.  Mifflin,  and  was  intended  for  the  use  of 
the  legislature,  in  the  nature  of  a  report,  they 
having  the  subject  at  large  under  their  considera 
tion.  Furnishing  a  proof  of  the  good  sense  and 
philanthropy  of  the  author,  it  gained  him  great 
credit.  It  had  much  influence  in  meliorating  the 
criminal  laws,  and  hastening  the  almost  entire  ab 
olition  of  capital  punishments,  not  only  in  Penn 
sylvania,  but  in  many  other  States,  where  the 
interests  of  humanity  have  at  last  prevailed  over 
ancient  and  inveterate  prejudices. — Rees1  Cycl. ; 
Hardie's  Biog.  Did. ;  Marshall,  V.  489,  639 ; 
Gaz.  U.  S.,  Aug.  24,  1795. 

BRADFORD,  SUSAN,  wife  of  the  preceding, 
died  in  Burlington,  X.  J.,  Nov.  30,  1854,  nearly 
90.  Susan  Vergereau  was  the  eldest  daughter  of 
Elias  Boudinot,  born  Dec.  21,  1764:  her  mother 
was  Hannah  Stockton,  of  Princeton,  a  daughter  of 
John,  a  signer  of  the  declaration  of  independence. 
Her  father's  great-grandfather  was  a  Huguenot, 
who  fled  to  England.  She  was  married  in  1784 
to  Wm.  Bradford,  who  died  in  1795.  A  widow 
for  the  rest  of  her  life,  she  lived  in  Burlington 
from  1805  till  her  death.  Bishop  Doane  visited 
her  daily  the  last  twenty  years.  She  was  opulent 
and  benevolent,  and  eminently  pious. 

BRADFORD,  THOMAS,  died  at  Philadelphia  in 
May,  1838,  aged  94.  He  was  an  eminent  printer, 
editor,  and  publisher,  succeeding  Franklin  in 
1763  as  printer  to  the  continental  congress. 

BRADFORD,  ROBERT,  major,  died  in  Belpre, 
Ohio,  in  1823,  aged  73.  He  was  born  in  1750, 
the  son  of  Robert,  of  Kingston ;  and  was  a  de 
scendant  of  the  sixth  generation  from  Gov.  B. 
In  the  war  of  the  Revolution  he  was  a  brave  offi 
cer.  The  sword  given  him  by  Lafayette  is  in 
the  hands  of  his  only  surviving  son,  O.  L.  Brad 
ford,  of  Wood  county,  Va.  As  an  associate  of 
the  Ohio  company,  he  removed  to  Marietta  in 
1788.  The  next  year  he  and  other  officers  set 
tled  Belpre,  where  he  encountered  the  perils  of 
the  Indian  scalping-knife.  He  was  a  worthy, 
cheerful,  warm-hearted  pioneer  of  the  west. — 
Hildreth's  Bior/.  Mem.  relating  to  Ohio. 

BRADFORD,  AXDKKW,  died  at  Duxbury  in 
Jan.,  1837,  aged  91  ;  a  descendant  of  Gov.  B.  He 
was  a  quartermaster  in  the  Revolutionary  army, 
a  twin  brother  of  Peter  B.,  who  died  two  years 

BRADFORD,  JOHN,  died  Jan.  27,  1825,  aged 
68.  He  was  born  in  Boston  Aug.,  1750,  gradu- 




ated  at  Harvard  in  1774,  and  \vas  ordained  at 
Roxbury  in  May,  11  So.  T.  Gray  wrote  an  obitu 
ary  notice,  with  a  sketch  of  the  Roxbury  churches, 

BRADFORD,  ALDEN,  died  in  Boston  Oct.  26, 
1843,  aged  78.  He  was  born  in  Duxbury,  the 
son  of  Gamaliel,  was  graduated  in  1756,  and  a 
minister  in  Pownalborough,  now  Wiscasset,  eight 
years.  From  1812  to  1824  he  was  secretary  of 
State  of  Massachusetts.  He  published  a  history 
of  Mass,  from  1764  to  1789,  2vols.  ;  from  1790  to 
1820;  also  two  sermons  on  the  doctrines  of  Christ, 
1794,  at  Hallowell ;  eulogy  on  Washington ;  ordi 
nation  of  N.  Tilton,  1801 ;  sermon  at  Plymouth  ; 
oration,  1804;  on  death  of  Knox,  1806;  biogra 
phy  of  C.  Strong,  1820;  on  State  rights,  1824; 
discourse,  1830 ;  and  account  of  Wiscasset  and 
Duxbury  in  historical  collections. 

BRADFORD,  EBENKZER,  minister  of  Rowley, 
a  brother  of  Moses,  died  Jan.  3,  1801,  aged  55. 
A  graduate  of  Princeton  in  1773,  he  was  settled 
at  R.  in  1782,  after  living  a  few  y ears  in  D  anbury. 
His  son,  John  Melancthon  B.,  D.  D.,  was  a  grad 
uate  at  Providence  in  1800.  His  wife  was  a  sister 
of  Dr.  Green,  of  Philadelphia.  He  published  a 
sermon  at  the  ordination  of  N.Howe,  1791; 
strictures  on  Dr.  Langdon's  remarks  on  Hopkins' 
system,  1794 ;  at  a  thanksgiving,  also  at  a  fast, 
1795  ;  at  the  installation  of  J.  11.  Stevens,  1795. 

BRADFORD,  MOSES,  died  in  Montague  June 
13,  1838,  aged  73.  A  descendant  of  Gov.  Brad 
ford  by  his  son  AVilliam,  he  was  born  in  Canter 
bury,  Conn.,  the  brother  of  Rev.  E.  B.,  of 
Rowley.  He  graduated  at  Dartmouth  in  1785, 
and  was  from  1790  the  minister  of  Francestown 
thirty-seven  years,  eminently  useful,  the  church 
growing  from  fifty  members  to  three  or  four  hun 
dred.  He  had  three  sons,  who  were  preachers. 

BRADFORD,  EPHRAIM  P.,  minister  of  New 
Boston,  N.  II.  nearly  forty  years,  died  Dec.  14, 
1845  :  a  graduate  of  Harvard  in  1803,  and  a  dili 
gent  laborer. 

BRADFORD,  GAMALIEL,  M.  D.,  superintend 
ent  of  the  Mass,  general  hospital,  died  in  Boston 
Oct.  22,  1839,  aged  nearly  44;  a  descendant  of 
"William  B.,  and  a  graduate  of  1814.  He  was  an 
adversary  of  phrenology,  and  of  slavery.  He 
wrote  eighty  miscellaneous  pieces ;  among  them 
an  address  on  temperance ;  a  letter  on  slavery, 
and  various  reviews.  A  Memoir  by  Dr.  Francis 
is  in  Hist.  Coll.  3d  series,  vol  ix. 

BRADLEY,  SAMUEL,  killed  in  the  "  Bradley 
massacre,"  was  an  early  settler  at  Concord,  N.  H., 
then  Rumford.  On  the  llth  Aug.,  1746,  as  he 
was  proceeding  with  six  others  to  Hopkinton,  the 
party  was  attacked  by  a  hundred  Indians  a  mile 
and  a  half  from  Concord  village.  Samuel  Brad 
ley  was  killed  and  scaljx-d  near  the  brook.  To 
his  brother,  Jonathan  Bradley,  a  lieutenant  in 
Capt.  Ladd's  company,  quarter  was  offered;  but 

he  refused  it,  and  fought  till  he  was  hewed  down 
with  the  tomahawk.  Three  others  were  killed : 
Alexander  Roberts  and  William  Stickney  were 
made  prisoners.  Mr.  Bradley  was  a  young  man ; 
his  widow,  who  married  Richard  Calfe,  of  Ches- 
'ter,  died  Aug.  10,  1817,  aged  98.  His  son,  John, 
who  was  two  years  old  at  the  time  of  the  mas 
sacre,  was  a  very  respectable  citizen  of  Concord, 
and  served  in  both  branches  of  the  legislature. 
He  died  July  5,  1815,  aged  71,  leaving  sons, 
among  whom  was  Samuel  A.  Bradley,  of  Frye- 
burg.  Seven  persons  of  the  name  of  Bradley 
were  killed  by  the  Indians  in  Haverhill,  Mass.,  in 
March,  1697  ;  in  1704  a  Mrs.  Bradley,  after  kill 
ing  an  Indian  by  pouring  boiling  soap  on  him, 
was  taken  prisoner.  —  Boutoris  Cent.  Disc.; 
Moore's  Ann.  of  Concord ;  Coll.  Hist.  Soc.  s.  s. 
IV.  129. 

BRADLEY,  STEPHEN  R.,  a  senator  of  the 
United  States,  was  born  Oct.  20,  1754,  in  Wral- 
lingford,  now  Cheshire,  Conn.,  and  graduated 
at  Yale  college  in  1775.  He  was  the  aid  of 
Gen.  Wooster,  when  that  officer  fell  in  a  skirmish 
with  the  enemy.  Removing  to  Vermont,  he  con 
tributed  much  to  the  establishment  of  that  State. 
He  was  one  of  its  first  senators  to  congress,  in 
which  body  he  continued,  with  one  intermission, 
until  he  retired  from  public  life  in  1812.  He 
died  at  Walpole,  N.  H.,  Dec.  16,  1830,  aged  76. 
He  published  Vermont's  appeal,  1779,  which  has 
been  sometimes  ascribed  to  Ira  Allen. 

BRADLEY,  WILLIAM  II.,  a  poet,  was  born  in 
Providence,  R.  I.  After  being  educated  as  a  phy 
sician,  he  went  to  Cuba,  where  he  died  in  1825. 
He  published  Giuseppino,  an  occidental  story, 
1822 ;  besides  many  fugitive  pieces. — Spec.  Amer. 
Poet.  II.  394,  398. 

BRADLEY,  ABRAHAM,  assistant  postmaster 
general,  died  at  Washington  May  7,  1838. 

BRADLEY,  PHL\EHAS,  Dr.,  died  at  Washing 
ton  Feb.  28,  1845,  aged  75.  Born  at  Litchfield, 
he  practised  physic  at  Painted  Post,  N.  Y. ;  but 
about  1800  accepted  an  appointment  in  the  post 
office  at  Washington ;  he  was  second  assistant 

BRADLEY,  JOSHUA,  a  Baptist  minister,  died 
at  St.  Paul,  Minnesota,  Nov.  22,  1855,  aged  85. 
From  his  20th  year  he  was  engaged  in  education 
and  the  ministry,  rendering  great  services  to  the 
cause  of  religion. 

BRADLEY,  EMILIE,  wife  of  Dr.  D.  B.  Brad 
ley,  missionary  to  Siam,  died  at  Bangkok  Aug.  2, 
1845,  aged  34.  Her  name  was  Emilie  Royce,  of 
Clinton,  N.  Y.  She  embarked  July  2>,  1834,  and 
had  been  ten  years  a  missionary.  Her  end  was 
remarkably  peaceful,  like  that  of  many  other 
missionaries.  She  was  glad  the  Siamese  could 
see  how  a  Christian  could  die ;  she  wished  them 
to  judge  which  religion  makes  the  soul  most 
happy  in  the  hour  of  death. 




BRADSTREET,  SIMON,  governor  of  Mass., 
the  son  of  a  nonconformist  minister  in  England, 
died  at  Salem,  March  27,  1697,  aged  94.  He 
was  born  at  Ilorbling  in  Lincolnshire  in  March, 
1603.  His  father  died  when  he  was  at  the  age  of 
fourteen.  But  he  was  soon  afterwards  taken  into 
the  religious  family  of  the  Earl  of  Lincoln,  in 
which  he  continued  about  eight  years  under  the 
direction  of  Thomas  Dudley,  and  among  other 
offices  sustained  that  of  steward.  He  lived  a 
year  at  Emanucl  college,  Cambridge,  pursuing 
his  studies  amidst  many  interruptions.  He  then 
returned  to  the  earl's;  but  soon  accepted  the 
place  of  steward  in  the  family  of  the  Countess  of 
Warwick.  Here  he  continued  till  he  married  a 
daughter  of  Mr.  Dudley,  and  was  persuaded  to 
engage  in  the  project  of  making  a  settlement  in 
Massachusetts.  He  was  in  March,  1630,  chosen 
assistant  of  the  colony,  which  was  about  to  be  es 
tablished,  and  arrived  at  Salem  in  the  summer  of 
the  same  year.  lie  was  at  the  first  court,  which 
was  held  at  Charlestown  Aug.  23.  He  was  after- 
wards  secretary  and  agent  of  Massachusetts,  and 
commissioner  of  the  united  colonies.  He  was 
sent  with  Mr.  Norton  in  1662  to  congratulate 
King  Charles  on  liis  restoration,  and  as  agent  of 
the  colony  to  promote  its  interests.  From  1673 
to  1679  he  was  deputy  governor.  In  this  last 
year  he  succeeded  Mr.  Leverett  as  governor, 
and  remained  in  this  office  till,  May,  1686,  when 
the  charter  was  dissolved,  and  Joseph  Dudley 
commenced  his  administration  as  president  of 
New  England.  In  May,  1689,  after  the  imprison 
ment  of  Andros,  he  was  replaced  in  the  oilice  of 
governor,  which  station  he  held  till  the  arrival  of 
Sir  William  Phipps  in  May,  1692,  with  a  charter 
which  deprived  the  people  of  the  right  of  elect 
ing  their  chief  magistrate,  lie  had  been  fifty 
years  an  assistant  of  the  colony.  He  had  lived  at 
Cambridge,  Ipswich,  Andover,  Boston,  and  Salem. 

Gov.  Bradstreet,  though  he  possessed  no  splendid 
talents,  yet  by  his  integrity,  prudence,  moderation, 
and  piety  acquired  the  confidence  of  all  classes  of 
people.  When  King  Charles  demanded  a  sur 
render  of  the  charter,  he  was  in  favor  of  comply 
ing  ;  and  the  event  proved  the  correctness  of  his 
opinion.  He  thought  it  would  be  more  prudent 
for  the  colonists  to  submit  to  a  power  which  they 
could  not  resist,  than  to  have  judgment  given 
against  the  charter,  and  thus  their  privileges  be 
entirely  cut  off.  If  his  moderation  in  regard  to 
religious  affairs,  particularly  towards  the  Anabap 
tists  and  the  Quakers,  was  not  so  conspicuous,  it 
was  not  a  fault  peculiar  to  him.  Yet  he  had  the 
good  sense  to  oppose  the  witchcraft  delusion.  lie 
had  eight  children  by  his  first  wife,  the  daughter 
of  governor  Thomas  Dudley,  who  wrote  a  volume 
of  poems.  His  second  wife,  a  sister  of  Sir  George 
Downing,  was  the  widow  of  Joseph  Gardner,  of 
Salem.  His  son,  Simon,  the  minister  of  New 

London,  graduated  1660,  was  ordained  Oct.  5, 
1670,  and  died  168o.  Another  son,  Major  Dud 
ley  B.,  was  taken  prisoner  by  the  Indians  with 
his  wife  at  Andover  in  1698.  — Mather's  Magna- 
lia,  II.  19,  20;  Hutckinson,  I.  18,219,  323;  II. 
13,  105;  Holmes,  I.  466. 

BRADSTREET,  ANNE,  a  poetess,  was  the 
daughter  of  Governor  Dudley,  and  was  born  in 
1612  at  Northampton,  England.  At  the  age  of 
sixteen  she  married  Mr.  Bradstreet,  afterwards 
governor  of  Massachusetts,  and  accompanied  him 
to  America  in  1630.  After  being  the  mother  of 
eight  children,  she  died  Sept.  16,  1672,  aged  60. 

Her  volume  of  poems  was  dedicated  to  her 
father,  in  a  copy  of  verses  dated  March  20,  1642, 
and  is  probably  the  earliest  poetic  volume  written 
in  America.  The  title  is  :  "  Several  Poems,  com 
piled  with  great  variety  of  wit  and  learning,  full 
of  delight ;  wherein  especially  is  contained  a  com 
plete  discourse  and  description  of  the  four  ele 
ments,  constitutions,  ages  of  man,  seasons  of  the 
year,  together  with  an  exact  epitome  of  the  three 
first  monarchies,  viz :  the  Assyrian,  Persian,  Gre 
cian,  and  Roman  commonwealth,  from  the  begin 
ning  to  the  end  of  their  last  king,  with  divers 
other  pleasant  and  serious  poems.  By  a  gentle 
woman  of  New  England."  A  third  edition  was 
published  in  I7o8.  —  Spec.  Amer.  Poet.  Intr.  XX.; 
American  Quar.  Rev.  n.  494-496. 

BRADSTREET,  SIMOX,  minister  of  Charles- 
town,  Mass.,  was  graduated  at  Harvard  college 
in  1693,  and  was  ordained  as  successor  of  Mr. 
Morton,  Oct.  26,  1698.  He  received  J.  Stephens 
as  colleague  in  1721,  and  Mr.  Abbot  as  his  col 
league  in  1724.  After  a  ministry  of  more  than 
forty  years,  he  died  Dec.  31,  1741,  aged  72.  His 
successors  were  Abbot,  Prentice,  Paine,  and 
Dr.  Morse.  He  was  a  very  learned  man,  of  a 
strong  mind,  tenacious  memory,  and  lively  imagi 
nation.  Lieut-Governor  Taller  introduced  him  to 
Governor  Burnet,  who  was  himself  a  fine  scholar, 
by  saying,  here  is  a  man  who  can  whistle  Greek ; 
and  the  governor  afterwards  spoke  of  him  as  one 
of  the  first  literary  characters  and  best  preachers 
whom  he  had  met  with  in  America.  Mr.  Brad- 
street  was  subject  to  hypochondriacal  complaints, 
which  made  him  afraid  to  preach  in  the  pulpit 
some  years  before  he  died.  He  delivered  his  ser 
mons  in  the  deacon's  seat,  without  notes,  and  they 
were  in  general  melancholy  effusions  upon  the 
wretched  state  of  mankind  and  the  vanity  of  the 
world.  He  possessed  such  a  catholic  spirit,  that 
some  of  the  more  zealous  brethren  accused  him 
of  Arminianism ;  but  the  only  evidence  of  this 
was  his  fondness  for  Tillotson's  sermons,  and  his 
being  rather  a  practical  than  a  doctrinal  preacher. 
He  seldom  appeared  with  a  coat,  but  always  wore 
a  plaid  gown,  and  was  generally  seen  with  a  pipe 
in  his  mouth.  His  Latin  epitaph  upon  his  prede 
cessor,  Mr.  Morton,  has  been  preserved  by  the 




Mass.  Hist.  Society. —  Hist.  Coll.  VIII.  75 ;  Bud- 

BRADSTREET,  SIMON,  minister  of  Marble- 
head,  was  the  son  of  the  preceding,  and  was 
graduated  at  Harvard  college  in  1728.  He  was 
ordained  successor  of  Mr.  Ilolyoke  Jan.  4,  1738, 
and  died  Oct.  5,  1771;  Isaac  Story,  who  married 
his  daughter,  having  been  his  colleague  four  or 
five  months.  lie  was  an  excellent  scholar,  a  most 
worthy  and  pious  Christian,  and  faithful  pastor ; 
laboring  to  bring  his  hearers  to  the  love  of  God, 
the  reception  of  the  Saviour,  and  the  practice  of 
holiness.  He  published  a  sermon  on  the  death 
of  his  brother  Samuel,  of  Chaiiestown,  1755. 

BRADSTREET,  JOHN,  a  major-general  in 
America,  appointed  by  the  king  of  Great  Britain, 
was  in  1740  lieutenant-governor  of  St.  John's, 
Newfoundland.  lie  was  afterwards  distinguished 
for  his  military  services.  It  was  thought  of  the 
highest  importance  in  the  year  1756  to  keep  open 
the  communication  with  Fort  Oswego  on  Lake 
Ontario.  Gen.  Shirley  accordingly  enlisted  forty 
companies  of  boatmen,  each  consisting  of  fifty 
men,  for  transporting  stores  to  the  fort  from 
Schenectady,  and  placed  them  under  the  command 
of  Bradstrect,  who  was  an  active  and  vigilant 
officer,  and  inured  to  the  hardships  to  which  that 
service  exposed  him.  In  the  beginning  of  the 
spring  of  this  year  a  small  stockaded  post  with 
twenty-five  men,  at  the  carrying  place,  was  cut  off. 
It  became  necessary  to  pass  through  the  country 
with  large  squadrons  of  boats,  as  the  enemy 
infested  the  passage  through  the  Onondaga  river. 
On  his  return  from  Oswego,  July  3,  1756,  Col. 
Bradstreet,  who  was  apprehensive  of  being  am 
bushed,  ordered  the  several  divisions  to  proceed  as 
near  each  other  as  possible.  He  was  at  the  head 
of  about  three  hundred  boatmen  in  the  first 
division,  when  at  the  distance  of  nine  miles  from 
the  fort  the  enemy  rose  from  their  ambuscade  and 
attacked  him.  He  instantly  landed  upon  a  small 
island  and  with  but  six  men  maintained  his 
position,  till  he  was  reinforced.  A  general  en 
gagement  ensued,  in  which  Bradstrect  with 
gallantry  rushed  upon  a  more  numerous  enemy, 
and  entirely  routed  them,  killing  and  wounding 
about  two  hundred  men.  His  own  loss  was 
about  thirty.  In  the  year  1758  he  was  intrusted 
with  the  command  of  three  thousand  men  on  an 
expedition  against  Fort  Frontenac,  which  was 
planned  by  himself.  He  embarked  at  Oswego  on 
Lake  Ontario,  and  on  the  evening  of  Aug.  25th 
landed  within  a  mile  of  the  fort.  On  the  27th  it 
was  surrendered  to  him.  Forty  pieces  of  cannon 
and  a  vast  quantity  of  provisions  and  merchandize, 
with  one  hundred  and  ten  prisoners,  fell  into  his 
hands.  The  fort  and  nine  armed  vessels  and  such 
stores  as  could  not  be  removed,  were  destroyed. 
In  August,  17G4,  he  advanced  with  a  considerable 
force  toward  the  Indian  country,  and  at  Presquc 

Isle  compelled  the  Delawares,  Shawanese,  and 
other  Indians  to  terms  of  peace.  He  was  ap 
pointed  major-general  in  May,  1772.  After 
rendering  important  services  to  his  country,  he 
died  at  New  York  Oct.  21,  1774.  —  Wynne,  n. 
,59-61,  86-88;  Ann.  Beg.  for  1764,  181 ;  Holmes, 
II.  198;  Marshall,!.  137,438;  Coll.  Hist.  Soc., 
VII.  150,  155;  Mante. 

BRADSTREET,  STEPHEN  I.,  died  in  Cleveland 
June  9,  1837,  aged  42 ;  pastor  of  the  first  church, 
then  editor  of  the  Ohio  Observer  and  of  the  Cleve 
land  Messenger;  a  graduate  of  Dartmouth,  1819. 

BRADY,  HUGH,  major-general,  died  in  Detroit 
April  15,  1851,  aged  83.  Born  in  Pennsylvania, 
he  entered  the  army  in  1792,  and  served  under 
Wayne  against  the  Indians.  At  the  battle  of 
Chippewa  he  headed  his  regiment.  From  1825 
he  was  stationed  at  Detroit.  A  life  of  rigid 
temperance  and  regular  activity  gave  him  an 
elastic  step  in  old  age.  lie  had  a  pure  and 
upright  character. 

was  the  son  of  Judge  Jeremiah  G.  Brainard  of 
Xew  London,  Conn.,  died  Sept.  26,  1828,  aged 
32.  He  was  born  about  the  year  1797.  He  was 
graduated  in  1815  at  Yale  college.  Though  his 
name  differs  in  one  letter  from  that  of  the 
celebrated  missionary,  yet  probably  they  had  a 
common  ancestor.  Indeed  his  name,  in  a  catalogue 
of  the  college,  is  given  Urainerd,  while  that  of 
John,  a  brother  of  David,  is  printed  Brainard. 
These  are  probably  both  mistakes.  Autograph 
letters  of  David  and  John  in  my  possession 
present  the  form  of  Braincrd  ;  the  other  form  of 
the  name  being  adopted  by  the  poet  and  his 
father,  I  do  not  feel  authorized  to  change  it  for  the 
sake  of  uniformity.  Brainard  studied  law  and 
commenced  the  practice  at  Midclletown  ;  but  not 
finding  the  success  which  he  desired,  in  1822  he 
undertook  the  editorial  charge  of  the  Connecticut 
Mirror  at  Hartford.  Thus  he  was  occupied  about 
seven  years,  until,  being  marked  as  a  victim  for  the 
consumption,  he  returned  about  a  year  before  his 
death  to  his  father's  house. 

He  was  an  excellent  editor  of  the  paper,  which 
he  conducted,  enriching  it  with  his  poetical  pro 
ductions,  which  have  originality,  force,  and  paLhos, 
and  with  many  beautiful  prose  compositions,  and 
refraining  from  that  personal  abuse,  which  many 
editors  seem  to  think  essential  to  their  vocation. 
In  this  respect  his  gentlemanly  example  is  worthy 
of  being  followed  by  the  editorial  corps.  He, 
who  addresses  himself  every  week  or  every  day  to 
thousands  of  readers,  sustains  a  high  responsibility. 
If,  destitute  of  good  breeding  and  good  principles, 
he  is  determined  to  attract  notice  by  the  person 
alities,  for  which  there  is  a  greedy  appetite  in  the 
community ;  if  he  yields  himself  a  slave  to  the 
party  which  he  espouses,  and  toils  for  it  by  con 
tumelies  upon  his  opponents ;  if,  catching  the 




spirit  of  an  infuriated  zealot,  and  regardless  of 
truth  and  honor,  he  scatters  abroad  his  malignant 
slanders  and  inflammatory  traducements ;  then, 
instead  of  a  wise  and  benevolent  teacher  and 
guide,  he  presents  himself  as  a  sower  of  discord 
and  a  minister  of  evil. 

When  he  was  a  member  of  Yale  college  in' 
1815,  during  a  revival  of  religion,  he  was  deeply 
impressed  with  his  sin  and  danger;  but  his 
religious  sensibility  soon  diminished,  and  the  world 
occupied  again  his  thoughts,  though  spcculatively 
he  assented  to  the  truths  of  the  gospel.  Thus  he 
lived  twelve  or  thirteen  years,  till  a  few  months 
before  his  death.  Then,  at  his  father's  house, 
during  his  decay  by  the  consumption,  he  spent  his 
days  and  evenings  in  reading  religious  books  and 
in  pious  meditations.  To  his  minister,  Mr. 
McEwen,  he  said,  "  This  plan  of  salvation  in  the 
gospel  is  all  that  I  want ;  it  lills  me  with  wonder 
and  gratitude,  and  makes  the  prospect  of  death 
not  only  peaceful,  but  joyous."  Pale  and  feeble, 
he  went  to  the  house  of  God,  and  made  a  pro 
fession  of  religion  and  was  baptized.  The  next 
Sabbath,  as  he  could  not  attend  meeting,  the 
Lord's  supper  was  administered  at  his  room.  His 
last  remark  to  his  minister  was,  "  I  am  willing  to 
die ;  I  have  no  righteousness,  but  Christ  and  his 
atonement  are  enough.  God  is  a  God  of  truth, 
and  I  think  I  am  reconciled  to  him."  The  change 
experienced  by  the  renovated,  pardoned  sinner,  is 
described  by  him  in  the  following  lines : 

"  All  sights  are  fair  to  the  recovered  blind ; 
All  sounds  are  music  to  tho  deaf  restored ; 
The  lame,  made  whole,  leaps  like  the  sportive  hind  ; 
And  the  sad,  bow'd  down  sinner,  with  his  loud 
Of  shame  and  sorrow,  when  he  cuts  the  cord, 
And  leaves  his  pack  behind,  is  free  again 
In  the  light  yoke  and  burden  of  his  Lord." 

He  published  Occasional  pieces  of  poetry,  12mo., 
1825. —  Specimens  Amer.  Poetry,  ill.  198-212; 
Ilawes1  Sermon. 

BllAIXERD,  DAVID,  an  eminent  preacher  and 
missionary  to  the  Indians,  died  at  Northampton 
Oct.  9,  1747,  aged  29;  his  gravestone  by  mistake 
says  Oct.  10.  lie  was  born  at  Iladdam,  Conn., 
April  20,  1718.  His  grandfather  was  Deac'on 
Daniel  B.,  who  was  born  in  Braintree,  Essex, 
England,  and  who  settled  in  Iladdam  about  1GGO, 
and  died  in  1715.  He  came  to  this  country  at 
the  age  of  eight,  in  the  Wyllys  family,  about 
1649 ;  bis  wife  was  Hannah,  daughter  of  Jared 
Spencer.  His  father,  Ilezekiah  Brainerd,  was  au 
assistant  of  the  colony,  or  a  member  of  the 
council,  who  died  when  his  son  was  about  nine 
years  of  age ;  his  mother,  Dorothy,  the  daughter 
of  Ilev.  Jeremiah  llobart,  and  widow  of  D. 
Mason,  died  when  he  was  fourteen  years  of  age. 
His  elder  brother,  Ilezekiah,  was  a  representative 
of  Iladdam ;  and  his  brother  Xehcmiah,  who 
died  in  1742,  was  a  minister  in  Glastenbury.  His 
sister,  Martha,  married  Gen.  Joseph  Spencer,  of 

East  Iladdam.  As  his  mind  was  early  impressed 
by  the  truths  of  religion,  he  took  delight  in  read 
ing  those  books  which  communicate  religious 
instruction ;  he  called  upon  the  name  of  God  in 
secret  prayer ;  he  studied  the  Scriptures  with 
great  diligence ;  and  he  associated  with  several 
young  persons  for  mutual  encouragement  and 
assistance  in  the  paths  of  wisdom.  But  in  all  this 
he  aftenvards  considered  himself  as  self-righteous, 
as  completely  destitute  of  true  piety,  as  governed 
by  the  fear  of  future  punishment  and  not  by  the 
love  of  God,  as  depending  for  salvation  upon  his 
good  feelings  and  his  strict  life,  without  a  per 
ception  of  the  necessity  and  the  value  of  the 
mediation  of  Christ.  At  this  time  he  indeed 
acknowledged,  that  he  deserved  nothing  for  his 
best  works,  for  the  theory  of  salvation  was 
familiar  to  him  ;  but  while  he  made  the  acknowl 
edgment,  he  did  not  feel  what  it  implied.  lie 
still  secretly  relied  upon  the  warmth  of  his  affec 
tions,  upon  his  sincerity,  upon  some  quality  in 
himself,  as  the  ground  of  acceptance  with  God ; 
instead  of  relying  upon  the  Lord  Jesus,  through 
whom  alone  there  is  access  to  the  Father.  At 
length  lie  was  brought  under  a  deep  sense  of  his 
sinfulncss,  and  he  perceived,  that  there  was 
nothing  <:ood  in  himself.  This  conviction  was  not 
a  sudden  perturbation  of  mind ;  it  was  a  perma 
nent  impression,  made  by  the  view  of  his  own 
character,  when  compared  with  that  holy  law  of 
God,  which  he  was  bound  to  obey.  But  the 
discovery  was  unwelcome  and  irritating.  He 
could  not  readily  abandon  the  hope,  which  rested 
upon  his  religious  exercises.  He  was  reluctant  to 
admit,  that  the  principle,  whence  all  his  actions 
proceeded,  was  entirely  corrupt.  He  was  opposed 
to  the  strictness  of  the  Divine  law,  which  extended 
to  the  heart  as  well  as  to  the  life.  He  murmured 
against  the  doctrines,  that  faith  was  indispensably 
necessary  to  salvation,  and  that  faith  was  com 
pletely  the  gift  of  God.  He  was  irritated  in  not 
finding  any  way  pointed  out,  which  would  lead 
him  to  the  Saviour;  in  not  finding  any  means 
prescribed,  by  which  an  unrenewcd  man  could  of 
his  own  strength  obtain  that,  which  the  highest 
angel  could  not  give.  He  was  unwilling  to 
j  believe,  that  he  was  dead  in  trespasses  and  in 
sins.  But  these  unpleasant  truths  were  fastened 
I  upon  his  mind,  and  they  could  not  be  shaken  oft'. 
It  pleased  God  to  disclose  to  him  his  true  character 
and  condition,  and  to  quell  the  tumult  of  his  soul, 
lie  saw  that  lus  schemes  to  save  himself  were 
entirely  vain,  and  must  forever  be  ineffectual ;  he 
perceived  that  it  was  self-interest  which  had 
before  led  him  to  pray,  and  that  he  had  never 
once  .prayed  from  any  respect  to  the  glory  of 
God;  he  felt  that  he  was  lost.  In  this  state  of 
mind,  while  he  was  walking  in  a  solitary,  place  in 
the  evening  of  July  12,  1739,  meditating  upon 
religious  subjects,  his  mind  was  illuminated  with 




completely  new  views  of  the  Divine  perfections  ; 
he  perceived  a  glory  in  the  character  of  God  and 
in  the  way  of  salvation  by  the  crucified  Son  of  the 
Most  High,  which  he  never  before  discerned ; 
and  he  was  led  to  depend  upon  Jesus  Christ  for 
righteousness,  and  to  seek  the  glory  of  God  as 
his  principal  object. 

In  September,  1739,  he  was  admitted  a  mem 
ber  of  Yale  college,  but  he  was  expelled  in  Feb 
ruary,  1742.  The  circumstances  which  led  to  this 
expulsion  were  these :  There  had  been  great 
attention  to  religion  in  the  college,  and  Mr. 
Braincrd,  whose  feelings  were  naturally  warm, 
and  whose  soul  was  interested  in  the  progress  of 
the  gospel,  was  misled  by  an  intemperate  zeal, 
and  was  guilty  of  indiscretions,  which  at  that 
time  were  not  unfrequcnt.  In  a  conversation 
with  some  of  his  associates  he  expressed  his  be 
lief,  that  one  of  the  tutors  was  destitute  of 
religion.  Being  in  part  overheard,  his  associates 
were  compelled  by  the  rector  to  declare,  respect 
ing  whom  he  was  speaking ;  and  he  was  required 
to  make  a  public  confession  in  the  hall.  Braincrd 
thought,  that  it  was  unjust  to  extort  from  his 
friends  what  he  had  uttered  in  conversation,  and 
that  the  punishment  was  too  severe.  As  he  re 
fused  to  make  the  confession,  and  as  he  had  been 
guilty  of  going  to  a  separate  meeting  after  pro 
hibition  by  the  authority  of  college,  he  was 
expelled.  In  the  circumstances,  which  led  to  this 
result,  there  appears  a  strong  disposition  to  hunt 
up  offences  against  the  "  New  Lights,"  as  those 
who  were  attached  to  the  preaching  of  Mr.  Whit- 
field  and  Tcnnent,  were  then  called.  It  was  not  so 
strange  that  a  young  man  should  have  been  in 
discreet,  as  that  he  should  confess  himself  to  have 
been  so.  Mr.  Brainerd  afterwards  perceived  that 
he  had  been  uncharitable  and  had  done  wrong, 
and  with  sincerity  and  humility  he  acknowledged 
his  error  and  exhibited  a  truly  Christian  spirit ; 
but  he  never  obtained  his  degree.  Though  he 
felt  no  resentment,  and  ever  lamented  his  own 
conduct ;  yet  he  always  considered  himself  as 
abused  in  the  management  of  this  affair. 

In  the  spring  of  1742  he  went  to  llipton,  to 
pursue  the  study  of  divinity  under  the  care  of 
Mr.  Mills ;  and  at  the  end  of  July  was  licensed  to 
preach,  by  the  association  of  ministers  which  met 
at  Danbury,  after  they  had  made  inquiries  re 
specting  his  learning,  and  his  acquaintance  with 
experimental  religion.  Soon  after  he  began  his 
theological  studies,  he  was  desirous  of  preaching 
the  gospel  to  the  heathen,  and  frequently  prayed 
for  them.  In  November,  after  he  was  licensed, 
he  was  invited  to  go  to  New  York,  and  was  ex 
amined  by  the  correspondents  of  the  society  for 
propagating  Christian  knowledge,  and  was  ap 
pointed  by  them  a  missionary  to  the  Indians. 

He  arrived  on  the  first  of  April,  1743,  at  Kau- 
nameek,  an  Indian  village  in  the  woods  between 

Stockbridge,  in  the  State  of  Massachusetts,  and 
Albany,  at  the  distance  of  about  twenty  miles 
from  the  former  place  and  fifteen  miles  from 
Kinderhook.  lie  now  began  his  labors  at  the 
age  of  twenty-five,  and  continued  in  this  place 
about  a  year.  At  first  he  lived  in  a  wigwam 
among  the  Indians ;  but  he  afterwards  built  him 
self  a  cabin,  that  he  might  be  alone,  when  not 
employed  in  preaching  and  instructing  the  savages. 
lie  lodged  upon  a  bundle  of  straw,  and  his  food 
was  principally  boiled  corn,  hasty  pudding,  and 
samp.  With  a  feeble  body,  and  frequent  illness, 
and  great  depression  of  mind,  he  was  obliged  to 
encounter  many  discouragements,  and  to  submit 
to  hardships,  which  would  be  almost  insupporta 
ble  by  a  much  stronger  constitution.  But  he 
persisted  in  his  benevolent  labors,  animated  by 
the  hope  that  he  should  prove  the  means  of 
illuminating  some  darkened  mind  with  the  truth 
as  it  is  in  Jesus.  Besides  his  exertions,  which 
had  immediate  reference  to  the  instruction  of  the 
savages,  he  studied  much,  and  employed  much 
time  in  the  delightful  employment  of  communing 
in  the  wilderness  with  that  merciful  Being,  who 
is  present  in  all  places,  and  who  is  the  support 
and  joy  of  all  Christians.  When  the  Indians  at 
Kaunamcek  had  agreed  to  remove  to  Stockbridge 
and  place  themselves  under  the  instruction  of 
Mr.  Sergeant,  Mr.  Brainerd  left  them  and  bent 
his  attention  towards  the  Delaware  Indians. 

He  was  ordained  at  Newark  in  New  Jersey  by 
a  Presbytery,  June  12,  1744,  on  which  occasion 
Mr.  Pemberton  of  New  York  preached  a  sermon. 
He  soon  afterwards  went  to  the  new  field  of  his 
labors,  near  the  forks  of  the  Delaware  in  Penn 
sylvania,  and  continued  there  a  year,  making  two 
visits  to  the  Indians  on  Susquehannah  river.  He 
again  built  him  a  cabin  for  retirement ;  but  here 
he  had  the  happiness  to  find  some  white  people, 
with  whom  he  maintained  family  prayer.  After 
the  hardships  of  his  abode  in  this  place,  with  but 
little  encouragement  from  the  effect  of  his  exer 
tions,  he  visited  the  Indians  at  Crosweeksung, 
near  Freehold  in  New  Jersey.  In  this  village  he 
was  favored  with  remarkable  success.  The  Spirit 
of  God  seemed  to  bring  home  effectually  to  the 
hearts  of  the  ignorant  heathens  the  truths,  which 
he  delivered  to  them  with  affection  and  zeal. 
His  Indian  interpreter,  who  had  been  converted 
by  his  preaching,  cooperated  cheerfully  in  the 
good  work.  It  was  not  uncommon  for  the  whole 
congregation  to  be  in  tears,  or  to  be  crying  out 
under  a  sense  of  sin.  In  less  than  a  year  Mr. 
Brainerd  baptized  seventy-seven  persons,  of  whom 
thirty-eight  were  adults,  that  gave  satisfactory 
evidence  of  having  been  renovated  by.  the  power 
of  God  ;  and  he  beheld  with  unspeakable  pleasure 
between  twenty  and  thirty  of  his  converts  seated 
around  the  table  of  the  Lord.  The  Indians  were 
at  the  time  entirely  reformed  in  their  lives.  They 




were  very  humble  and  devout,  and  united  in  Chris 
tian  affection.  In  a  letter,  dated  Dec.  30,  1745,  he 
says :  "  The  good  work  which  you  will  find  largely 
treated  of  in  my  journal,  still  continues  among 
the  Indians  ;  though  the  astonishing  Divine  influ 
ence,  that  has  been  among  them,  is  in  a  consider 
able  measure  abated.  Yet  there  are  several  in 
stances  of  persons  newly  awakened.  When  I 
consider  the  doings  of  the  Lord  among  these 
Indians,  and  then  take  a  view  of  my  journal,  I 
must  say,  't  is  a  faint  representation  I  have  given 
of  them."  Nor  is  there  any  evidence,  that  he 
misjudged.  The  lives  of  these  Indian  converts 
in  subsequent  years,  under  John  Brainerd  and 
William  Tennent,  were,  in  general,  holy  and  ex 
emplary,  furnishing  evidence  of  the  sincerity  of 
their  faith  in  the  gospel. 

In  the  summer  of  1746  Mr.  Brainerd  visited 
the  Indians  on  the  Susquehannah,  and  on  his 
return  in  September  found  himself  worn  out  by 
the  hardships  of  his  journey.  His  health  was 
so  much  impaired,  that  he  was  able  to  preach 
but  Kttle  more.  Being  advised  in  the  spring  of 
1747  to  travel  in  New  England,  he  went  as  far 
as  Boston,  and  returned  in  July  to  Northampton, 
where,  in  the  family  of  Jonathan  Edwards,  he 
passed  the  remainder  of  his  days.  He  gradually 
declined  till  Tuesday,  Oct.  9,  1747,  when,  after 
suffering  inexpressible  agony,  he  entered  upon 
that  rest  which  remaineth  for  the  faithful  ser 
vants  of  God. 

Mr.  Brainerd  was  a  man  of  vigorous  powers 
of  mind.  While  he  was  favored  with  a  quick 
discernment  and  ready  invention,  with  a  strong 
memory  and  natural  eloquence,  he  also  possessed 
in  an  uncommon  degree  the  penetration,  the 
closeness  and  force  of  thought,  and  the  sound 
ness  of  judgment  which  distinguish  the  man  of 
talents  from  him  who  subsists  entirely  upon  the 
learning  of  others.  His  knowledge  was  exten 
sive,  and  he  added  to  his  other  attainments  an 
intimate  acquaintance  with  human  nature,  gained 
not  only  by  observing  others,  but  by  carefully 
noticing  the  operations  of  his  own  mind.  As  he 
was  of  a  sociable  disposition,  and  could  adapt 
himself  with  great  ease  to  the  different  capacities, 
tempers,  and  circumstances  of  men,  he  was  re 
markably  fitted  to  communicate  instruction.  He 
was  very  free,  and  entertaining,  and  useful  in  his 
ordinary  discourse;  and  he  was  also  an  able 
disputant.  As  a  preacher  he  was  perspicuous 
and  instructive,  forcible,  close,  and  pathetic.  He 
abhorred  an  affected  boistcrousness  in  the  pulpit, 
and  yet  he  could  not  tolerate  a  cold  delivery, 
when  the  subject  of  discourse  was  such  as  should 
warm  the  heart,  and  produce  an  earnestness  of 

His  knowledge  of  theology  was  uncommonly 
extensive  and  accurate.  President  Edwards, 
whose  opinion  of  Mr.  Brainerd  was  founded  upon 


an  intimate  acquaintance  with  him,  says,  that 
"  He  never  knew  his  equal,  of  his  age  and  stand 
ing,  for  clear,  accurate  notions  of  the  nature  and 
essence  of  true  religion,  and  its  distinctions  from 
its  various  false  appearances."  Mr.  Brainerd  had 
no  charity  for  the  religion  of  those,  who,  indulging 
the  hope  that  they  were  interested  in  the  Divine 
mercy,  settled  down  in  a  state  of  security  and 
negligence.  He  believed  that  the  good  man 
would  be  continually  making  progress  towards 
perfection,  and  that  conversion  was  not  merely  a 
great  change  in  the  views  of  the  mind  and  the 
affections  of  the  heart,  produced  by  the  Spirit  of 
God ;  but  that  it  was  the  beginning  of  a  course 
of  holiness,  which  through  the  Divine  agency 
would  be  pursued  through  life.  From  the  ardor 
with  which  he  engaged  in  missionary  labors,  some 
may  be  led  to  conclude,  that  his  mind  was  open 
to  the  influence  of  fanaticism.  During  his  resi 
dence  at  college,  his  spirit  was  indeed  somewhat 
tinged  with  the  zeal  of  bitterness  ;  but  it  was  not 
long  before  he  was  restored  to  true  benevolence 
and  the  pure  love  of  the  truth.  From  this  time 
he  detested  enthusiasm  in  all  its  forms.  He  rep 
robated  all  dependence  upon  impulses,  or  im 
pressions  on  the  imagination,  or  the  sudden  sug 
gestion  of  texts  of  Scripture.  He  withstood  every 
doctrine  which  seemed  to  verge  towards  antino- 
mianism,  particularly  the  sentiments  of  those  who 
thought  that  faith  consists  in  believing,  that  Christ 
died  for  them  in  particular,  and  who  founded  their 
love  of  God,  not  upon  the  excellence  of  his  char 
acter,  but  upon  the  previous  impression  that  they 
were  the  objects  of  his  favor,  and  should  assuredly 
be  saved.  He  rebuffed  the  pride  and  presumption 
of  laymen,  who  thrust  themselves  forth  as  public 
teachers  and  decried  human  learning  and  a  learned 
ministry ;  he  detested  the  spirit,  Avhich  generally 
influenced  the  Separatists  through  the  country; 
and  he  was  entirely  opposed  to  that  religion, 
which  was  fond  of  noise  and  show,  and  delighted 
to  publish  its  experiences  and  privileges.  Very 
different  from  the  above  was  the  religion  which 
Mr.  Brainerd  approved,  and  which  he  displayed 
in  his  own  life.  In  his  character  were  combined 
the  most  ardent  and  pure  love  to  God  and  the 
most  unaffected  benevolence  to  man,  an  alienation 
from  the  vain  and  perishable  pursuits  of  the  world, 
the  most  humbling  and  constant  sense  of  lu's  own 
iniquity,  which  was  a  greater  burden  to  him  than 
all  his  afflictions,  great  brokenness  of  heart  before 
God  for  the  coldness  of  his  love  and  the  imper 
fection  of  his  Christian  virtues,  the  most  earnest 
breathings  of  soul  after  holiness,  real  delight  in 
the  gospel  of  Jesus  Christ,  sweet  complacence  in 
all  his  disciples,  incessant  desires  and  importunate 
prayers  that  men  might  be  brought  to  the  knowl 
edge  and  the  obedience  of  the  truth,  and  that 
thus  God  might  be  glorified  and  the  kingdom  of 
Christ  advanced,  great  resignation  to  the  will  of 




his  heavenly  Father,  an  entire  distrust  of  his  own 
heart  and  a  universal  dependence  upon  God,  the 
absolute  renunciation  of  everything  for  his  Re 
deemer,  the  most  clear  and  abiding  views  of  the 
things  of  the  eternal  world,  a  continual  warfare 
against  sin,  and  the  most  unwearied  exertion  of 
all  his  powers  in  the  service  and  in  obedience  to 
the  commands  of  the  Most  High.  He  believed  that 
the  essence  of  true  religion  consists  in  the  confor 
mity  of  the  soul  to  God,  in  acting  above  all  selfish 
\iews,  for  his  glory,  desiring  to  please  and  honor 
him  in  all  things,  and  that  from  a  view  of  his  excel 
lency,  and  worthiness  in  himself  to  be  loved,  adored, 
and  obeyed  by  all  intelligent  creatures.  When 
this  divine  temper  is  wrought  in  the  soul  by  the 
special  influences  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  discovering 
the  glory  of  God  in  the  face  of  Jesus  Christ,  he 
believed  that  the  Author  of  all  good  could  not 
but  delight  in  his  own  image,  and  would  most 
certainly  complete  his  own  work,  which  he  had 
begun  in  the  human  heart.  His  religion  did  not 
consist  in  speculation ;  but  he  carried  his  own 
principles  into  practice.  Resisting  the  solicita 
tions  of  selfishness,  he  consecrated  his  powers  to 
the  high  and  benevolent  objects,  enjoined  in  the 
Sci-iptures.  It  was  his  whole  aim  to  promote  in 
the  most  effectual  manner  the  glory  of  his  Re 
deemer.  After  the  termination  of  a  year's  fruit 
less  mission  at  Kaunamcek,  where  he  had  suffered 
the  greatest  hardships,  he  was  invited  to  become 
the  minister  of  East  Hampton,  one  of  the  best 
parishes  on  Long  Island  ;  but  though  he  was  not 
insensible  to  the  pleasures  of  a  quiet  and  fixed 
abode,  among  Christian  friends,  in  the  midst  of 
abundance ;  yet,  without  the  desire  of  fame,  he 
preferred  the  dangers  and  sufferings  of  a  new 
mission  among  savages.  He  loved  his  Saviour, 
and  wished  to  make  known  his  precious  name 
among  the  heathen. 

In  his  last  illness  and  during  the  approaches  of 
death  he  was  remarkably  resigned  and  composed. 
He  spoke  of  that  willingness  to  die,  which  origi 
nates  in  the  desire  of  escaping  pain,  and  in  the 
hope  of  obtaining  pleasure  or  distinction  in 
heaven,  as  very  ignoble.  The  heaven,  which  he 
seemed  to  anticipate,  consisted  in  the  love  and 
sendee  of  God.  "  It  is  impossible,"  said  he,  "  for 
any  rational  creature  to  be  happy  without  acting 
all  for  God.  I  long  to  be  in  heaven,  praising  and 
glorifying  him  with  the  angels.  There  is  nothing 
in  the  world  worth  living  for,  but  doing  good  and 
finishing  God's  work;  doing  the  work,  which 
Christ  did.  I  see  nothing  else  in  the  world,  that 
can  yield  any  satisfaction,  besides  living  to  God, 
pleasing  him,  and  doing  his  whole  will.  My 
greatest  comfort  and  joy  has  been  to  do  some 
thing  for  promoting  the  interests  of  religion,  and 
for  the  salvation  of  the  souls  of  particular  per 
sons."  When  he  was  about  to  be  separated  for 
ever  from  the  earth,  his  desires  seemed  to  be  as 

eager  as  ever  for  the  progress  of  the  gospel.  He 
spoke  much  of  the  prosperity  of  Zion,  of  the  in 
finite  importance  of  the  work  which  was  committed 
to  the  ministers  of  Jesus  Christ,  and  of  the  ne 
cessity,  which  was  imposed  upon  them,  to  be 
constant  and  earnest  in  prayer  to  God  for  the 
success  of  their  exertions.  A  little  while  before 
his  death  he  said  to  Mr.  Edwards :  "  My  thoughts 
have  been  much  employed  on  the  old,  dear  theme, 
the  prosperity  of  God's  church  on  earth.  As  I 
waked  out  of  sleep,  I  was  led  to  cry  for  the  pour 
ing  out  of  God's  Spirit  and  the  advancement  of 
Christ's  kingdom,  which  the  dear  Redeemer  did 
and  suffered  so  much  for ;  it  is  tin's  especially 
which  makes  me  long  for  it."  He  felt  at  this  time 
a  peculiar  concern  for  his  own  congregation  of 
Christian  Indians.  Eternity  was  before  him  with 
all  its  interests.  "  T  is  sweet  to  me,"  said  he,  "to 
think  of  eternity.  But  O,  what  shall  I  say  to 
the  eternity  of  the  wicked !  I  cannot  mention  it, 
nor  think  of  it.  The  thought  is  too  dreadful ! " 
In  answer  to  the  inquiry,  how  he  did,  he  said :  "  I 
am  almost  in  eternity ;  I  long  to  be  there.  My 
work  is  done.  I  have  done  with  all  my  friends. 
All  the  world  is  now  nothing  to  me.  O,  to  be 
in  heaven,  to  praise  and  glorify  God  with  his  holy 
angels ! "  At  length,  after  the  trial  of  his  pa 
tience  by  the  most  excruciating  sufferings,  his 
spirit  was  released  from  its  tabernacle  of  clay,  and 
entered  those  mansions  which  the  Lord  Jesus 
hath  prepared  for  all  his  faithful  disciples. 

The  exertions  of  Mr.  Brainerd  in  the  Chris 
tian  cause  were  of  short  continuance,  but  they 
were  intense,  and  incessant,  and  effectual.  One 
must  be  either  a  very  good  or  a  very  bad  man, 
who  can  read  his  life  without  blushing  for  himself. 
If  ardent  piety  and  enlarged  benevolence,  if  the 
supreme  love  of  God  and  the  inextinguishable 
desire  of  promoting  his  glory  in  the  salvation  of 
immortal  souls,  if  persevering  resolution  in  the 
midst  of  the  most  pressing  discouragements,  if 
cheerful  self-denial  and  unremitted  labor,  if  hu 
mility  and  zeal  for  godliness,  united  with  conspic 
uous  talents,  render  a  man  worthy  of  remem 
brance;  the  name  of  Brainerd  will  not  soon  be 

He  published  a  narrative  of  his  labors  at  Kaun- 
ameek,  annexed  to  Mr.  Pembcrton's  sermon  at 
his  ordination;  and  his  journal,  or  an  account  of 
the  rise  and  progress  of  a  remarkable  work  of 
grace  amongst  a  number  of  Indians  in  New  Jer 
sey  and  Pennsylvania,  with  some  general  remarks, 
1746.  This  work,  which  is  very  interesting,  and 
which  displays  the  piety  and  talents  of  the  author, 
was  published  by  the  commissioners  of  the  soci 
ety  in  Scotland,  with  a  preface  by  them,  and  an 
attestation  by  W.  Tennent  and  Mr.  McKnight. 
His  life,  written  by  President  Edwards,  is  com 
piled  chiefly  from  his  own  diary.  Annexed  to  it 
are  some  of  his  letters  and  other  writings.  It  is  a 




book  which  is  well  calculated  to  enkindle  a  flame 
of  benevolence  and  piety  in  the  breast.  A  new 
edition  of  his  memoirs  was  published  in  1822  by 
Sereno  Edwards  Dwight,  including  his  journal. 
Mr.  Edwards  had  omitted  the  already  printed 
journals,  which  had  been  published  in  two  parts: 
the  first,  from  June  19  to  Nov.  4,  1745,  entitled 
Mirabilia  Dei  inter  Indices ;  the  second,  from  Nov. 
24,  1745,  to  June  19,  1746,  with  the  title,  Divine 
grace  displayed,  &c.  These  journals  Mr.  Dwight 
has  incorporated  in  a  regular  chronological  series 
with  the  rest  of  the  diary,  as  alone  given  by  Ed 
wards. —  Brainerd's  Life;  his  Journal;  Ed 
wards'1  Fun.  Sermon  ;  Middleton's  Bio(j.  Evang. 
IV.  262-264 ;  Assembly  Miss.  Mag.  n.  449-452 ; 
Boston  Recorder,  1824,  p.  196. 

BRAINERD,  JOHN,  a  missionary,  brother  of 
the  preceding,  died  about  1780.  He  was  graduated 
at  Yale  college  in  1746,  and  was  a  trustee  of 
Princeton  college  from  1754  to  1780.  The  Indian 
congregation  of  his  brother  being  removed  from 
Crosweeksung  or  Crosweeks  to  Cranberry,  not 
far  distant,  he  succeeded  his  brother  in  the  mis 
sion  about  the  year  1748.  His  efforts  were  inces 
sant  for  their  good ;  but  he  had  to  encounter 
great  difficulties.  A  drunken  Indian  sold  their 
lands ;  the  greedy  government  of  New  Jersey 
was  hostile  to  the  tribe ;  and  Mr.  Brainerd,  unable 
to  support  a  schoolmaster,  endeavored  himself, 
amidst  numerous  avocations,  to  teach  them  the 
elements  of  learning  as  well  as  the  truths  of  re 
ligion.  The  place  of  his  residence  in  1754  was 
Bethel,  whence  he  wrote  to  Dr.  Wheelock  :  "  It 
belongs  to  thousands  to  endeavor  to  Christianize 
the  Indians,  as  well  as  to  us.  It  is  as  really  their 
duty,  and  would  be  every  way  as  much  to  their 
advantage,  as  ours.  If  the  country  in  general 
were  but  sensible  of  their  obligation,  how  would 
they  exert  themselves,  how  freely  would  they  dis 
burse  of  their  substance,  and  what  pains  would 
they  take  to  accomplish  this  great  and  good 
work?"  About  1755  Wm.  Tennent  succeeded 
him.  In  1763  he  lived  at  Great  Egg  Harbor. 
In  1772  he  lived  at  Brotherton,  N.  J. 

BRAXT,  JOSEPH,  a  famous  Indian  chief,  was  at 
the  head  of  the  sk  nations,  so  called,  in  the  State 
of  XTew  York.  Each  of  these  was  divided  into 
three  or  more  tribes,  called  the  turtle  tribe,  the 
wolf  tribe,  the  bear  tribe.  He  was  a  Mohawk  of 
pure  Indian  blood.  His  father,  Brant,  a  chief, 
was  denominated  an  Onondaga  Indian,  and  about 
the  year  1756  had  three  sons  in  Sir  Wm.  John 
son's  army.  Young  Brant  was  sent  by  Sir  Wil 
liam  to  Dr.  Wheelock's  Indian  charity  school  at 
Lebanon  Crank,  now  the  town  of  Columbia,  Con 
necticut  ;  and  after  he  had  been  there  educated, 
employed  him  in  public  business.  His  Indian 
name  was  Thayendancga.  About  the  year  1762 
Rev.  Charles  J.  Smith,  a  missionary  to  the  Mo 
hawks,  took  Brant  as  his  interpreter ;  but  the  Avar 

obliging  him  to  return,  Brant  remained  and  went 
out  with  a  company  against  the  Indians,  behaving 
"so  much  like  the  Christian  and  the  soldier,  that 
he  gained  great  esteem."  In  1765  his  house  was 
an  asylum  for  the  missionaries  in  the  wilderness, 
and  he  exerted  himself  for  the  religious  instruc 
tion  of  his  poor  Indian  brethren.  In  1775  he 
visited  England ;  and  it  was  there  perceived,  of 
course,  after  the  education  he  had  received,  that 
he  spoke  and  wrote  the  English  language  with 
tolerable  accuracy.  In  the  war,  which  commenced 
in  that  year,  he  attached  himself  to  the  British 
cause.  The  barbarities  attending  the  memorable 
destruction  of  the  beautiful  settlement  of  Wyo 
ming,  in  July,  1778,  have  been  ascribed  to  him  by 
the  writers  of  American  history  and  by  Camp 
bell  in  his  poem,  Gertrude  of  Wyoming ;  but 
Brant  was  not  present  in  that  massacre ;  the  In 
dians  were  commanded  by  Col.  John  Butler,  a 
tory  and  refugee,  whose  heart  was  more  ferocious 
than  that  of  any  savage.  Col.  Brant,  however, 
was  the  undisputed  leader  of  the  band,  which  in 
July,  1779,  destroyed  the  settlement  of  Minisink 
in  Orange  county,  New  York,  a  few  miles  from 
West  Point.  In  June  he  left  Niagara  with  about 
three  hundred  warriors  of  the  six  nations  and  a 
number  of  tories,  for  the  purpose  of  destroying 
the  settlements  upon  the  Delaware  river.  On  the 
20th  of  July  he  appeared  on  the  west  of  Mini- 
sink  and  sent  down  a  party,  which,  after  destroy 
ing  the  settlement,  returned  with  their  booty  to 
the  main  body  at  Grassy-swamp  brook.  The  next 
day  one  hundred  and  twenty  men  assembled  under 
the  command  of  a  physician,  Col.  Tusten,  and 
marched  seventeen  miles  toward  the  enemy.  In 
the  morning  of  July  22d,  Col.  Hathorn  arrived 
and  took  the  command,  and  in  a  short  time  the 
battle  commenced  and  lasted  the  whole  day. 
The  fire  was  irregular,  from  behind  trees  and 
rocks,  both  by  the  Indians  and  Americans,  every 
man  fighting  in  his  own  way.  Brant  and  his  whole 
force  were  engaged.  About  sunset  our  troops,  hav 
ing  expended  their  ammunition,  retreated  and  were 
pursued  by  the  savages.  Dr.  Tusten,  in  a  nook 
of  rocks,  had  dressed  the  wounds  of  seventeen 
men,  whose  cries  for  protection  and  mercy,  when 
they  heard  the  retreat  ordered,  were  piercing  to 
the  soul ;  but  they  all  perished,  with  Dr.  Tusten, 
under  the  Indian  tomahawk.  On  this  day  forty- 
four  Americans  fell,  some  of  whom  were  the  pride 
and  flower  of  the  village  of  Goshen.  Among 
them  were  Jones,  Little,  Duncan,  Wisner,  Vail, 
Townsend,  and  Knapp.  Major  Poppino,  who 
escaped,  lived  to  nearly  one  hundred  years,  and 
was  present  with  an  assemblage  of  ten  or  twelve 
thousand  people,  when  their  bones  were  buried 
July  22,  1822.  After  the  peace  of  1783  Brant 
visited  England,  and  passed  the  remainder  of  his 
life  in  Upper  Canada.  In  1785  he  in  self-de 
fence  killed  one  of  his  sons,  who  in  a  fit  of 



drunkenness  had  attempted  his  life;  in  conse 
quence  of  this  act  he  resigned  his  commission  of 
captain  in  the  British  service,  and  surrendered 
himself  to  justice  ;  but  Lord  Dorchester,  the  gov 
ernor,  would  not  accept  his  resignation.  He  sent 
his  two  sons,  Joseph  and  Jacob,  in  1801,  to  the 
care  of  President  Wheelock,  of  Dartmouth  col 
lege,  to  be  educated  in  Moor's  school.  He  died 
at  his  seat  in  Upper  Canada,  at  the  head  of  Lake 
Ontario,  Nov.  24,  1807,  aged  65.  His  daughter 
married  Win.  J.  Kerr,  Esq.,  of  Niagara,  in  1824. 

His  son,  John,  an  Indian  chief,  was  in  England 
in  1822,  and  placed  before  the  poet,  Campbell, 
documents  to  prove  that  his  father  was  not  pres 
ent  at  the  massacre  at  Wyoming,  and  that  he  was 
in  fact  a  man  of  humanity.  After  reading  them 
Campbell  published  a  letter,  in  which  he  recanted 
the  charges  of  ferocity,  advanced  in  his  Gertrude ; 
but  he  assigns  rather  an  inadequate  reason  for 
this  change  in  the  estimate  of  his  character, 
namely,  that  Brant  enjoyed  the  friendship  of 
some  high-minded  British  officers,  which  would 
not  have  been  the  case,  had  he  been  ferocious, 
and  destitute  of  amiable  qualities.  In  the  war  of 
the  Revolution  he  was  doubtless  the  leader  of 
savages,  who  took  delight  in  scalps ;  he  was  un 
deniably  in  command,  when  the  wounded  of  Min- 
isink  were  butchered ;  yet  the  slaughter  may  have 
occurred  entirely  without  his  orders.  Probably 
his  subsequent  intercourse  with  civilized  men  and 
reading  the  New  Testament  may  have  softened 
his  character.  I  am  able  to  state,  on  the  author 
ity  of  his  son  Joseph,  that  as  he  lay  in  his  bed 
and  looked  at  the  sword  hanging  up  in  his  bed 
room,  with  which  he  had  killed  his  son,  he  was 
accustomed  to  cry  in  the  sorrow  of  his  heart.  He 
once  proposed  to  write  a  history  of  the  six  na 
tions.  He  published  the  book  of  common  prayer 
and  the  gospel  of  Mark,  in  the  Mohawk  and 
English  languages,  8vo.  London,  1787.  The 
gospel  according  to  St.  John,  in  Mohawk,  entitled 
Nene  Karighwiysoston  tsinihorighhote-n  ne  Saint 
John,  which  is  ascribed  to  him  in  the  Cambridge 
catalogue,  was  the  w~ork  of  the  chief,  John  Norton ; 
it  is  without  date,  but  was  printed  at  London  in 
1807  or  1808  by  the  British  and  foreign  Bible  so 
ciety,  in  an  edition  of  two  thousand  copies.  — 
Holmes,  II.  292,  302;  Mass.  Hist.  Coll.  X.  154; 
Phil.  Trans.  LXXVI.  231;  Panoplist,  m.  323, 
324 ;  Weld's  Trav.  II.  297 ;  Wheelock's  Narra 
tive  ;  Eastern  Argus,  May  7,  1822. 

BRATTLE,  THOMAS,  a  respectable  merchant 
of  Boston,  was  born  Sept.  5,  1657,  and  was  grad 
uated  at  Harvard  college  in  1676,  and  was  after 
wards  treasurer  of  that  institution.  He  was  a 
principal  founder  of  the  church  in  Brattle  street, 
of  which  Dr.  Colman  was  the  first  minister.  His 
death  occurred  May  18,  1713,  in  the  fifty-sixth 
year  of  his  age.  He  was  brother-in-law  of  Mr. 
Pemberton.  Seyeral  of  his  communications  on 


astronomical  subjects  were  published  in  the  philo 
sophical  transactions.  He  wrote  an  excellent  let 
ter,  giving  an  account  of  the  witchcraft  delusion 
in  1692,  which  is  preserved  in  the  Hist.  Collec- 
lections. —  Holmes,  I.  511;  Colman's  Life,  42; 
Coll.  Hist.  Soc.  v.  61-79. 

BRATTLE,  WILLIAM,  minister  of  Cambridge, 
Mass.,  brother  of  the  preceding,  died  Feb.  15, 
1717,  aged  54.  He  was  born  in  Boston  about  the 
year  1662,  and  was  graduated  at  Harvard  college 
in  1680.  lie  was  afterwards  for  several  years  a 
tutor  and  fellow  of  that  seminary.  He  exerted 
himself  to  form  his  pupils  to  virtue  and  the  fear 
of  God,  punishing  vice  with  the  authority  of  a 
master,  and  cherishing  every  virtuous  disposition 
with  parental  goodness.  When  the  small  pox 
prevailed  in  the  college,  he  was  not  driven  away 
in  terror  ;  but  with  benevolent  courage  remained 
at  his  post,  and  visited  the  sick,  both  that  he  might 
administer  to  them  relief,  and  might  impress 
upon  them  those  truths  which  were  necessary  to 
their  salvation.  As  he  had  never  experienced 
the  disease,  he  now  took  it  in  the  natural  way ; 
for  the  practice  of  inoculation  had  not  been  intro 
duced  into  America.  But  the  course  of  the  dis 
order  was  mild,  and  he  was  soon  restored  to  his 
usual  health.  He  was  ordained  pastor  of  the 
church  in  Cambridge,  as  successor  of  Mr.  Gookin, 
Nov.  25,  1696,  and  after  a  useful  ministry  of 
twenty  years  was  succeeded  by  Dr.  Appleton. 
His  funeral  was  attended  Feb.  20,  a  day  memora 
ble  for  the  great  snow  which  then  commenced, 
and  which  detained  for  several  days  at  Cambridge 
the  magistrates  and  ministers,  who  were  assem 
bled  on  the  occasion.  The  snow  was  six  feet 
deep  in  some  parts  of  the  streets  of  Boston. 

Mr.  Brattle  was  a  very  religious,  good  man,  an 
able  divine,  and  an  excellent  scholar.  Such  was 
his  reputation  for  science,  that  he  was  elected  a 
fellow  of  the  royal  society.  He  was  polite  and 
affable,  compassionate  and  charitable.  Having  a 
large  estate,  he  distributed  of  his  abundance  with 
a  liberal  hand  ;  but  his  charities  were  secret  and 
silent.  His  pacific  spirit  and  his  moderation  were 
so  conspicuous,  as  to  secure  to  him  the  respect  of 
all  denominations.  So  remarkable  was  his  pa 
tience  under  injuries,  and  such  a  use  did  he  make 
of  the  troubles  of  life,  that  he  was  heard  to  ob 
serve,  that  he  knew  not  how  he  could  have  spared 
any  of  his  trials.  Uniting  courage  with  his  hu 
mility,  he  was  neither  bribed  by  the  favor,  nor 
overawed  by  the  displeasure  of  any  man.  He 
was  a  man  of  great  learning  and  abilities,  and  at 
once  a  philosopher  and  a  divine.  But  he  placed 
neither  learning  nor  religion  in  unprofitable  spec 
ulations,  but  in  such  solid  and  substantial  truth, 
as  improves  the  mind  and  is  beneficial  to  the 
world.  The  promotion  of  religion,  learning,  vir 
tue,  and  peace  was  the  great  object,  in  which  he 
was  constantly  employed.  As  he  possessed  pen- 


etration  and  a  sound  judgment,  his  counsel  was 
often  sought  and  highly  respected.  Such  was  his 
regard  to  the  interests  of  literature,  that  he  be 
queathed  to  Harvard  college  250  pounds,  besides 
a  much  greater  sum  in  other  charitable  and  pious 
legacies.  With  regard  to  his  manner  of  preach 
ing,  Dr.  Colman,  comparing  him  and  Mr.  Pember- 
ton,  who  died  about  the  same  time,  observes  : 
"  They  performed  the  public  exercises  in  the 
house  of  God  with  a  great  deal  of  solemnity, 
though  in  a  manner  somewhat  different ;  for  Mr. 
Brattle  was  all  calm,  and  soft,  and  melting;  but 
Mr.  Pemberton  was  all  flame,  zeal,  and  earnest 
ness."  The  death  of  this  good  man,  after  a  lan 
guishing  disease,  was  peaceful  and  serene. 

He  published  a  system  of  logic,  entitled,  "  com 
pendium  logicte  secundum  principia  D.  Renati 
Cartesii  plerumque  efformatum  et  catechistice  pro- 
positum."  It  was  held  in  high  estimation,  and 
long  recited  at  Harvard  college.  An  edition  of 
it  was  published  in  the  year  1758. — Holmes  Hist. 
Cambridge;  Coll.  Hist.  Soc.  VII.  32,  5.3-59 ;  X. 
168;  Holmes,  II.  94;  Boston  News-Letter,  No. 

BRATTLE,  WILLIAM,  a  man  of  extraordinary 
talents  and  character,  the  son  of  the  preceding, 
died  in  Oct.,  1776,  aged  about  75.  He  was  grad 
uated  at  Harvard  college  in  1722.  He  was  a 
representative  of  Cambridge  in  the  general  court, 
and  was  long  a  member  of  the  council.  He 
studied  theology  and  preached  with  acceptance. 
His  eminence  as  a  lawyer  drew  around  him  an 
abundance  of  clients.  As  a  physician  his  practice 
was  extensive  and  celebrated.  He  was  also  a 
military  man,  and  obtained  the  appointment  of 
major-general  of  the  militia.  While  he  secured 
the  favor  of  the  governor  of  the  State,  he  also  in 
gratiated  himself  with  the  people.  In  his  conduct 
there  were  many  eccentricities.  He  was  attached 
to  the  pleasures  of  the  table.  At  the  commence 
ment  of  the  American  Revolution  an  unhappy 
sympathy  in  the  plans  of  General  Gage  induced 
him  to  retire  to  Boston,  from  which  place  he  ac 
companied  the  troops  to  Halifax,  where  he  died. 
His  first  wife  was  the  daughter  of  Gov.  Salton- 
stall ;  his  second  was  the  widow  of  James  Allen, 
and  daughter  of  Col.  Fitch.  His  son,  Thomas 
Brattle,  of  Cambridge,  died  Feb.  7,  1801.— 
Coll.  Hist.  Soc.  VII.  58;  vm.  82. 

BRAXTON,  CARTER,  a  member  of  congress  in 
1776,  died  October  10,  1797,  aged  61.  He 
was  the  son  of  George  Braxton,  a  rich  plan 
ter  of  Newington,  King  and  Queen's  county, 
Virginia,  born  Sept.  10,  1736.  His  mother  was 
the  daughter  of  Robert  Carter  of  the  council. 
After  being  educated  at  William  and  Mary  col 
lege,  he  married  and  settled  down  as  an  inde 
pendent  planter.  On  the  death  of  his  wife  he 
visited  England,  and  returned  in  1760.  By  lu's 
second  wile,  the  daughter  of  Richard  Corbin  of 



Lanneville,  he  had  sixteen  children  :  she  died  in 
1814,  and  all  the  children  but  one  were  dead  before 
1829.  In  1765  he  became  a  member  of  the  house 
of  burgesses,  and  was  distinguished  for  his  pat 
riotic  zeal.  In  November,  1775,  he  was  elected 
the  successor  of  Peyton  Randolph  in  congress, 
but  continued  a  member  of  that  body  only  till 
the  signing  of  the  declaration  of  independence. 
During  the  remainder  of  his  life  he  was  often 
a  member  of  the  legislature  and  council  of  Vir 
ginia.  His  talents  were  respectable  ;  his  oratory 
easy ;  lu's  manners  peculiarly  agreeable.  His  last 
days  were  embittered  by  unfortunate  commercial 
speculations,  and  vexatious  lawsuits :  some  of  his 
friends,  his  sureties,  suffered  with  him.  Though 
in  early  life  a  gentleman  of  large  fortune,  he 
found  himself,  in  his  old  age,  by  his  own  impru 
dence,  involved  in  inextricable  embarrassments. 
Happy  arc  they,  who  are  wisely  content  with 
their  lot,  and  who  use  liberally  their  wealth,  not 
for  display,  but  for  the  purposes  of  a  noble  char 
ity.  —  GoodriclCs  Lives. 

BRAY,  THOMAS,  D.  D.,  ecclesiastical  commis 
sary  for  Maryland  and  Virginia,  died  Feb.  15, 
1730,  aged  73.  He  was  sent  out  by  the  bishop  of 
London,  in  1699,  and  was  indefatigable  in  his 
efforts  to  promote  religion  in  the  colonies,  and 
among  the  Indians  and  Negroes.  Libraries  were 
instituted  by  him,  both  for  missionaries  and 
parishes.  He  crossed  the  Atlantic  several  times,  _ 
and  spent  the  greater  part  of  his  life  in  these 
labors.  Soliciting  the  charities  of  others,  he 
in  his  disinterested  zeal  contributed  the  whole 
of  his  small  fortune  to  the  support  of  his 
plans.  Through  lu's  exertions  parish  libraries 
were  established  in  England,  and  various  benevo 
lent  societies  in  London  were  instituted,  particu 
larly  the  society  for  the  propagation  of  the  gospel 
in  foreign  parts.  He  published  a  memorial  on 
the  state  of  religion  in  North  America  with  pro 
posals  for  the  propagation  of  religion  in  the  sev 
eral  provinces  ;  circular  letters  to  the  clergy  of 
Maryland;  cursus catecheticus  Americanus,  1700; 
apostolic  charity ;  bibliotheca  parochialis ;  dis 
course  on  the  baptismal  covenant. 

BRAZER,  JOHN,  D.  I).,  died  at  Charleston,  S. 
C.,  Feb.  26,  1846,  aged  56.  Born  in  Worcester, 
he  graduated  in  Cambridge,  in  1813 ;  he  was 
afterwards  a  professor.  He  was  ordained  over 
the  north  society  in  Salem,  Nov.  14,  1820,  suc 
cessor  of  J.  E.  Abbott.  Many  of  his  writings  ap 
peared  in  the  north  American  Review.  He  pub 
lished  a  sermon  at  the  ordination  of  J.  Cole ;  on 
the  death  of  Dr.  Holyoke  ;  at  the  installation  of 
A.  Bigelow ;  Memoir  of  Dr.  Holyoke ;  before 
society  for  education;  several  in  the  Christian 
preacher ;  use  of  affliction ;  on  prayer ;  power  of 
unitarianism  over  the  affections. 

BREARLEY,  DAVID,  chief  justice  of  New 
Jersey,  died  Aug.  23,  1790,  aged,  it  is  said,  only 




26.  He  was  born  in  that  State  in  1763,  and 
received  the  degree  of  A.  M.  at  Princeton,  in 
1781.  He  attained  to  great  eminence  at  the  bar. 
Soon  after  he  received  the  appointment  of  judge, 
he  died  at  his  seat  near  Trenton.  He  Avas  ap 
pointed  by  Washington  in  1789,  district  judge  for 
New  Jersey,  and  was  succeeded  by  Robert  Morris. 

BREARLEY,  JOSEPH,  general,  died  at  Mor- 
ristown,  in  1805,  aged  93. 

BREBEUF,  JEAN  DE,  a  Jesuit  missionary 
among  the  Indians  in  Canada,  arrived  at  Quebec 
in  1625.  According  to  Charlevoix,  he  twice,  when 
among  the  Hurons,  in  a  time  of  drought,  obtained 
rain  in  answer  to  his  prayers.  However,  taken 
prisoner  by  the  Iroquois  in  1649,  he  was  cruelly 
put  to  death  by  them,  with  his  associate,  father 
Lallemant.  Amidst  their  barbarities,  the  savages 
said  to  him,  "  You  have  assured  us,  that  the 
more  one  suffers  on  earth  the  greater  will  be  his 
happiness  in  heaven ;  out  of  kindness  to  you,  we 
therefore  torture  you."  At  least  Charlevoix  re 
ports  that  they  said  so.  Brebeuf  was  55  years  of 
age.  He  was  the  uncle  of  the  poet  of  Normandy, 
George  de  B.  He  translated  into  Huron  an 
abridgment  of  the  Christian  doctrine  by  Ledes- 
ma.  This  is  annexed  to  Champlaiu's  relation  du 
voyage,  1632.  —  Charlevoix,  I.  294. 

BRECK,  ROBERT,  a  minister  of  Marlborough, 
died  Jan.  6,  1731,  aged  48.  He  was  born  in 
Dorchester  in  1682,  the  son  of  Captain  John 
Breck,  a  very  ingenious  and  worthy  man,  and 
grandson  of  Edward  Breck,  a  settler  of  Dorches 
ter  in  1636.  After  his  father's  death  he  was  sent 
to  Harvard  college,  where  he  graduated  in  1700. 
He  was  ordained  Oct.  25,  1704,  as  successor  of 
Mr.  Brimsmead.  His  successors  were  Kent, 
Smith,  and  Packard.  He  left  a  wife  and  four 
children.  His  wife  was  Elizabeth  Waimvright 
of  Haverhill.  A  daughter  married  Rev.  Mr, 
Parkman,  of  Westborough.  He  was  a  man  of 
vigorous  talents,  of  quick  perception,  and  tena 
cious  memory,  of  solid  judgment,  and  exten 
sive  learning.  So  great  was  his  skill  in  the  He 
brew,  that  he  read  the  Bible  out  of  it  to  his 
family.  He  was  also  well  versed  in  philosophy, 
mathematics,  antiquities,  and  history ;  and  his 
extensive  knowledge  he  was  always  ready  to  com 
municate  for  the  instruction  of  others.  As  a  pas 
tor  he  was  prudent  and  faithful ;  he  Avas  an  ortho 
dox,  close,  methodical  preacher.  He  Avas  a  strong 
disputant ;  a  strenuous  asserter  of  the  privileges  of 
the  churches ;  and  an  opponent  of  Episcopal  claims. 
United  Avith  his  piety,  he  possessed  a  singular  cour 
age  and  resolution.  Before  his  settlement  he 
preached  some  time  on  Long  Island,  during  the 
administration  of  Gov.  Cornbury,  \vhen,  though  a 
young  man,  he  boldly  asserted  the  principles  of  the 
nonconformists,  notwithstanding  the  threatening 
and  other  ill-treatment,  Avhich  he  experienced. 
In  temper,  he  was  grave  and  meditative,  yet  at 

times  cheerful,  and  in  comrersation  entertaining. 
A  perfect  stranger  to  coA'etousness,  he  was  ever 
hospitable  and  charitable.  In  severe  pain  he  Avas 
resigned ;  and  his  end  was  peace.  So  great  AA'as 
the  esteem,  in  Avhich  he  was  held,  that  in  his 
sickness  a  day  of  fasting  was  kept  for  him  Oct. 
15,  1730,  Avhen  scA-eral  ministers  were  present; 
and  on  his  death,  sermons  Avere  preached  by  SAvift 
of  Framingham,  Prentice  of  Lancaster,  and  Lor- 
ing  of  Sudbury.  He  published  an  election  ser 
mon,  1728  ;  the  danger  of  falling  aAvay  after  a 
profession;  a  sacramental  sermon,  1728.  —  Bos 
ton  Weekly  News-Letter,  Jan.  21;  Weekly  Jour 
nal,  Jan.  18,  1731 ;  Loring's  Sermon. 

BRECK,  ROBERT,  minister  of  Springfield,  died 
April  23,  1784,  aged  70.  He  was  the  son  of  the 
preceding,  and  Avas  graduated  at  Hansard  college, 
in  1730.  He  was  ordained  Jan.  27,  1736.  His 
settlement  occasioned  an  unhappy  controversy. 
It  Avas  alleged  against  him,  that  he  did  not  deem 
a  knoAvledge  of  Jesus  Christ  necessary  to  the  sal 
vation  of  the  heathen,  and  that  he  treated  lightly 
of  the  atonement.  A  narrative  relating  to  his  or 
dination  Avas  published ;  folloAved  by  "  an  ansAver 
to  the  Hampshire  narrative ;  "  and  this  by  "  a 
letter  "  to  the  author  of  the  narrative,  1737.  His 
superior  intellectual  poAvers  Avcre  enlarged  by  an 
extensive  acquaintance  with  men  and  books.  He 
accustomed  himself  to  a  close  manner  of  thinking 
and  reasoning.  By  diligent  application,  he  ac 
quired  a  rich  fund  of  the  most  usel'ul  knowledge. 
His  disposition  was  remarkably  cheerful  and 
pleasant,  and  his  conversation  Avas  entertaining 
and  instructive,  sometimes  enlivened  by  humor, 
but  ahvays  consistent  with  the  sobriety  of  the 
Christian  and  the  dignity  of  the  minister.  He 
Avas  easy  of  access,  hospitable,  compassionate,  and 
beneA-olent.  His  sense  of  human  weakness  and 
depravity  led  him  to  admire  the  gracious  provis 
ion  of  the  gospel,  and  he  delighted  to  dAvell  upon 
it  in  his  public  discourses.  His  religious  senti 
ments  he  formed  on  a  careful  examination  of  the 
Scriptures.  Steady  to  his  oAvn  principles,  he  was 
yet  candid  towards  those  who  diii'cred  from  him. 
In  his  last  illness,  he  spoke  in  the  humblest  terms 
of  himself,  but  professed  an  entire  reliance  on 
divine  mercy  through  the  Mediator,  ar.d  he 
resigned  himself  to  death  with  the  dignity  of  a 

His  first  Avife  was  Eunice,  daughter  of  his  prede 
cessor,  Rev.  D.  BreAver ;  his  second  wile  was 
Helena,  the  widow  of  RCA-.  E.  Dorr.  His  suc 
cessor  Avas  Mr.  HoAvard.  His  son,  Robert,  who 
died  at  Northampton,  in  1799,  aged  63,  Avas 
clerk  of  the  court  of  common  pleas.  The  son  of 
the  latter,  Colonel  John,  died  in  N.,in  1827,  aged 
55 ;  leaving  sons,  Dr.  EdAvard,  Robert,  and  Theo 
dore,  now  citizens  of  Brecksvillc,  Ohio. 

He  published  a  sermon,  1748;  on  the  death 
of  Rev.  D.  Parsons,  1781 ;  of  Rev.  S.  Williams, 




1782;  at  the  ordination  of  D.  Parsons,  1783; 
also  a  century  sermon  Oct.  16,  1775,  on  the  burn 
ing  of  the  town  by  the  Indians. —  Lathrop's  Fu 
neral  Sermon;  Holland's  History  of  Western 
Massachusetts,  i.  201. 

BRECK,  SAMUEL,  a  merchant,  removed  from 
Boston  to  Philadelphia,  where  he  died  May  7, 
1809.  His  daughter  married  James  Lloyd. 

BRECK,  DANIEL,  died  in  Hartland,  Vt.,  Dec., 
1845,  aged  97.  Born  in  Boston,  he  was  reli 
giously  educated  at  Princeton,  where  he  gradu 
ated  in  1774.  As  a  chaplain  he  accompanied 
Porter's  regiment  to  Canada,  and  was  in  the 
attack  upon  Quebec.  He  preached  the  first  ser 
mon  at  Marietta,  on  the  text,  "  Of  his  kingdom 
there  shall  be  no  end ; "  having  \isions  of  the 
progress  of  the  gospel  in  the  vast  western  coun 
try,  lie  was  a  man  of  high  character  and  excel 
lence,  the  father  of  Judge  Breck  of  Kentucky. 

BRECKENRIDGE,  JOHN,  attorney-general  of 
the  United  States,  died  at  Lexington,  Kentucky, 
Dec.  14,  1806.  He  was  elected  a  member  of  the 
senate  in  the  place  of  Humphrey  Marshall,  and 
took  his  seat  in  1801.  In  Jan.,  1802,  he  submit 
ted  in  the  senate  a  resolution  to  repeal  an  act  of 
the  preceding  session  respecting  the  judiciary 
establishment  of  the  United  States,  by  which  six 
teen  new  circuit  judges  had  been  created.  It 
was  this  resolution,  which  called  forth  the  most 
astonishing  powers  of  argument  and  eloquence. 
In  1803  Mr.  Breckenridge  distinguished  himself 
by  supporting  resolutions  in  relation  to  Spanish 
affairs  of  a  milder  complexion,  than  those  advo 
cated  by  Mr.  Ross.  After  the  resignation  of  Mr. 
Lincoln  of  Mass.,  he  was  appointed  attorney- 
general  in  his  place. 

BRECKENRIDGE,  JOHN,  D.D.,  died  near 
Lexington,  Ky.,  Aug.  4,  1841,  aged  44.  His 
parents  were  John  B.  and  Mary  Hopkins  Cabell, 
of  a  Virginia  family.  He  was  one  of  nine  chil 
dren,  born  at  Cabell's  Dale,  near  Lexington, 
where  he  died.  He  was  a  devoted  preacher,  and 
wore  himself  out  by  his  labors. 

BRECKENRIDGE,  ROBERT,  general,  died  in 
Lexington,  Ky.,  in  Sept.,  1833,  aged  78. 

BREED,  ALLEN,  one  of  the  first  settlers  of 
Lynn,  died  March  17,  1692,  aged  91.  lie  was 
born  in  England  in  1601  and  arrived  in  this  coun 
try  in  1630,  probably  in  the  Arabella  at  Salem, 
June  12.  He  was  a  farmer  and  lived  in  the 
western  part  of  Summer  street,  Lynn,  possess 
ing  two  hundred  acres  of  land.  The  village, 
in  which  he  resided,  derived  from  him  the 
name  of  "  Breed's  End."  He  is  one  of  the  gran 
tees,  named  in  1640  in  the  Indian  deed  of  South 
Hampton,  Long  Island,  which  was  settled  from 
Lynn,  by  Rev.  Mr.  Fitch,  and  others.  The  name 
of  his  wife  was  Elizabeth ;  and  his  children  were 
Allen,  Timothy,  Joseph,  and  John.  Of  these, 

Allen  was  living  in  1692,  when  it  was  voted  by 
the  town,  that  Allen  Breed,  senior,  "  should  sit  in 
the  pulpit."  The  descendants  in  Lynn  and  other 
towns  in  Massachusetts,  are  numerous  ;  from  one 
of  them  was  derived  the  name  of  Breed's  Hill,  in 
Charlestown,  celebrated  for  the  battle  of  1775, 
called  by  mistake  the  battle  of  Bunker's  Hill,  for 
the  battle  was  fought  on  Breed's  not  Bunker's 
Hill.  One  of  his  descendants  at  Lynn  was  Col. 
Fred.  B.,  an  officer  of  the  Revolution,  who  died 
July,  1820,  aged  68.  Among  the  descendants  in 
Connecticut  were  Gershom  Breed,  an  eminent 
merchant  of  Norwich,  and  his  sons,  John  M. 
Breed,  mayor  of  the  city,  a  graduate  of  Yale, 
1768;  Shubael  Breed,  a  graduate  of  1778;  and 
Simeon  Breed,  a  graduate  of  1781.  The  widow 
of  the  last  is  still  living,  aged  89,  the  sister  of  E. 
Perkins,  who  died,  aged  above  100  years. — 
Lewis'  History  of  Lynn,  25  ;  farmer's  Register  ; 
I) wi (jlit's  Travels,  III.  313. 

BREESE,  SAMUEL  SIDNEY,  died  in  Sconondoa, 
Oneida  county,  N.  Y.,  Oct.  15,  1848,  aged  80. 
Born  in  Philadelphia,  a  descendant  of  the  Hu 
guenots,  he  was  one  of  the  first  settlers  of 
Cazcnovia ;  then  was  the  law  partner  of  Judge 
Platt  of  Whitestown.  In  1813,  he  became  a  far 
mer  for  the  rest  of  his  life.  He  was  a  member  of 
the  convention  to  form  a  new  constitution.  He 
was  an  excellent  citizen,  and  a  sincere  Christian. 
His  end  was  peace,  through  hope  in  the  atoning 

BRENTON,  WILLIAM,  Governor  of  Rhode 
Island,  was  a  representative  of  Boston  for  several 
years  from  1635.  Of  Rhode  Island  he  was  presi 
dent  between  1660  and  1661,  and  governor  under 
the  charter  from  1666  to  1669;  in  both  which 
offices  he  succceeded  Arnold,  and  was  succeeded 
by  him.  He  died  in  Newport,  1674.  Several  of 
his  descendants  held  important  offices  in  the  col 
ony  :  they  adhered  to  the  royal  government  at  the 
Revolution.  An  admiral  in  the  British  navy  was 
a  native  of  Newport.  — Farmer's  Keg. 
missionary,  was  a  Roman  by  birth.  He  toiled 
with  much  zeal  in  his  mission  among  the  Hurons 
in  Canada,  until  it  was  broken  up.  Having  been 
taken  captive  and  tortured,  he  bore  in  his  mutilated 
hands  for  the  rest  of  his  life,  the  proofs  of  his  suf 
ferings.  He  died  in  Italy.  In  1643  there  was 
published  an  account  of  his  mission  in  Italian,  en 
titled,  Breve  relatione  d'  ulcune  missioni,  &c.  — 

BREWER,  DANIEL,  died  at  Springfield,  Nov. 
5,  1733,  aged  65,  in  the  4()th  year  of  his  ministry. 
He  succeeded  Mr.  Glover,  and  was  followed  by 
Mr.  Breck.  Born  in  Roxbury,  he  graduated  at 
Harvard  in  1697,  and  was  ordained  in  1694.  His 
wife  was  Catharine,  daughter  of  Rev.  N.  Chaun- 
cey  of  Hatfield ;  her  sister,  Sarah,  married  Rev. 




S.  Whittelsey  of  Wallingford.  lie  left  six  chil 
dren,  lie  published :  God's  help  to  be  sought  in 
time  of  war,  1724. 

BREWER,  CHAUXCEY,  doctor,  died  at  Spring 
field,  in  1830,  aged  87,  a  graduate  of  Yale,  1762. 

BREWSTER,  WILLIAM,  one  of  the  Pilgrims 
at  Plymouth,  the  Elder  and  only  teacher  for  some 
years,  died  about  April  16,  1644,  aged  83.  This 
is  the  date  given  by  Bradford ;  but  Morton  says, 
about  April  18.  He  was  born,  probably,  at 
Scrooby,  in  1560.  As  there  was  a  William  B.  in 
that  town  in  1571,  he  was  probably  the  father 
of  Elder  Brewster  of  Plymouth,  who  himseh0 
passed  the  last  years  of  his  residence  in  England 
at  Scrooby,  as  a  public  officer.  This  place,  which 
is  of  great  interest  in  American  history,  is  a  small 
town  in  Nottinghamshire,  only  two  miles  south  of 
Bawtry,  in  Yorkshire,  and  ten  miles  west  of  Gains 
borough,  in  Lincolnshire.  It  was  a  post  town,  and 
had  a  small  well-built  church,  and  an  Episcopal 
manor,  which  was  an  occasional  residence  of  the 
Archbishop  of  York.  The  manor  was  built  in 
two  courts,  of  timber,  except  the  front,  which  was 
of  brick,  with  a  moat  around  it.  This,  it  will  be 
found,  became  the  residence  of  Brewster.  Noth 
ing  now  remains  of  it,  but  the  stone  gateway. 
On  the  wood-work  of  the  church  is  seen  a  vine 
bearing  clusters  of  grapes.  His  family  was  one  of 
some  eminence.  The  coat-armor  of  one  of  the 
name,  bore  "  a  chevron  ermine  between  three 
silver  etoiles  on  a  sable  field."  Our  Brewster 
derives,  in  our  view,  no  honor  from  his  family ; 
but  the  device  of  stars  breaking  through  the  dark 
ness  of  night  is  a  very  suitable  device  for  the 
American  Brewster.  He  was  the  chief  light  of 
the  Plymouth  colony,  in  a  dark  wilderness. 

Mr.  Brewster  was  educated  at  the  university  of 
Cambridge,  where  his  mind  was  impressed  with 
religious  truth,  and  he  was  renewed  by  the  Spirit 
of  God.  After  completing  his  education  he  en 
tered  into  the  service  of  William  Davison,  am 
bassador  of  Queen  Elizabeth  in  Holland.  This 
gentleman,  who  was  friendly  to  religion,  possessed 
the  highest  regard  for  Mr.  Brewster,  and  reposed 
in  him  the  utmost  confidence.  He  esteemed  him 
as  a  son.  Mr.  Brewster  in  return  proved  himself 
not  unworthy  of  the  friendship,  which  he  had  ex 
perienced  ;  for  when  Davison,  who  had  been 
appointed  secretary  of  state,  incurred  the  affected 
displeasure  of  the  queen  for  drawing,  in  com 
pliance  with  her  orders,  the  warrant  for  the  exe 
cution  of  Mary,  he  did  not  forsake  his  patron.  He 
remained  with  him,  and  gave  him  what  assistance 
it  was  in  his  power  to  afford,  under  the  troubles, 
with  which  it  was  the  policy  of  Elizabeth  to  over 
whelm  the  innocent  secretary  in  the  year  1587. 
When  he  could  no  longer  serve  him,  he  retired  to 
the  north  of  England  among  his  old  friends. 

It  was  now,  that  he  resided  at  Scrooby,  where 
he  was  post,  or  postmaster,  from  1594  to  Sept. 

30,  1607.  The  recorded  payments  to  him 
amounted  in  that  period  to  456  pounds.  He  was 
also  inn-keeper  to  the  travellers  by  post.  As 
there  were  no  cross-posts  he  had  to  provide  for 
distant  deliveries.  If  he  had  a  good  income,  it 
enabled  him  to  exercise  a  generous  hospitality ; 
and  his  abode  in  the  Archbishop's  manor  fur 
nished  a  convenient  place  of  meeting  for  the  new 
Puritan  Separatist  church. 

His  attention  was  now  chiefly  occupied  by  the 
interests  of  religion.  His  life  was  exemplary,  and 
it  seemed  to  be  his  great  object  to  promote  the 
highest  good  of  those  around  him.  He  endeavored 
to  excite  their  zeal  for  holiness,  and  to  encourage 
them  in  the  practice  of  the  Christian  virtues.  As 
he  possessed  considerable  property,  he  readily 
and  abundantly  contributed  towards  the  support 
of  the  gospel.  He  exerted  himself  to  procure 
faithful  preachers  for  the  parishes  in  the  neigh 
borhood.  By  degrees  he  became  disgusted  with 
the  impositions  of  the  prelatical  party,  and  their 
severity  towards  men  of  a  moderate  and  peace 
able  disposition.  As  he  discovered  much  corrup 
tion  in  the  constitution,  forms,  ceremonies,  and 
discipline  of  the  established  church,  he  thought 
it  his  duty  to  withdraw  from  its  communion,  and 
to  establish  with  others  a  separate  society.  This 
new  church,  under  the  pastoral  care  of  the  aged 
Mr.  Clifton  and  Mr.  Robinson,  met  on  the  Lord's 
days  at  Mr.  Brewster's  house,  where  they  were 
entertained  at  his  expense,  as  long  as  they  could 
assemble  without  interruption.  When  at  length 
the  resentment  of  the  hierarchy  obliged  them  to 
seek  refuge  in  a  foreign  country,  he  was  the  most 
forward  to  assist  in  the  removal.  He  was  seized 
with  Mr.  Bradford,  in  the  attempt  to  go  over  to 
Holland  in  1607,  and  was  imprisoned  at  Boston, 
in  Lincolnshire.  He  was  the  greatest  sufferer  of 
the  company,  because  he  had  the  most  property. 
Having,  with  much  difficulty  and  expense,  obtained 
his  liberty,  he  first  assisted  the  poor  of  the  society 
in  their  embarkation,  and  then  followed  them  to 

He  had  a  large  family  and  numerous  depend 
ents;  and  his  estate  was  exhausted.  As  his  edu 
cation  had  not  fitted  him  for  mechanical  or  mer 
cantile  employments,  he  was  now  pressed  with 
hardships.  In  this  exigency  he  found  a  resource 
in  his  learning  and  abilities.  He  opened  a  school 
at  Leyden,  for  instructing  the  youth  of  the  city 
and  of  the  university  in  the  English  tongue ;  and 
being  familiar  with  the  Latin,  with  which  they 
were  also  acquainted,  he  found  no  impediment 
from  the  want  of  a  language  common  to  both. 
By  means  of  a  grammar,  which  he  formed  him 
self,  he  soon  assisted  them  to  a  correct  knowledge 
of  the  English.  By  the  help  of  some  friends 
he  also  set  up  a  printing-press,  and  published 
several  books  against  the  hierarchy,  which  could 
not  obtain  a  license  for  pubh'cation  in  England. 


Such  was  his  reputation  in  the  church  at  Ley- 
den,  that  he  was  chosen  a  ruling  elder,  and  he 
accompanied  the  members  of  it,  who  came  to  New 
England  in  1620.  He  suffered  with  them  all  the 
hardships  attending  their  settlement  in  the  wil 
derness.  He  partook  with  them  of  labor,  hunger, 
and  watching  ;  and  his  Bible  and  his  sword  were 
equally  familiar  to  him.  As  the  church  at  Ply 
mouth  was  for  several  years  destitute  of  a  minister, 
Mr.  BreAvster,  who  was  venerable  for  his  character 
and  years,  officiated  as  a  preacher,  though  he 
could  never  be  persuaded  to  administer  the  sacra 
ments.  According  to  the  principles  of  the  church, 
the  ruling  elder,  in  the  absence  of  the  teaching 
elder  or  pastor,  was  permitted  to  dispense  the 
word.  No  regular  minister  was  procured  before 
the  year  1629,  when  Ralph  Smith  was  settled. 
Previously  to  this  period  the  principal  care  of  the 
church  rested  upon  Mr.  Brewster,  who  preached 
twice  every  Lord's  day ;  and  afterwards  he  occa 
sionally  exercised  for  the  good  of  the  church  his 
talents  in  teaching.  He  died  in  the  peace  and 
hope  of  the  Christian.  His  children  were  Pa 
tience,  Fear,  Love  (a  son),  Wrestling,  Jonathan, 
Lucretia,  William,  Mary.  Jonathan  removed  to 
New  London,  thence  to  Norwich,  Conn.,  and  died 
1659.  His  estate  and  residence,  to  which  he 
early  removed,  were  in  Duxbury ;  his  son,  Love, 
succeeded  him  in  his  house.  His  three  hundred 
books  were  valued  at  43  pounds ;  his  whole  estate 
at  150  pounds. 

Through  his  whole  life  he  was  remarkably  tem 
perate.  He  drank  nothing  but  water,  until 
within  the  last  five  or  six  years.  During  the 
famine,  which  was  experienced  in  the  colony,  he 
was  resigned  and  cheerful.  When  nothing  but 
oysters  and  clams  were  set  on  lu's  table,  he  would 
give  thanks  that  his  family  were  permitted  "  to 
suck  of  the  abundance  of  the  seas,  and  of  the 
treasures  hid  in  the  sand."  He  was  social  and 
pleasant  in  conversation,  of  a  humble  and  modest 
spirit ;  yet,  when  occasion  required,  courageous  in 
administering  reproof,  though  with  such  tender 
ness  as  usually  to  give  no  oft'ence.  lie  was  con 
spicuous  for  his  compassion  towards  the  distressed; 
and  if  they  were  suffering  for  conscience  sake,  he 
judged  them,  of  all  others,  most  deserving  of 
pity  and  relief.  He  had  a  peculiar  abhorrence  of 
pride.  In  the  government  of  the  church  he  was 
careful  to  preserve  order  and  the  purity  of  doc 
trine  and  communion,  and  to  suppress  contention. 
He  was  eminent  for  piety.  In  his  public  prayers 
he  was  full  and  comprehensive,  making  confession 
of  sin  with  deep  humility,  and  supplicating  with 
fervor  the  Divine  mercy  through  the  merits  of 
Jesus  Christ.  Yet  he  avoided  a  tedious  prolixity, 
lest  he  should  damp  the  spirit  of  devotion.  In 
his  discourses  he  was  clear  and  distinguishing,  as 
well  as  pathetic  ;  and  it  pleased  God  to  give  him 



uncommon  success,  so  that  many  were  converted 
by  his  ministry.  At  his  death  he  left  what  was 
called  an  excellent  library.  It  was  valued  at  43 
pounds  in  silver,  and  a  catalogue  of  the  books  is 
preserved  in  the  colony  records. 

The  church  at  Plymouth,  of  which  Mr.  Brew 
ster  was  ruling  elder,  was  peculiar  for  the  lib 
erty  of  "prophesying"  or  preaching,  which  was